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[转载]To Be a Good Translator(Ⅱ)

(2010-04-11 20:44:09)
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分类: 英语方法

To Be a Good Translator(Ⅱ)

                                     By Leila Razmjou 

       Bearing these facts in mind, the question is: what skills are needed to promote translating ability? And how can one become a good translator?

       鉴于以上事实,我们需要了解:提升翻译能力需要那些技巧?如何成为优秀译员?

       The first step is extensive reading of different translations of different kinds of texts, since translating requires active knowledge, while analyzing and evaluating different translations requires passive knowledge. Therefore, receptive skills should be developed before the productive ones; i.e. by reinforcing their passive knowledge, students will eventually improve their active knowledge. Receptive skills improve the students’ language intuition and make them ready for actual translating.

       首先,译员需要广泛阅读不同文本类型的翻译。由于翻译需要译员具备主动知识,而分析和评估不同翻译文本则需要被动知识,因此,在训练创造性技能之前,必须先训练接收性技巧。例如,通过强化他们的被动知识,学生将最终改善他们的主动知识。接收性技巧能提升学生的语感,让他们为翻译实践做好准备。

       A good translator is someone who has a comprehensive knowledge of both source and target languages. Students should read different genres in both source and target languages including modern literature, contemporary prose, newspapers, magazines, advertisements, announcements, instructions, etc. Being familiar with all these genres is important, since they implicitly transfer culture-specific aspects of a language. Specialized readings are also suggested: reading recently published articles and journals on theoretical aspects of translation. The articles will not only improve the students’ reading skill in general, but also give them insights which will subconsciously be applied when actually translating.

       一名优秀的译员必须具备综合的源语言和目标语言的相关知识。学生必须阅读源语言和目标语言的不同体裁的文本,包括现代文学、当代散文、报纸、杂志、广告、通知、说明书等等。熟悉不同的文本题材很重要,因为它暗含了一种语言的文化风韵。学生还应该进行专门的阅读,阅读翻译理论和翻译实践期刊。这些文章不仅能提升学生的整体阅读能力,而且还能潜移默化,让他们具备洞察力,并将其融入实际翻译当中。

       “Writing” skills, i.e. the ability to write smoothly and correctly in both source and target languages, are also important. Writing is in fact the main job of a translator. Students should become familiar with different styles of writing and techniques and principles of editing and punctuation in both source and target languages. Editing and punctuation improve the quality and readability of the translation (Razmjou, 2002).

      “写作”技巧也很重要,译员必须能够使用源语言和目标语言写出流畅和准确的文章。实际上,写作是译员的主要任务。学生应当熟悉源语言和目标语言不同类型的写作风格,并且掌握校对和标点使用的技巧和原则。校对和标点有助于改进译文的质量和可读性(Razmjou, 2002)。

       Moreover, translation trainees should have a good ear for both source and target languages; i.e. they should be alert to pick up various expressions, idioms, and specific vocabulary and their uses, and store them in their minds to be used later. This is the fact what we call improving one’s “intuition”. Intuition is not something to be developed in vacuum; rather, it needs practice and a solid background. It needs both the support of theory and the experience of practice. Language intuition is a must for a competent translator.

       此外,翻译实践者必须对源语言和目标语言非常敏感;译员必须牢记各种表达、习语和特殊词汇及其用法,以备不时之需。实际上,这样做可以增加译员的“语感”。语感并非凭空而来,而是需要通过练习和坚实的基础才能获得,理论和实践经验缺一不可。一名优秀的译员必须具备良好的语感。

       One of the most important points to consider in the act of translating is understanding the value of the source text within the framework of the source-language discourse. To develop this understanding, the translator must be aware of the cultural differences and the various discoursal strategies in the source and target languages. Therefore, the hidden structure of the source text should be discovered through the use of various discoursal strategies by the translator.

       翻译过程中最重要的一点就是源语言语篇的框架中理解文本的价值。要做到这一点,译员必须意识到源语言和目标语言中各种语篇策略的文化差异。因此,译员应使用各种语篇策略发掘源文本的隐藏结构。

       A good translator should be familiar with the culture, customs, and social settings of the source and target language speakers. He or she should be familiar with different registers, styles of speaking and social stratification of both languages. This socio-cultural awareness, can improve the quality of the students’ translations to a great extent. According to Hatim and Mason (1990), the social context in translating a text is probable a more important variable than its genre. The act of translating takes place in the socio-cultural context. Consequently, it is important to judge translating activity only within a social context.

       一名优秀的译员应熟悉源语言和目标语言讲述者的文化、习俗和社会环境。译员还应熟悉两种语言的不同纪录、言谈风格和社会阶层。对于社会文化的有意关注,能极大地提升学生的译文水平。根据Hatim和Mason(1990),和文本的体裁相比,其社会背景在翻译过程中更为重要。翻译是在社会文化背景中发生的。因此,对翻译活动进行评判必须依赖于社会背景,这一点非常重要。

       After developing a good competence in both source and target languages, actual translating may begin. But there is a middle stage between the competence-developing stage and actual translating: becoming aware of various information-providing sources and learning how to use them. These sources include: different monolingual and bilingual dictionaries, encyclopedias, and the internet.

       在掌握了良好的源语言和目标语言能力之后,译员就可以开始实际的翻译了。但在翻译能力培养阶段和实际翻译中间,还有一个中间阶段:了解各种信息提供来源并学会如何使用他们。这些来源包括:各种单语和双语词典,百科全书和互联网。

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