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## [转载]陸愚：什么是电晕和它如何工作？

(2010-07-09 14:22:55)

## 电晕理论

Surface energy of polymers and the need for corona surface treatment . 表面能量的聚合物和需要电晕表面处理。

It is often necessary to bond plastic materials to metals or other plastic materials, or simply print on a plastic surface.它往往是必要的债券塑料材料金属或其他塑胶原料，或只是打印在塑料表面。 In order to successfully accomplish this the liquid adhesive, or ink should be able to wet the surface of the material.为了成功地做到这一点的液体粘合剂，墨水或应该能够潮湿的表面材料。 Wettability depends on one specific property of the surface: Surface energy, often referred to as surface tension.润湿性依赖于某一特定财产的表面：表面能量，通常称为表面张力。 Surface energy, like surface tension is measured in mN/m.表面能，如表面张力是衡量分钟/平方米 The surface energy of the solid substrate directly affects how well a liquid wets the surface.表面能量的固体基质直接影响到如何液体弄湿表面。 The wettability , in turn, is easily demonstrated by contact angle measurements. 润湿性，进而很容易证明了接触角测量。 The contact angle is the angle between the tangent line at the contact point and the horizontal line of the solid surface.接触角是角之间的切线的联络点和水平线的固体表面。 When a liquid droplet is set on a smooth solid horizontal surface, it may spread out over substrate and the contact angle will approach zero if complete wetting takes place.当液滴是建立在坚实光滑水平面上，它可能分布在衬底和接触角将接近零，如果完全润湿发生。 Conversely, if wetting is partial, the resulting contact angle reaches equilibrium in the range 0 to 180 degrees.反之，如果是局部润湿，由此产生的接触角达到平衡的范围0至180度。 Fig 1 helps illustrate the difference between good and poor wettability.图1说明帮助之间的区别和穷人良好的润湿性。 The higher the surface energy of the solid substrate in relation to the surface tension of the liquid, the better its wettability, and the smaller the contact angle.较高的表面能量的固体基质有关的表面张力的液体，它的更好的润湿性，较小的接触角。

 In order for a proper bond to exist between a liquid and a substrate surface, the substrate’s surface energy should exceed the liquid’s tension by about 2-10 mN/m. 为了适当的债券之间存在液体和基体表面，基板的表面能量应超过液体的张力约2-10分钟/平方米 Fig 2 shows absolute values of surface energy for solid materials and the surface tension of many plastics including polyethylene and polypropylene is often insufficient for bonding or printing. 图2显示了绝对价值的表面能量的固体材料和表面张力的许多塑料包括聚乙烯和聚丙烯往往是不够的粘接或打印。
 These materials have very useful properties such as chemical inertness, a low coefficient of friction, high wear, puncture and tear resistance, etc.这些材料已非常有用的属性，如化学惰性，低摩擦系数，高磨损，穿刺和耐撕裂等 However, the poor wettability of these polymers presents the designer with the problem of bonding or decorating these materials. Corona surface treatment can improve wettability of the material by raising the material’s surface energy and positively affect adhesive characteristics by creating bonding sites.然而，穷人的润湿这些聚合物的设计师提出的问题，粘接或装饰材料。 电晕表面处理可以提高润湿性的材料，提高材料的表面能产生积极的影响和特色的胶粘剂粘接创建的网站。 The most advanced and successful methods of corona surface treatment are based on a principle of high voltage discharge in air.目前最先进和成功的方法的电晕表面处理是基于原则的高电压放电在空气中。 Basics of high voltage discharge in air and its application to surface treatment. 基本的高电压放电和空气中的应用表面处理。 In the presence of a high voltage discharge in an air gap, free electrons, which are always present in the air, accelerate and ionise the gas.在场的高电压放电的空气间隙，自由电子，这是始终存在于空气，加速和ionise的天然气。 When the electric discharge is very strong, collisions of high velocity electrons with molecules of gas result in no loss in momentum, and electron avalanching occurs.当放电是非常强劲，碰撞的高速电子与气体分子造成任何损失的势头，电子avalanching发生。 When a plastic part is placed in the discharge path, the electrons generated in the discharge impact the surface with energies 2 to 3 times that necessary to break the molecular bonds on the surface of most substrates.当一个塑料部分是放置在放电的路径，产生电子的放电表面的影响与精力2至3倍，必须打破债券的分子表面上的最底层。 This creates very reactive free radicals.这造成了非常被动的自由基。 These free radicals in the presence of oxygen can react rapidly to form various chemical functiona groups on the substrate surface.这些自由基的存在氧能快速反应，形成各种化学functiona团体对基体表面。 Functional groups resulting from this oxidation reaction are the most effective at increasing surface energy and enhancing chemical bonding to the resin matrix.功能团体产生的这种氧化反应是最有效的提高表面能和提高化学键的树脂基体。 These include carbonyl (-C=O-).这些措施包括羰基（ -的C = O型） 。 carboxyl (HOOC-), hydroperoxide (HOO-) and hydroxyl (HO-) groups.羧基（ HOOC - ） ，过氧化氢（厚）和羟基（议员）的群体。 Corona surface treatment with high voltage discharge modifies only the surface characteristics without affecting material bulk properties. 电晕表面处理与高电压放电修改只是表面特性在不影响材料的大量财产。 Tantec three-dimensional electrical surface treatment (EST) technology is based on the high voltage high frequency discharge in air. Tantec三维电子表面处理（ EST ）的技术是基于高压高频放电在空气中。 Three-dimensional objects are passed through a discharge region between two electrodes (Figure 3) .三维对象是通过放电区域的两个电极之间（图3 ） 。 The discharge is sustained in a large gap between the electrodes by establishing a high potential difference between the electrodes.放电持续在一个大的差距电极通过建立一个具有很大的潜力之间的差异电极。 High applied voltage is only one condition for effective treatment.高电压只有一个条件，有效的治疗方法。 An uniform treatment of parts moving at high speed requires high efficiency energy transfer from the power source to the discharge region.一个统一处理的部分移动高速需要高效率能量转移的动力源的排放区域。 Corona discharge at frequencies of 15-25 kHz accomplishes high efficiency energy transfer as electrons oscillate in the gap between the electrodes.电晕放电频率的15-25千赫完成高效率能量转移作为在电子振荡之间的差距电极。 It has been shown that the higher the frequency the lower the power to achieve a given treatment level.它已经表明，频率越高越低，功率为实现某一特定的待遇水平。
The EST technology achieves a uniform treatment of surfaces of three-dimensional objects on high-speed lines through maintaining a potential difference between electrodes up to 80 kV at frequencies between 15-25 kHz. 在东部技术实现了统一处理的表面三维物体高速线路通过维持一个潜在的电极之间的区别高达80千伏频率15-25赫兹之间。 Under these conditions objects with cross-sections as large as 4 inches (100 mm) can be treated on-line as they continually move through a treating chamber. 在这种情况下物体的横截面大4英寸（ 100毫米）可以治疗在线因为他们不断地通过一个移动治疗室。
An Electrical Surface Treatment system consists of high frequency generator, high voltage transformer and treating electrodes. 电气表面处理系统由高频发生器，高压变压器和治疗电极。 The generator produces an output signal whose frequency is automatically adjusted in the 15-25 kHz range depending on the load impedance, thus optimising the power available for treatment. 该发生器产生一个输出信号的频率自动调整在15-25千赫兹范围内根据负载阻抗，从而优化电源可用于治疗。 The high voltage transformer steps up the output signal from the generator to the level needed to generate the discharge of desired intensity. 高电压互感器步骤的输出信号从发电机所需的水平，以产生理想的放电强度。 The treating station is designed around two electrodes: a treating electrode and 车站的治疗目的是围绕着两个电极：一种治疗电极

counter electrode (usually at a ground potential).反电极（通常是在地面的潜力） 。 The electrodes are engineered for each application.电极的设计为每个申请。

Applications of Tantec Electrical Surface Treatment Technology ( EST) 应用Tantec电气表面处理技术（美国东部时间）

The following materials have been successfully treated using EST technology:下面的材料已成功治疗技术使用美国东部时间：

* Polyethylene (PE) * Plexiglas (PMMA) *聚乙烯（ PE ） *有机玻璃（聚甲基丙烯酸甲酯）

* Polypropylene (PP) * Teflon (PTFE) *聚丙烯（ PP ） *特氟隆（聚四氟乙烯）

* Polystyrene (PS) * Polycarbonat (PC) *聚苯乙烯（ PS ） * Polycarbonat （ PC机）

* EPDM-rubber * Polyurethane (PUR) *三元乙丙橡胶，聚氨酯橡胶* （聚氨酯）

* ABS etc. *澳大利亚统计局等

Here are some specific applications: 以下是一些具体的应用：

* Treatment of surfaces of bio-medical testing devices to improve wettability of surfaces for confluent liquid flow. *治疗表面的生物医学测试设备，改善表面润湿性的合流流动。

* Treatment of syringe barrels prior to printing. *治疗注射器桶之前，打印。

* Treatment of the inner surface of needle hubs prior to bonding a stainless steel needle. *处理内表面枢纽针之前，粘接不锈钢针。

* Treatment of electronic cable insulation to improve adhesion of inks and coatings. *处理的电子电缆绝缘改善粘附的油墨和涂料。

* Treatment of lids and covers of chemical containers prior to gasket material application or printing. *治疗眼睑，涵盖化学容器之前，垫片材料的应用程序或打印。

* Treatment of plastic bottles prior to application of adhesive labels. *处理塑料瓶之前，应用胶粘剂的标签。

* Treatment of automotive profiles made of EPDM rubber prior to application of an adhesive for retaining flocking bristles or decorating fabric. *治疗汽车简介了三元乙丙橡胶之前，应用胶粘剂的保留植绒鬃或装饰面料。

Shelf life of treated surfaces 货架寿命的表面处理

The shelf life of pre-treated materials ranges from hours to years, depending on the plastic, its formulation, how it was treated and its exposure to elevated temperature after treatment.在保质期前处理材料的范围从时间里，依靠塑料，它的制定，如何对待和其接触高温处理后。 Material purity is the most important factor.材料的纯度最重要的因素。 Shelf life is limited by the presence of low molecular weight components such as antiblock agents, mould release, antistatics, etc. Eventually, these components migrate to the surface of clean polymers.货架寿命是有限的存在的低分子量成分，如antiblock剂，模具释放， antistatics等最终，这些组件迁移到表面的清洁聚合物。 It is therefore recommended to print or bond to the material soon after treatment.因此，建议打印或债券的材料后不久的待遇。 However, once the treated surface has been interfaced with a coating, ink, adhesive, or another material, the bond becomes permanent.然而，一旦处理的表面已经连接了涂料，油墨，胶粘剂，或另一种物质，债券成为常任理事国。

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