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减少动作类游戏中的重复 7

(2010-09-01 11:42:18)
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杂谈

经典条件作用Classical Conditioning

与习惯性不同,经典条件作用涉及预知重大事件发生条件的学习。通过这种方式我们学会了很多东西。游戏是关于模式识别,是经典条件的基础。比如,如果玩家走到游戏中的一个关卡,报警声响起,10秒钟之后,玩家搭乘的船爆炸而玩家被炸死,宣告死亡,那么当他们再次开始玩游戏的时候,当报警声响起,玩家最好跑到逃生吊舱。这种特殊事件就是经典条件作用,但如果你显示给玩家逃生吊舱的指示牌,并且很近,也可以奏效,因此玩家可以找到解决谜题的办法。
Unlike habituation, classical conditioning involves learning about the conditions that predict that a significant event will occur. We acquire a lot of out learning this way. Games are about pattern recognition, which is the basis for classical conditioning. For instance, if you’re walking through a level in the game, and an alarm goes off and then 10 seconds later, the ship you are on begins to explode which kills you, the player will die and then realize when they play the game the second time, and the alarm goes off that they better run and get to an escape pod. This particular even is classical conditioning, but it also only works if you have shown the player where an escape pod is and made sure that one is close, so that the solution to the puzzle is obtainable by the player.

退缩是经典条件作用的另一种形式。许多男孩像我一样,在成长的过程中总是跟朋友们一起玩退缩游戏。当有人试图击我们的脸或者身体的时候,大多数像我们这样的人总是产生退缩的自然反应。我们退缩是因为我们知道它可能伤到我们,因为它吓到了我们或者因为我们看到了某些东西朝我们过来,我们自然而然躲避。玩退缩游戏时,你尝试使你的朋友退缩,假装打他,为了看看他的反应。你的朋友试图打你的反应就是经典条件作用。但如果你的朋友总是假装一次又一次的这样做,你也可能进入到习惯性学习阶段,这时你不再退缩,因为你认识到那仅仅是个假象。所以某些条件形式是可以互相结合的。
Flinching is another form of classical conditioning. Many boys like myself always played the flinch game growing up with their friends. Most of us have the natural reaction to flinch when someone tries to hit us in the face or on our body. We flinch because we know it will hurt, because it might scare us, or because we see something coming for us which we naturally wish to avoid. In playing the flinch game, you try to get your friend to flinch, by pretending to hit him, and in order to see what his reaction is. The reaction to your friend trying to hit you is classical conditioning. However, if your friend pretends over and over again to try and hit you, you can also enter a habituation learning phase, where you stop flinching, since you realize that it’s all just a ploy. So some forms of conditioning can be combined.

 

经典条件作用有两个主要功能。第一,学习识别刺激物的能力,这些刺激物会预测一些重要事件的发生,而这些重要事件能够减缓学习更快更有效者做出适当反应。比如,听到游戏中迫击炮的声音,发生的次数越多,玩家就能越快点到水底或是跑到掩护场所。 第二种经典条件的作用更重要。通过经典条件作用,开始并不重要的刺激物出现与之相关的一些重要刺激物的特性并且能够改变行为方式。在某种意义上,这种刺激具有某种象征意义。比如,我们看到桌子上有一叠纸与桌子上有一叠纸的反应是不同的。这种对钱的特殊反应是之前曾经有钱,它会与你买的好东西和你想要买的东西联系起来。

Classical conditioning accomplishes two main functions. First, the ability to learn to recognize stimuli that predict the occurrence of an important event slows the learner to make the appropriate response faster and perhaps more effectively. For example, hearing the sound of an incoming mortar round in the game will cause you to dive or run for cover more quickly the more often it occurs. The second function of classical conditioning is even more significant. Through classical conditioning, stimuli that were previously unimportant acquire some of the properties of the important stimuli with which they have been associated and thus become able to modify behavior. In a sense, the stimulus takes on a symbolic value. For example, we respond differently to the sight of a stack of paper on the desk than to a stack of paper on the desk. The reason for this special reaction to money, is that money has in the past, been associated with good things and stuff you’d like to buy.

经典条件作用对游戏策划来说意义重大。这意味着通过适当刺激,可以告诉玩家将要哪类事件以及他们怎样更快对这件事作出反应。就像在帝国时代玩家受到攻击的警报声一样。如果警报声响了,玩家还没准备好战斗面临紧迫感,那么玩家就会受到刺激被吓到。这种反应与玩家突然发现自己被攻击是不同的。经典条件作用能够预示事情的发生,还使玩家潜意识觉得恐惧,兴奋或有其它心情。音乐以及声音引出经典认知反应的另一种有效方式,在恐怖事件发生之前播放恐怖音乐,要比有人突然跳到你面前更恐怖。因此,理解经典条件作用是什么,是理解人们为什么对事情有不同反应怎样做出不同反应的第一步。
Classical conditioning can mean many things for game designers. It means that through proper prompting, players can be taught what types of events are going to occur and how they can react more quickly to them. Just like the alarm when you’re attacked in Age of Empires. If the alarm sounds and you’re not ready for a fight, a sense of urgency, adrenaline and fright can enter the player. The reaction here can be different than if the player just suddenly finds himself under attack. Classic conditioning also acts to foreshadow events, which can also subconsciously make players become frightened, excited or in some other mood. Music and sound is another effective way to elicit a classical learning response, for if you begin to play scary music, just before something scary actually happens, it’s been shown to be even scarier than just having someone jump out at you. So therefore, understanding what classical conditioning is, can be a good first step to understanding how and why people react to events in different ways.

 

动作条件作用 Operant Conditioning

通过习惯性和经典条件作用,我们了解环境中的刺激物。我们了解到要忽略那些不重要的刺激物,我们还学到预知重要事件的发生。为了告诉你某些东西,他们可能会同时对不同的事情做出反应。相反,动作条件让我们了解环境刺激物以及我们自身行为之间的关系。动作这个术语,指的是人通过作出反应对事物的认知情况或者对环境的操作情况。换言之,当某个动作产生好的结果,那么就会重复这个动作,如果一个行动产生不好的结果,就不会重复这个行为。

Habituation and classical conditioning teach us about stimuli in the environment. We learn to ignore unimportant stimuli, and we learn about those that predict the occurrence of important ones. They dealt with the way different things would react together in order to teach you something. In contrast, operant conditioning teaches us the relationship between environmental stimuli and our own behavior. The term operant, refers to the fact that a person learns something through responding, or operating on the environment. In other words, when a particular action has good consequences the action will tend to be repeated, and if an action had bad consequences, the action will tend to not be repeated.

理解遵循这些学习条件同样很重要的。换言之,如果某些东西帮助过玩家一次或很多次,那么同样的行为以后也不会伤害玩家,除非给了某些警告。如果你规定玩家做某些事能从中得到回报,即使第一次没有教他们新规则,他们以后做同样的行为也不会伤害或惩罚玩家。
Understanding that these learning conditions are also rules for you to follow is also important. In other words, if something helps a player one time or especially multiple times, if the player does it, then the same action shouldn’t hurt the player later on unless some warning has been given. If you condition the player to do something and that they’ll get rewarded for it, don’t hurt or punish the player if they later perform the same action without first teaching them the new rule.

行为条件贯穿在整个游戏中。稍后,你需要学习怎样在强化日程表中增加行为条件,以便你知道什么时候应该提供好或坏的回报。
Operant conditioning occurs all throughout games. Later on, you need to learn how to develop the operant conditioning method into a reinforcement schedule, so that you’ll know when it’s appropriate to give out good and bad rewards for things.

 To be continued

 

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