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(2011-01-07 20:57:01)


symmetric对称的,均衡的, Water level 井水位,water table地下水位,viscosity粘度,isotropic各向同性,aquitard,aquiclude,leaky aquifer ,ground surface,soil water(zone),intermediate zone(vadose water),zone of acration  zone of saturation,phreatic surface,impervious,capillary water, pellicular and gravitational ,anisotropic, capillary fringe,convincing enough,reveals, unsaturated zone,saturated zone,clouds torming,evaporation,precipitation,overland runoff,infiltration,potentiometric surface,well screen,ground-water movement  measuring point,head loss,unconfined aquifer,bottom of aquifer,total head,pressure head,elev head,altitude of measuring point,discharge area,recharge area,water table divide,ground-water system,orifices孔,Lowmeters流量计,venturi文丘里管,
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igneous rocks火成岩,shells of marine organisms海洋生物的贝壳,shale页岩,molten state熔融状态,basalt玄武岩
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petroleum products石油产品, immiscible不能溶合的,longituinally and laterally纵向和和横向地,oxidation氧化bacterial 细菌的,geothermal gradient地热梯度,distortion变形isotherm等温线,coated涂上一层,ammeter电表,electrode电极,mean annual air temperature 年平均气温,carpenter‘s chalk墨线,flashlight手电筒,deflection偏转,needle针,index finger食指,depressed降低,pressure-gage压力计,stabilizes稳定,static level静水位,
fitting装置,plugs塞子,propeller推进器  ,nozzles管口,喷嘴,
Nearly all groundwater systems include both aquifers and confining beds. Thus, groundwater movement through these systems involves flow not only through the aquifers but also across the confining beds.The hydraulic conductivities of aquifers are tens to thousands of times those of confining beds. Thus, aquifers offer the least resistance to flow, the result being that, for a given rate of flow, the head loss per unit of distance along a flow line is tens to thousands of times less in aquifers than it is in confining beds. Consequently, lateral flow in confining beds usually is negligible, and flow lines tend to "concentrate" in aquifers and be parallel to aquifer boundaries .Differences in the hydraulic conductivities of aquifers and confining beds cause a refraction(折射) or bending(弯曲) of flow lines at their boundaries. As flow lines move from aquifers into confining beds, they are refracted toward the direction perpendicular(垂直) to the boundary.
What Causes Flooding
What causes flooding? The basic cause is excessive runoff from catchments into river systems incapable of carrying this extra volume. Can science and technology prevent flooding or, at least, reduce its severity? Unfortunately, this is a complex problem to which as yet there is no very satisfactory solution.洪水是怎样形成的?根本原因是流域内过多的径流汇入河系,超过了河系的承泄能力。科学技术能防止洪水发生吗?或者至少能降低洪水的危害吗?遗憾的是,这是一个迄今还没有满意答案的复杂问题。
Let us consider first the reduction of runoff from catchment areas. Some regions have soils which have low absorbing capacity. In a heavy rainstorm such soil is quickly saturated and all additional rainfall then runs off into the river. A seasonal variable is the moisture status of the soil cause heavy runoff because the soil is incapable of retaining additional moisture
These factors are not easily influenced by man. However, man’s utilization of the catchment area can have an important influence on flooding. Large scale clearing of trees and scrub greatly reduces the capacity of the soil to retain water. It also tends to cause soil erosion Which  aggravates flooding by choking rivers and streams with deposited silt. Correct management of catchment areas is therefore one important approach to the problem of flood control. 让我们首先考虑一下如何减少流域的径流。有些地区的土壤吸收能力很低。下暴雨时,这种土壤很快就饱和了,多余的雨水全部流入河道。季节性的变量就是暴雨开始时的水分状态。如果土壤已经湿润,较小的暴雨也会引起大量的径流,因为这种土壤已不能保持更多的水分。这些因素不易受人类影响。然而,人类对流域土地的利用情况会对洪水产生重要的影响。大规模地砍伐树木会降低土壤保持水分的能力。砍伐树木也会加剧土壤侵蚀,导致河道淤塞,从而加剧了洪水。所以流域正确开发利用是控制洪水的一项重要方法
A more direct approach which is use in an emergency is the construction of levees. When rising floodwaters threaten a township the citizens form work-parties to build barricades of sandbags along the river bank, hoping that these barricades will hold back the flood waters until the emergency passes. It may be wondered why levees are not usually built as permanent structures to that the town is protected at all times.
The reason is that levees are an unsatisfactory solution to the problem. If a levee collapses, the flood waters escape as a sudden deluge with increase capacity for destruction. Levees, as they divert the flood water from one area frequently create or aggravate problems in another. They can be enmity between communities for this reason. 筑堤时在紧急情况下可采用的更加直接的方法。当上涨的洪水威胁城镇时,居民通常组成修堤队,沿河岸用沙袋筑堤,想用岸堤挡住洪水,直至紧急状况消失。人们或许想知道为什么通常不把河堤建成永久性设施,让城镇永葆安宁。原因在于筑堤不是解决问题发圆满方法。如果岸堤崩溃,洪水涌出,就成为破坏能力剧增的突发性水灾。大堤会使一个区域的洪水转向,常常在另一地区引起问题或使问题变得更为严重。因此大堤也会成为居民点之间不和的原因。
The Hydrologic Cycle
In nature ,water is constantly changing from one state to another. The heat of the sun evaporates water from land and water surfaces. This water vapor (a gas ),being lighter than air, rises until it reaches the cold upper air where it condenses into clouds. Clouds drift around according to the direction of the wind until they strike a colder atmosphere. At this point the water further condenses and falls to the earth as rain, sleet, or snow, thus completing the hydrologic cycle.在自然界中,水总是不断地从一种状态改变成另一种状态。太阳热使陆地和水面上的水蒸发。这些水蒸气(一种气体)由于比空气轻,会上升直至达到高空冷气层,并在那里凝结成云。云层随风飘荡,直至遇到更冷的大气层为止。此时水便进一步冷凝,并以雨、雹或雪的形式落到地面。这样便完成了水的循环。
The complete hydrologic cycle, however, is much more complex. The atmosphere gains water vapor by evaporation not only from the oceans but also from lakes, rivers, and other water bodies, and from moist ground surfaces. Water vapor also is gained by sublimation from snowfields and by transpiration from vegetation and trees. 然而,完整的水循环要复杂得多。由于蒸发作用,大气不仅从海洋而且从湖泊、河流和其他水体,以及从湿的地表面获得水蒸气。也可以从雪地中雪的升华和从植物与树木的蒸腾获得水蒸气。
Water precipitation may follow various routes. Much of the precipitation from the atmosphere falls directly on the oceans. Of the water that does fall over land areas, some is caught by vegetation or evaporates before reaching the ground, some is locked up in snowfields or ice-fields for periods ranging from a season to many thousands of years, and some is retarded by storage in reservoirs, in the ground, in chemical compounds, and  in vegetation and animal life降水可有各种不同的出路。大部分降水都直接落到海洋。落到陆地区域的水,有些被植物所摄取,或在降至地面之前就蒸发了;有些被封冻在雪原或冰川中达一个季度乃至成千上万年;有些则因储存在水库、土壤、化合物以及动植物体内而滞留下来。
Nature of Water Pollution
Water one of man’s most precious resources, is generally taken for granted until its use is threatened by reduced available or quality. Water pollution is produced by the activities of man, specifically his mismanagement of water resources. The pollutants are any chemical, physical, or biological substances that affect the natural condition of water or its intended use. Because water pollution threatens the availability, quality and usefulness of water, it is of worldwide  critical concern. 水是人类最宝贵的资源之一。但在因水质降低或水源不足而危及水的利用之前,人们一般都不珍惜它。水的污染主要是由于人类的活动,特别是人类对水源管理不当造成的。污染物指一切影响水的自然状况或预期用途的化学的、物理的或生物的物质。因为水的污染影响了水的供应、水质及用途,所以它引起了世界范围的极大关注。
(2)The increase in the number and variety of uses for water throughout the world has produced a wide rage of standards of water quality that must be satisfied . These demands include: (1)preservation of rivers in their natural state;(2)potability of the water supply;(3)preservation and enhancement of fish and wildlife ;(4)variety of safety for agricultural use; (5)safety for recreational use; including swimming; (6)accommodation to a great variety of industrial purpose; (7)freedom from nuisance; (8)generation of power for public utilities;(9)dilution and transport of wastes; Besides the specific chemical, biological, and physical requirements for the multitude of uses noted above, there are constraints reflecting public health requirements; aesthetics, economics, and short and long-term ecological impacts. Consequently, there is no rigid or specific definition of water pollution, since the intended use or uses of the water must be taken into consideration in any definition of what constitutes polluted water. 随着全世界用水量及用水类别的增加,已产生了各类必须满足的水质标准要求。这些要求包括(1)保持河流的自然状态;(2)供作饮用水源;(3)保护与繁殖鱼类及野生生物;(4)农业利用的安全;(5)娱乐利用(包括游泳)的安全;(6)适合各式各样的工业用途;(7)无有害物;(8)公用发电;(9)稀释和运输废物。除了为满足上述多种用途所需的化学、生物学及物理学上的特定要求外,还有一些反映公共卫生要求、美学、经济学以及短期与长期生态学影响方面的限制。因为构成水污染的定义必须考虑水的污染并没有严格的或明确的定义。
(3)One method of classifying the gaseous, liquid and solid constituents of water that constitute pollution depends on the intended use of the water. The pollution are then grouped as not permissible, as undesirable and objectionable, as permissible but not necessarily desirable, or as desirable.
For example, if water is to be used immediately for animal consumption, toxic compounds are not desirable, whereas a certain amount of oxygen is not objectionable. On the other hand, if the water is to be used in a power plant for steam generation, toxic materials might be allowable or even perhaps desirable, whereas oxygen that could possibly corrode equipment would be objectionable. 区分构成水污染的气态、液态和固态组分的一种方法,是根据水的预定用途。这样,污染物便分为不允许的、不符合要求或不适宜的、可允许但不一定理想的、符合要求的。例如,如果水预定用作火力发电厂生产蒸汽,则毒物可能是允许的,甚至或许还是符合要求的,而可能腐蚀设备的氧则成为不适宜的。


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