加载中…
个人资料
白开水
白开水
  • 博客等级:
  • 博客积分:0
  • 博客访问:95,863
  • 关注人气:42
  • 获赠金笔:0支
  • 赠出金笔:0支
  • 荣誉徽章:
相关博文
推荐博文
谁看过这篇博文
加载中…
正文 字体大小:

元宵节 The Lantern Festival

(2010-05-04 16:32:42)
标签:

杂谈

分类: Chineseculture
元宵节 The Lantern Festival

 

元宵节,又称“上元节”、“元夕节”、“灯节”。正月十五闹元宵,同样由来已久。这是一年当中第一个月圆的夜晚,人们张灯结彩,走上街头,通宵达旦,欢度节日,总是会留下深刻的印象。

 

The Lantern Festival is also known as the Shangyuan Festival, the Yuanxi Festival or the Yuanxiao Festival. And the celebration of the Lantern Festival on the 15th day of the first lunar month also has a very long history. The 15th day is the first night to see a full moon in a new year and every house is decorated with lanterns and streamers. As night falls, people go in crowds to admire the colorful and impressive lanterns in streets. The celebration leaves deep impressions on anyone who joins it.

 

元宵节的形成,可能要追溯到古人对火的崇拜。也有人认为它与佛教、道教都有某种联系。古代傩祭,要点燃火把,用来逐疫驱鬼,不过在时间上还并不是定在正月十五。东汉明帝曾经下令,元宵节不论士族庶民一律挂灯,开创了先例。到了隋炀帝的时候,则已形成定律,每年正月十五夜晚,京城里总要“大列炬火,光烛照地,百戏之盛,振古无比”,几万人走上街头狂欢,说元宵节这时候已蔚然成风,大概是比较稳妥的。此后,历代帝王又有意倡导,上行下效,愈演愈烈。唐代实行宵禁,夜晚不准出行,唯独在元宵节,皇帝特许开禁三天,称为“放夜”。宋代,又延长到五夜。明代愈发开放,规定正月初八上灯,十七落灯,前后狂欢十夜。《福建通志》里记载了一段轶闻,说是蔡君谟任福州太守时,下令民间每家点灯七盏,等于是一种“硬性摊派”。有人故意做了盏大灯,上面题写一首诗:“富家一盏灯,太仓一粒粟;贫家一盏灯,父子相对哭。风流太守知不知,犹恨笙歌无妙曲!”蔡君谟看到了,当即“还舆罢灯”,看来他是有所触动,认为别人的批评是有道理的。这段轶闻是否有夸饰,已经很难考证了,不过从中折射历史,说明风俗的形成往往与“上行下效”有某种关系,倒是很值得我们重视。元宵节先是在京城里酝酿成熟,后来扩布到各地的城市,然后不断蔓延,直到穷乡僻壤,人们也总是会张罗着过这个节,这样一种流播的轨迹,显而易见。

 

The lantern Festival may originate from the fire worship by the ancient people. It is also said to have something to do with Buddhism and Taoism. According to the belief of the ancient people, when they sffered sacrifices to their ancestors, fire was lit to alleviate illness and ward off evil spirits. But the day of sacrifices was not exactly on the 15th day of the first lunar month. It was Emperor Ming of the Eastern Han Dynasty(25AD---220AD) who first ordered his people, whether rich or poor, to display lighted lanterns during the Lantern Festival. This was Formalized by Emperor Yang of the Sui Dynasty (581AD---618AD). As can be seen from the historical records about the nights of the Lantern Festival every year in the capital city---the magnificent lanterns displayed lit up the night sky and the great scene of performances were unparalleled---the Lantern Festival had developed into a great trend by that time. It was then promoted and enforced by later emperors and became increasingly popular. In the Tang Dynasty(618AD---907AD)due to the curfew, people could only go out at night during the three-day Lantern Festival. In the Song Dynasty(960AD---1279AD), the festival celebration lasted for five days. However, the grandest celebration took place in the Ming Dynasty(1368AD---1644AD), during which the festivities lasted for ten days from the eighth day to the seventeenth day of the first lunar month. A story in Fujian Annals says that once Cai Junmo, Prefect of Fuzhou, ordered every household to light seven lanterns on the lantern Festival, which was beyond the means of common people. So someone deliberately made a big lantern, with a sarcastic poem written on it:

 

A lantern for a rich family is like a drop in the ocean,

 

A lantern for a poor family makes the father and the son cry to each other;

 

Does the merry Prefect know about this?

 

He is still complaining that the music is not good enough. It seemed that Cai Junmo was touched by the poem and withdrew the order. Though it is difficult to prove what really happened at that time, this significantly mirrors the fact that customs were formed when people followed the examples of their superiors. The activities of the Lantern Festival started from the capital city, and then spread to many of the big cities and later to poor little villages. Obviously this is how customs came into being.

 

元宵节的内容很丰富,最引人注目的自然是灯彩。灯又有挂灯和迎灯两类。挂灯是家家户户挂灯,或是在街路上扎灯悬灯。人们出来逛街,一边观赏,一边品评,看谁的灯漂亮、华丽、别致。迎灯是人们手里提着灯在街上走,甚至还会形成浩浩荡荡的迎灯队伍。迎灯队伍里往往会有各种各样的民间歌舞表演,热闹非凡。在北方,一般称为闹灶火,花样之多,不胜枚举。耍龙灯,舞狮子,划旱船,踩高跷,扭秧歌,以及各种台阁、器乐演奏、戏曲人物扮演 、滑稽小丑、武术杂技,可以说是应有尽有。当然,人们又总是会把这一天夜晚的这种活动统称之为迎灯。如果说挂灯是一种造型艺术,那么迎灯就是传统的行为艺术了。

 

Among various activities during the Lantern Festival, colorful lanterns are the most eye-catching. There are two kinds of lanterns, namely hanging-lanterns and carrying-lanterns. Hanging lanterns decorate households and streets. While strolling around, people appreciate and comment on the magnificence and novelty of the lanterns. Carrying-lanterns are for people to carry along. These people sometimes even join together and merge into a parade, in which folk songs and dances are joyfully performed. In Northern China, such traditional festivities are called Shehuo, which involves all kinds of performances, such as the dragon-lantern dance, the lion-dance, the land-boat dance, the yangge-dance, walking on stilts, instrumental performances, the characters in Chinese operas shows, clown shows, martial arts and acrobatics. It is true that these activities are also generally referred to as Lantern-carrying, which can be considered as performance arts, compared to Lantern-hanging as plastic arts.

 

悬挂着供人观赏的灯,逐渐地就形成了展览。各地的能工巧匠在这方面表现出惊人的聪明才智,个个别出心裁,令人叹为观止。北京的宫类,天津的宝莲灯、苏杭的花灯、广州的鸳鸯戏莲灯、东北的冰灯,举不胜举,往往都有鲜明的地方特色和独特的艺术风格。有一种称为“孔明灯”的,很像今天的热气球,利用冷热空气质量不同的原理,居然可以把灯升到空中去。还有有一种走马灯,也是利用热空气上升的驱动力,让灯彩自己转动,人们观赏着灯彩各个侧面的绘画造型,格外引人入胜。

 

Hanging lanterns for viewing has gradually developed into an exhibition. Skillful lantern craftsmen from all over China are admired for their unusual talents and wisdom. The lanterns they make are famous for their local characteristics and unique artistic styles, such as Beijing’s Palace lantern, Tianjin’s Lotus Lantern, Suzhou and Hangzhou’s Flower Lantern, Guangzhou’s Lantern of Mandarin-ducks Playing Joyfully in the Lotus Flowers, and Northeastern China’s Ice Lantern. The Kongming Lantern, based on the fact that hot air is lighter than cool air, can even fly like today’s hot air balloons. Another lantern called the Running-horse Lantern can revolve by itself because of the heated air in it. At the same time people are fascinated by the shapes of the lanterns and the paintings on them.

 

在灯彩上写谜语,让别人猜,这就是灯谜。一般认为,南宋时,京城临安(今杭州)就已盛行灯迷。

 

Lantern riddles are riddles stuck on the surface of lanterns for people to guess while enjoying the lantern displays. It is generally believed that it was popular in the City of Lin’an (the present-day Hangzhou), the capital of the Southern Song Dynasty(1127AD-1279AD).

 

关于灯迷,有个蛮风趣的传说。据说当年有个财主,经常欺压穷人。青年王少心里气不过,就在元宵夜扎了盏花灯,上面写了一首诗,有心到财主家去出一口恶气。财主一看花灯,上面写着:“头尖身细白如银,论秤没有半毫分,眼睛长到屁股上,光人衣裳不认人。”财主以为是在骂他势利,不觉恼羞成怒,就要家丁去抢花灯。王少却笑嘻嘻地说:“你怎么知道我在骂你?你的疑心病也太重了。我这里是个迷,谜底就是‘针’,你想想是不是?”这一说,围观的人哄堂大笑,财主只好气得干瞪眼。这件事传了开去,据说就引出了“灯迷”的习俗,许多人都喜欢把谜语写在花灯,让观灯的人猜测取乐。

 

An interesting legend about lantern riddles goes that once there was a rich man who usually bullied and oppressed the poor. A young man called Wang Shao became very angry and decided to take revenge on him on the night of the Lantern Festival by presenting him with a lantern bearing this riddle: “It is silver white, with the head sharp and body slight./The hand of a scale hardly moves because its weight is too light./ On its are its eyes,/ and only clothing not men can it recognize.” The rich man was infuriated and ordered to take the lantern from Wang Shao, thinking that the riddle described him. Having taken his revenge, Wang Shao said,What makes you think that it describes you? You are too suspicious. This is only a riddle and the answer is a needle. Think about it.” Everyone laughed. The rich man could do nothing but stand by helplessly. The story spread quickly and it is now considered as the origin of lantern riddles. From then on ,people like to put riddles on the lanterns for others to guess as a form of entertainment.

 

还有人说,正月十五挂红灯和农民起义领袖黄巢有关。那年,黄巢攻打浑城,一时之间攻不下,就化装成平民百姓进城去探个虚实。在城里,他差一点被官军抓住,幸亏有个老头救了他,还指点了攻城的诀窍。黄巢为了感激他,让他在正月十五夜挂个灯笼在门口。这个老头又把消息传给左邻右舍,不久城里的穷人都知道了,家家买红纸扎灯笼。后来,黄巢的军队在正月十五晚上攻进浑城,凡是挂红灯的人家都受到了保护。据说从此以后,就有了元宵挂灯的风俗。

 

Another legend says that the practice of hanging red lanterns has something to do with Huang Chao, leader of a peasant uprising. After he found that it was difficult to take the Huncheng City, Huang Chao entered the city in civilian disguise, trying to find out about the enemy. There he underwent a narrow escape with the help of an old man, who also told him about the strategies to take the city. In order to show his gratitude, Huang Chao told the old man to hang a lantern over has gate on the night of the Lantern Festival. Then the old man spread the news in the neighborhood and soon the poor people throughout the city began to make lanterns with red paper. Later, when Huang Chao’s army took Huncheng City on the night of the Lantern Festival, those who had hung the lanterns were spared. Hence, the custom of hanging lanterns during the lantern Festival came into being.

 

元宵节的掌故还有不少。据说宋朝有个州官,名叫田登,为了避“官讳”,不许老百姓说“登”字。因为“灯”和“登”同音,连“灯”字也不能写。元宵节官府贴出的告示居然被写成“本州依例,放火三日”。于是成为话柄,大家都说“只许州官放火,不许百姓点灯”。作为对于骄横跋扈者的绝妙讽刺。

 

There are many other legends about the festival. Once there was a governor called Tian Deng, who did not allow people to say the word “deng” in order to avoid the coincidental association with his own name. People were not even allowed to write the word “deng(lantern)”as it had the same pronunciation with his given name “deng(ascend)”. Once before the Lantern Festival the local government put up a notice saying that “According to tradition, this prefecture will fang huo(set fire) for three days”, deliberately avoiding the phrase fang deng (display lanterns). The story soon became a subject of ridicule. People all complained that a governor might commit arson while the governed were not allowed to light a lantern, ironically referring to the imperious and despotic rulers.

 

在迎灯的队伍里,最引人注目的往往是舞龙灯,又称为龙舞。

 

In the lantern parade, dragon-lantern dancing, also known as the dragon-dance, is usually the most eye-catching.

 

龙是十二生肖之一,与中华民族的历史文化有着极其密切的关系。大约在五千多年前的出土文物上,我们就已经发现了龙的形象。关于舞龙的文字记载,在汉代的文献中就已频频出现,可见它是由来已久的。古代以为,龙有呼风唤雨、消灾除疫的功能,是吉祥的象征,在节日庆典中舞龙很早就形成了习俗。较早出现的土龙,大概还不能舞动。后来又有了草龙,逐渐地就可以舞动起来。龙灯一般可分两大类,一类是可以点灯发亮的,主要在夜晚舞动;还有一种布龙,或称彩龙,则不燃蜡烛。两者各有千秋。前者往往是元宵夜一道奇特的风景线。江南一带有板凳龙,村里每户出一条板凳,其实它只是一条木板,板上由各户自己设计、制作一盏造型奇特的灯火,板的两头都有洞。舞龙时,村里出龙头、龙尾,每户人家的龙灯板就可以拼接上去,板与板拼接时用一根小木棒插入板上的小洞,犹如插销一般,再加上有人在旁护持,这样组成的板凳龙就可以舞动起来了。大的村落,往往会把板凳龙做成几百节长,在山路上蜿蜒前行,在广场上盘旋布阵,常常造成震撼人心的气势。

 

The dragon, one of the twelve Chinese zodiac animals, is an important part of Chinese culture and tradition. Some unearthed cultural relics, which existed more than 5000 years ago, were decorated with sketches of dragons of a crude form. In ancient times, people thought that the dragon could make clouds and bring them rain and help them to avoid disasters and ward off illness. Therefore it was a symbol of prosperity and good luck. The dragon dances was frequently mentioned in the records of the Han Dynasty (206BC-220AD) and has long been the Chinese custom during festivals ever since. Probably the earliest dragon---the earth dragon---could not dance at all, while the later grass dragon could. There are usually two kinds of dragon lanterns: a dragon with candle lights is called a lighted dragon, otherwise it is called a cloth dragon, or a colorful dragon. Though each has its merits, the lighted dragon, or a colorful dragon. Though each has its merits, the lighted dragon dance, mainly performed at night is a real magnificent scene on the Lantern Festival. There is another one called the bench dragon to the south of the Yangtze River. Each household provides one bench, which is just a wooden board, with a specially-made light on it and holes on each end. All the benches are connected by a small stick, which functions as a bolt, into a whole, then the dragon’s head and tail provided by the village are put on each end. With the dancer each holding up a stick in his section of the dragon, the bench dragon would begin to dance. A large village could make a bench dragon of hundreds of sections, which would wind through mountain roads and hover on squares, often a scene of excitement.

 

布龙不燃灯烛,因此可以在舞动的动作上出奇制胜,形成各种高难度的动作套路,令人眼花缭乱、啧啧称奇。

 

Without candle lights, the cloth dragon can display its highly skillful performance and extremely difficult tricks, which, to audiences, is so dazzling and intriguing.

 

说起龙灯,也有许多动人的传说。各个地方的人们通过自己的想象,解释龙灯的起源,虽然并非信史,却真切地流露出他们对历史的理解和对生活的态度。比如有的说,古时有一条老龙,不顾天帝的禁令,私自降雨,为民造福。后来天帝发现,将它杀死。百姓们为了纪念它,就做了条龙灯。每逢元宵节,就要舞龙灯。还有的说,有个灯匠,扎的龙灯特别奇妙。皇帝硬逼他扎龙灯。他的龙灯扎好了,龙也活了,居然把皇帝咬死,把皇宫烧掉,带着灯匠逃走了。

 

As for dragon lanterns, there are many moving stories. People tell stories about the origins of the dragon lantern out of imagination. Though the stories might not be true, they can vividly reveal our understanding about history and attitudes towards life. For instance, it is said that once an old dragon was killed after being found to have brought rain to help people without the permission of the Jade Emperor. People made dragon lanterns in memory of him, and performed dragon dances every Lantern Festival. It is also said that a lantern craftsman, famous for the wonderful lanterns he made, was forced to make a lantern for the emperor. When he finished, the dragon suddenly came alive and killed the emperor, burned the imperial palace down and flew away with the lantern craftsman.

 

元宵节吃汤圆,也是许多地方都流行的饮食风俗。汤圆又名“元宵”、“灯圆”。说明它与元宵灯节密不可分。这是一种用糯米粉做成的点心,中间有馅,或放肉,或放夹沙,放在水中煮熟。汤圆熟了之后,就会漂浮起来,犹如圆圆的月亮。天上月圆,碗里汤圆,再加上一家人团圆,这里有着极佳的象征意义,所以人人都喜爱它。台湾有首民歌《卖汤圆》,许多人都会唱:“一碗汤圆满又满,吃了汤圆好团圆。”此情此景,令人向往。

 

Eating tangyuan(glutinous rice balls stuffed with either sweet or meat fillings) is also a tradition in many places. As its other names yuanxiao or dengyuan suggest, it is an important part of the lantern Festival is over. They will start work on the farm or in far-away cities. The same is true with the Han people. Their activities like visiting friends and having dinner parties end on the day of the Lantern Festival. It is conventional for people to start work afterwards.

0

阅读 评论 收藏 转载 喜欢 打印举报/Report
  • 评论加载中,请稍候...
发评论

    发评论

    以上网友发言只代表其个人观点,不代表新浪网的观点或立场。

      

    新浪BLOG意见反馈留言板 电话:4000520066 提示音后按1键(按当地市话标准计费) 欢迎批评指正

    新浪简介 | About Sina | 广告服务 | 联系我们 | 招聘信息 | 网站律师 | SINA English | 会员注册 | 产品答疑

    新浪公司 版权所有