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编剧的话·Playwrights’ Note

(2010-03-06 12:14:30)
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文化

戏曲演绎西方经典的意义

 

    这方面我们的第一次经验来自1994年,那时我们在波士顿的大学教授西方戏剧,请了戏曲科班出身的上戏表演系老师范益松去那里教美国学生一些京剧的基本动作程式,和孙惠柱一起排了个京剧风格的《奥塞罗》。参加和观看演出的教授和学生们都认为,中国戏曲的风格化动作比流行的自然主义表演远更富有表现力,反而更接近莎士比亚戏剧的精神,那些只知“方法”派的美国演员很有必要用这样的“新方法”来丰富他们的手段。参加这个工作坊的几位博士生在成为戏剧教授以后,把戏曲风格化表演的精神用到了他们的教学中去。近年来我们跟国内戏曲艺术家们搞的越剧《心比天高》、京剧《朱丽小姐》和正在为挪威易卜生剧院和杭州越剧院写的越剧《海上夫人》则让我们发现了这种嫁接的另一层意义:用更具现实社会意义的故事和更富有心理层次的新型角色来拓宽传统戏曲的视界。海达和朱丽这样的现代性人物在老戏中很难看到,比起杜丽娘、崔莺莺等中精美的经典形象,更能引起当代青年人的共鸣和反思。《朱丽小姐》以朱丽和项强这样两个阶层的人物作男女主角,在传统戏曲中是几乎不可能的,但在现实生活中却有相当的现实意义。在中国国力日益强大的今天,戏曲演绎西方经典又增加了一层超越表演方法的意义:这是把中国文化艺术推向世界的一条捷径。因为那些名著在西方耳熟能详,观众看的时候更注意的是极富表现力的中国式演绎方法,而戏曲的程式化动作往往能传达出其中积淀着的中国美学的精髓,吸引更多的外国人来进一步了解中国文化。

 

Why Do Western Classics Through Chinese Opera?

 

Our experience with this approach began in 1994, when we were teaching western theatre at Tufts University in Boston. William invited Fan Yisong, a professionally trained Beijing opera actor-turned professor of Shanghai Theatre Academy, to teach American students some basic Beijing opera movement patterns in a summer institute. Then they directed a one-hour version of Othello in Beijing opera style. Many colleagues as well as the actors and audience members believed that the stylized movement of Chinese opera was far more expressive than naturalistic acting, and in fact closer to Shakespearean theatre in spirit. For those actors who knew only the prevailing American Method, and who needed to expand their horizon, Beijing opera seemed to offer very good new alternatives. Several PhD students in that project later adopted stylized movements in their careers of teaching and/or directing. More recently we’ve worked with professional Chinese opera artists in productions like Yue opera Hedda Gabler and Beijing opera Miss Julie, and are writing Yue opera Lady from the Sea, commissioned by Norway’s Ibsen Theatre and Hangzhou Yue Opera Company. There seems to be another benefit resulting from this type of intercultural hybridism: to enrich the repertoire of traditional Chinese opera with more socially relevant stories, and with more psychologically complex characters. It is hard to find characters like Hedda Gabler or Miss Julie in Chinese operas. Compared to such exquisite classical roles like Du Liniang and Cui Yingying, they are more likely to resonate with today’s young people and to make them reflect on their own lives. Miss Julie gives us two leading roles-- a female aristocrat and a male servant--as they enact a battle of the sexes as well as classes. This would be unthinkable in a traditional Chinese opera, but it rings true to today's audiences. In addition, in the wake of China’s recent rise as an economic power, doing western classics through Chinese opera appears to serve yet another function: to help Chinese arts and culture go abroad. When theatergoers in the west see their classics adapted by Chinese artists, they would naturally pay more attention to the unique Chinese ways in which their familiar stories/characters are presented. The richness of Chinese theatrical imagination and means of expression_r_r will not only excite them to see their classics in a different light, but also entice them to learn more about the aesthetics and cultural values behind them.

 

编剧的话·Playwrights’ <wbr>Note                                     上图:编剧孙惠柱接受外语频道记者采访;

The reporter from ICS is interviewing Mr.Sun.

 

编剧的话·Playwrights’ <wbr>Note
上图:孙惠柱老师邀请英国戏剧人士观摩《朱丽小姐》排练;

Friends of theatrical circles from Britain is invited to the rehearsal. 



 

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