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News

(2011-05-17 22:31:51)
标签:

杂谈

Study Links Climate Change to Changes in Crop Yields

 

This is the VOA Special English Agriculture Report.

 

This is the VOA Special English Agriculture Report.

A new study says climate change has reduced the world's wheat and maize production. The study says rice and soybean yields have also decreased in some places -- but increased in others. In the worlds of the researchers: "For soybeans and rice, winners and losers largely balanced out."

一项新的研究显示,气候变化导致世界的小麦和玉米减产。这项研究表示,大米和大豆产量在一些地区出现下降状况,但是在其他的一些地方却出现上升。用研究人员的话称:“大豆和水稻的增产和减产基本持平。”

The researchers studied climate trends and global crop production from between nineteen eighty and two thousand eight. They found that climate changes "are already exerting a considerable drag on yield growth" and may have affected food prices.

研究人员研究了1980年到2008年之间气候变化与农作物产量之间的关系。他们发现,气候变化已经对产量增长产生了很严重的阻碍,而且可能已经对粮食价格产生了影响。

The study used computer models linking crop yields to weather. Yield is the amount produced for each hectare or acre. The researchers compared the results to what the yields might have been without climate changes. They found that corn production decreased by almost four percent and wheat production decreased by five and a half percent.

该研究利用电脑模型将农作物和天气状况建立联系。产量的单位是每公顷土地生产的粮食数量。研究人员将这次研究的结果与不受天气变化影响的产量作对比。他们发现,玉米的产量下降了约4%,小麦的产量下降了5.5%。

Warming temperatures were reported in almost all of Europe, much of Asia and some of South America and Africa. During the study period most countries had greater temperature changes from year to year than they have had historically. But the study says the United States was an important exception -- at least so far.

据报道,几乎整个欧洲,亚洲的大部分地区,南美洲和非洲的一些地区都出现了气候变暖的趋势。在研究期间,大部分国家气温变化的幅度都比历史上的记录更加的急剧。但是,该研究显示,美国是一个特例,至少迄今为止是这样。

Corn and wheat yields in most of North America remained about the same. Russia's wheat yields decreased the most. The largest loss in corn yields were in China and Brazil.

北美大部分地区的玉米和小麦产量仍然保持不变。俄罗斯的小麦产量下降最多。玉米产量下降最多的是中国和巴西。

The report is in the journal Science.

该报告发表在《科学》期刊上。

One of the researchers was economist Wolfram Schlenker at Columbia University in New York and the National Bureau of Economic Research. He says the report can serve as a planning tool for policy makers.

经济学家Wolfram Schlenker是其中的一位研究人员,供职于纽约哥伦比亚大学和美国国家经济研究局。他表示,决策者可以这将份报告作为规划工具。

WOLFRAM SCHLENKER: "If you are worried about rising food prices, it might be good to funnel some research into breeding for heat tolerance and maybe even drought tolerance."

WOLFRAM SCHLENKER:“如果你担心粮食价格上涨,那么可以做一些抗热抗旱作物品种的研究。

Jeffrey Stark is with a public policy organization called the Foundation for Environmental Security and Stability. This group is supported by the United States Agency for International Development. Mr. Stark recently described the effects of climate change on pastoralists in Uganda. They travel with their cattle to find grasslands and water.

Jeffrey Stark供职于公共政策组织环境安全与稳定基金会。这个基金会由美国国际开发署支持。最近,Jeffrey Stark描述了气候变化对乌干达牧民的影响。他们带着牛群寻找草原和水。

JEFFREY STARK: "We did hear repeatedly that there have been increasing temperatures, drying wetlands, less frequent but more intense rain, hail storms and, most significantly, unpredictable shifts in seasonal patterns. The pastoralists in the cattle corridor have to travel farther in search of pasture and water."

JEFFREY STARK:“我们听他们说了好多遍有关于气温升高,湿地干涸,降雨次数减少但是强度增大,时常出现冰雹。最重要的是,季节变化不可预测。为了寻找水源和草原,牧民必须走更远的路。

And that search, he says, can bring them into contact and conflict with farmers who have problems of their own.

他说,该项研究可以使他们与有同样问题的牧民取得联系。

And that's the VOA Special English Agriculture Report, written by Jerilyn Watson. For more stories, go to voa.com, where you can also find English teaching activities. You can also find captioned videos of our reports on YouTube at the VOA Learning English channel. I'm Bob Doughty.

 

BBC News with Julie Candler

巴基斯坦三军情报局局长帕夏有意辞职

Pakistan's intelligence chief General Ahmed Shuja Pasha has offered to resign after facing tough questioning about the US Special Forces raid that killed the al-Qaeda leader Osama Bin Laden. General Pasha, who appeared before parliament with his military counterparts, said the offer was refused. Aleem Maqbool reports from Islamabad.

由于面临美国特种部队发动突袭将本拉登击毙的尖锐问题,巴基斯坦三军情报局局长艾哈迈德•舒亚•帕夏(Ahmed Shuja Pasha)有意辞职。与军事官员一起出席议会的帕夏将军表示,他的要求被拒绝了。伊斯兰堡,Aleem Maqbool 报道。

It is unheard of in Pakistan for the head of the intelligence services to be humiliated in this way. Not only was he hauled in front of parliament to explain himself and the failings of his agency in the Bin Laden affair, but according to some MPs who briefed the BBC he faced such hostility that at one point he told them they were treating him like an enemy. When asked about specifics on how Osama Bin Laden had been in Pakistan for so long without being detected, he said it wasn't time to answer questions like that. But that's not going to be enough for many Pakistanis, who feel a massive sense of embarrassment that the al-Qaeda leader was found here and killed in an American operation.
unheard of     :前所未闻的;从未听说的;骇人听闻的

巴基斯坦情报部门官员受到如此严重的羞辱实在是闻所未闻。他不仅要在国会面前努力的为自己,还要为情报部门就本拉登事件中的失败做出合理的解释。据向BBC发表简短讲话的一些议员们描述,曾经一段时间,他所面临的敌意使他觉得议员们对待他就像是对待敌人一样。当被问到为何本拉登能够在没有被发现的情况下在巴基斯坦藏匿这么长时间的时候,他说,现在还不适合回答此类问题。但是,对于很多巴基斯坦人来说,这还不够。他们认为,基地组织头目在巴基斯坦被发现,并在美军发动的军事行动中被击毙是非常尴尬的。

奥巴马中东问题特使辞职 副特使接任


President Barack Obama has announced the resignation of the US special envoy to the Middle East, George Mitchell. Seventy-seven-year-old Mr Mitchell has led the administration's efforts to kick start the failed peace talks in the Middle East for the past two years. President Obama said Mr Mitchell had always insisted he would only serve that amount of time in the position.


kick start     :脚踏起动;脚踏起动器
                Kick start Your Day - Plan out tomorrow.
                精神饱满地开始每一天-为第二天做好计划。


奥巴马宣布中东问题特使乔治•米切尔(George Mitchell)辞职。近两年来,77岁的米切尔一直领导政府帮助中东地区重启和平会谈,但是中东和平进程始终没有取得重大突破。奥巴马总统表示,米切尔一直坚持自己只能担任该职位两年的时间。

穆巴拉克之妻被埃及当局拘留 知情后心脏病发作

The wife of Egypt's ousted President Hosni Mubarak has been taken ill with a suspected heart attack. Suzanne Mubarak was admitted to hospital in the resort of Sharm el-Sheikh just hours after anti-corruption officials ordered her to be detained for 15 days while fraud allegations against her are investigated. She was questioned by the authorities for the first time on Thursday. At the same time, Mr Mubarak's ongoing detention was extended for a further two weeks.

埃及被赶下台的总统穆巴拉克的妻子突发心脏病。反腐败官员下令她被拘留15天仅仅几个小时后,前总统穆巴拉克的妻子苏珊就因心脏病发作被送入沙姆沙伊赫医院(Sharm el-Sheikh)重症监护室,而关于欺诈的指控仍处于调查中。周四,她第一次接受当局的审讯。与此同时,对穆巴拉克的拘留时间延长两周。

利比亚布雷加一旅馆遭北约空袭

Libyan officials say Nato has hit a boarding house in Brega, an eastern town under government control, killing 11 imams and injuring 45 other people. Christian Fraser reports from Tripoli.

利比亚官员表示,北约击中了政府控制下的东部城市布雷加(Brega)的一个公寓,11名教长丧生,另外45人受伤。的黎波里,Christian Fraser报道。

In the courtyard of a mosque in Tripoli, government officials called a press conference to show journalists horrific footage of the dead. The bodies were badly burnt and disfigured. Officials say these were men who the previous night had been involved in a live broadcast from Brega, a town still under loyalist control in the east. The group had prayed on state television for national unity and reconciliation. After those prayers, we are told they retired to a guest house in Brega to prepare for the journey next day to Benghazi. At face value, it looks like a terrible mistake on the part of Nato. The alliance said it is checking its intelligence before it responds.

在的黎波里一家清真寺的院子里,政府官员召开记者招待会,向记者们展示令人毛骨悚然的录像。尸体被严重烧焦,毁容已经难以辨认。有关官员表示,这些遇难者前一晚上还在参加布雷加的现场直播活动。布雷加是东部的一个城镇,目前,仍然忠于卡扎菲力量。这些遇难者曾在电视节目上祈祷国家的统一与和解。我们被告知,祈祷过后,他们离开布雷加的会客室,准备第二天的班加西之旅。表面上看来,北约好像是在发动的袭击行动出现了重大的失误。北约联盟表示,他们在作出反应之前曾对当地的情报进行过确认。

叙利亚再次爆发反政府抗议活动

Thousands of people have again taken part in anti-government protests across Syria following Friday prayers. Human rights activists said three people were killed during demonstrations in the central city of Homs. However, a BBC correspondent monitoring the situation from neighbouring Lebanon said security forces appeared to have used less force than on previous occasions and seemed to be employing a new strategy.

周五的祈祷过后,叙利亚全国各地成千上万的人再次走上街头参加反政府抗议活动。人权活动积极分子表示,3人在中部城市霍姆斯的抗议示威活动中丧生。然而,在邻国黎巴嫩监测形势的BBC记者表示,与之前的示威活动相比,安全部队使用的暴力减少,似乎是在采用新的策略。

World News from the BBC

一名62岁的英国妇女在巴西旅游胜地被斩首

A 62-year-old British woman has been beheaded in an apparently random attack in a supermarket on the Spanish holiday island of Tenerife. Peter Biles reports.

西班牙旅游胜地特纳利夫岛(Tenerife)上的一家超市遭袭击,一名62岁的英国妇女被斩首。Peter Biles报道。

The victim hasn't yet been named, but according to the authorities in Tenerife, she was a 62-year-old Briton. She was in a supermarket at the time of the attack. Local reports say the suspect, who's believed to be a Bulgarian man, seized a knife from inside the store and beheaded the woman. He was chased and detained by security guards as he tried to escape. The Foreign Office in London says it's aware of the reports from Tenerife and is urgently investigating what happened.

目前,受害者的姓名尚不知晓。但是,特纳利夫岛当局称,这名受害者是一位62岁的英国人。当袭击发生时她正在这家超市。据当地媒体报道称,嫌疑人是一名保加利亚人,从超市内抓了一把刀子,将这名妇女斩首。当这名嫌疑人试图逃跑时,被安全部队追捕并抓获。伦敦外交部表示,他们已经从特纳利夫岛获悉该报告,已经对此事展开紧急调查。

美移民绿卡电脑摇号系统出错 2.2万人资格作废

The US State Department has apologised to thousands of would-be immigrants who thought they had been successful in the annual lottery permitting them to apply to live legally in the United States. Officials said the results had to be invalidated because a computer error meant the selection wasn't random. All 22,000 names will have to take their chance again with about 15 million other hopeful applicants.

美国国务院向原本以为自己成功地被移民绿卡电脑摇号系统选中,获得申请在美国合法居住权的数万名移民致歉。相关官员表示,移民绿卡电脑摇号系统出错,造成电脑选出的申请者而非随机,因此结果无效。导致已公布的2.2万名摇中的人,必须重新与大约1500万申请者一起碰运气。

英足球员为行动不便儿童募款 穿蜗牛装爬26天马拉松

A man dressed as a snail has completed the London Marathon 26 days after the race began. Lloyd Scott, a former professional footballer, inched his way along the 42km course face-down on a metal sled for up to eight hours a day. His costume, a children's TV character called Brian, was equipped with a periscopic camera to see where he was going. Mr Lloyd, who once ran the same marathon in antique diving suit, is attempting to raise money for a charity for disabled children. Crossing the finish line, Mr Lloyd admitted it was a relief to finish.

一名趴在蜗牛壳中的男子在比赛开始26天后完成了伦敦马拉松之旅。英国前职业足球员洛伊德史考特(LloydScott)在马拉松比赛42公里的全程中,一直是面不朝下,每天至少8个小时。他的装束是儿童电视节目中的一个叫布莱恩(Brian)的角色,设备上安装了一个潜望镜,可以随时查看它到达的地方。此前,洛伊德也曾经身穿独特的潜水装参加同样的马拉松比赛,此举旨在为残疾儿童募款。穿越终点线时,他承认,终于完成全程使他非常欣慰。

"Yeah, it's very difficult. I mean I had consistent nose bleeds. I had to go to hospital to have my nose cauterized and treated. [I] kept being sick in the snail. I even slept in the snail as well. Oh really for such a fantastic charity, I mean, it's the children that are here today. That's really been foremost on my mind and have been driving me forward."

“是的,完成这样的马拉松比赛确实是非常的困难。在整个过程中我的鼻子一直在流血。所以不得不去医院治疗鼻子。在蜗牛壳中我一直生病,睡觉也在蜗牛壳中。这是一项为了改善行动不便小朋友生活的募款活动,所以真正站在这里的是孩子们。这在我的脑海中是最重要的,是促进我继续前进的动力。”

BBC News

 

 

The Army Corps of Engineers is helping residents deal with floods in the midwestern .U.S. Officials are focused on a levee, the barrier that's designed to prevent floods. But they're not building it. They're blowing it up! The Corps of Engineers set the charges you're seeing go off. The plan is to get rid of this levee on the Mississippi River, which will flood about 200 square miles of land in Missouri.

美国陆军工程兵部队帮助美国中西部的居民们进行防止水灾。美国官员将焦点放在防洪的水坝和屏障上。但是这些官兵不是在建设这些防洪的设施而是在将这些设施炸毁。这个计划是将密西西比河大堤炸毁,密西西比河的洪水将会淹没密苏里州约200平方英里的土地。

You might be wondering how causing a flood is to supposed to help in all of this. Engineers are blowing up that levee in order to let water from the Ohio River flow into the Mississippi. Before those blasts you saw, the water level in the Ohio River was the highest it's ever been. It was threatening to wipe out the entire town of Cairo, Illinois. Officials say the efforts to lower the flood waters are working.

你可能想知道炸堤泄洪有何作用。工程兵部队炸毁堤坝是为了让俄亥俄河中的水流入密西西比河。在没有炸堤泄洪前,俄亥俄河的水位处于历史最高水平。这么高的水位对整个开罗,伊利诺伊州造成了巨大的威胁,这两个州可能会被彻底摧毁。相关官员表示,努力降低水位的工作正在进行。

But some folks in Missouri aren't happy about this. Those 200 square miles that were flooded are farms. Missouri's governor says it could take tens, maybe hundreds of thousands of dollars to recover from the intentional flooding. The regional commander of the Corps of Engineers says he understands the widespread impact of this kind of situation.

但是,密苏里州的一些人们对此并不感到高兴。那些被洪水淹没的200平方英里都是农场。密苏里州的州长表示,恢复这些被蓄意淹没的农场需要几万,或者几十万美元。该地区的工兵部队指挥官表示,他对目前这种状况产生的广泛影响非常的理解。

This is a story of the human dimension and, certainly, it's impacting lots of folks. As you fly up and down the river, you'll see a lot of people have already abandoned their houses and moved to higher ground. So, it is, it is a heart wrenching story. I've been involved with flooding for 10 years, and it takes a long time to recover from something like this.

这是一个讲述人类的故事,当然,它将会对很多人产生影响。当你在河流中飘来飘去,你会看到很多人放弃了自己的房子,搬到地势较高的地方。因此,这是一个令人心痛的故事。我与洪水打交道已有10年的历史,要恢复需要很长的时间。

Recovery Efforts
恢复工作

Moving south to Alabama, where search and rescue teams continue to look for victims of last week's devastating severe weather. Alabama was hit the hardest by the storms and tornadoes that tore across the southern U.S. 36 Alabama counties have been declared disaster areas by the U.S. government. That declaration frees up resources and money to help with the recovery efforts. Hundreds of people were killed by the storms. More than 400,000 still don't have power. Officials are also trying to find temporary housing for hundreds, maybe thousands of people who lost their homes.

在南部城市阿拉巴马州,搜救队继续搜救上星期的毁灭性灾害性天气造成的受害者。阿拉巴马州是受横跨美国南部的风暴和龙卷风打击最严重的州。美国政府宣布阿拉巴马州的36个县是灾区。该宣言使政府部门发放了一些资金和资源来帮助恢复工作。40多万户人家能没有通电。官员们试图为数百名或者数千名失去家园的人寻找临时住房。

The Army Corps of Engineers is helping residents deal with floods in the midwestern .U.S. Officials are focused on a levee, the barrier that's designed to prevent floods. But they're not building it. They're blowing it up! The Corps of Engineers set the charges you're seeing go off. The plan is to get rid of this levee on the Mississippi River, which will flood about 200 square miles of land in Missouri.

美国陆军工程兵部队帮助美国中西部的居民们进行防止水灾。美国官员将焦点放在防洪的水坝和屏障上。但是这些官兵不是在建设这些防洪的设施而是在将这些设施炸毁。这个计划是将密西西比河大堤炸毁,密西西比河的洪水将会淹没密苏里州约200平方英里的土地。

You might be wondering how causing a flood is to supposed to help in all of this. Engineers are blowing up that levee in order to let water from the Ohio River flow into the Mississippi. Before those blasts you saw, the water level in the Ohio River was the highest it's ever been. It was threatening to wipe out the entire town of Cairo, Illinois. Officials say the efforts to lower the flood waters are working.

你可能想知道炸堤泄洪有何作用。工程兵部队炸毁堤坝是为了让俄亥俄河中的水流入密西西比河。在没有炸堤泄洪前,俄亥俄河的水位处于历史最高水平。这么高的水位对整个开罗,伊利诺伊州造成了巨大的威胁,这两个州可能会被彻底摧毁。相关官员表示,努力降低水位的工作正在进行。

But some folks in Missouri aren't happy about this. Those 200 square miles that were flooded are farms. Missouri's governor says it could take tens, maybe hundreds of thousands of dollars to recover from the intentional flooding. The regional commander of the Corps of Engineers says he understands the widespread impact of this kind of situation.

但是,密苏里州的一些人们对此并不感到高兴。那些被洪水淹没的200平方英里都是农场。密苏里州的州长表示,恢复这些被蓄意淹没的农场需要几万,或者几十万美元。该地区的工兵部队指挥官表示,他对目前这种状况产生的广泛影响非常的理解。

This is a story of the human dimension and, certainly, it's impacting lots of folks. As you fly up and down the river, you'll see a lot of people have already abandoned their houses and moved to higher ground. So, it is, it is a heart wrenching story. I've been involved with flooding for 10 years, and it takes a long time to recover from something like this.

这是一个讲述人类的故事,当然,它将会对很多人产生影响。当你在河流中飘来飘去,你会看到很多人放弃了自己的房子,搬到地势较高的地方。因此,这是一个令人心痛的故事。我与洪水打交道已有10年的历史,要恢复需要很长的时间。

Recovery Efforts
恢复工作

Moving south to Alabama, where search and rescue teams continue to look for victims of last week's devastating severe weather. Alabama was hit the hardest by the storms and tornadoes that tore across the southern U.S. 36 Alabama counties have been declared disaster areas by the U.S. government. That declaration frees up resources and money to help with the recovery efforts. Hundreds of people were killed by the storms. More than 400,000 still don't have power. Officials are also trying to find temporary housing for hundreds, maybe thousands of people who lost their homes.

在南部城市阿拉巴马州,搜救队继续搜救上星期的毁灭性灾害性天气造成的受害者。阿拉巴马州是受横跨美国南部的风暴和龙卷风打击最严重的州。美国政府宣布阿拉巴马州的36个县是灾区。该宣言使政府部门发放了一些资金和资源来帮助恢复工作。40多万户人家能没有通电。官员们试图为数百名或者数千名失去家园的人寻找临时住房。

Company Founders Reveal Secrets of Success

The recent worldwide economic slowdown, plus some spectacular business failures and criminal scams, have made investors cautious. But every day, entrepreneurs still come up with new ideas that get funded, often with an infusion of money from speculative investors called "venture capitalists."


Photo: howtheydidit.com 
'How They Did It,' by Robert Jordan



Studies show that two-thirds of new businesses fail and disappear within 10 years. Yet there are countless stories of entrepreneurs who have come back from bankruptcy or worse, reinvented themselves, and reaped millions of dollars. For instance, New York tycoon Donald Trump, who's rumored to be considering a run for president next year, lost a fortune in the casino business and made it back and more in real estate.

In a new book, called "How They Did It," Robert Jordan - who himself has launched and grown several companies - interviews 45 other successful company founders to learn their secrets of success.

All of them share one trait, Jordan says. It's resilience. "These entrepreneurs all faced at least one crisis that should have stopped them in their tracks," he writes. "Instead, they bounced back stronger, smarter, leaner, and meaner than before."

How? Here are four tips from the book:

Don't be embarrassed to hire people better than yourself.

Hire people who are nice, not just smart. "If you hire people who are smart but jerks," one founder, Ronald Galowich, told Jordan, "they'll just hire more smart jerks."

Make your employees shareholders, Biomet executive Dane Miller suggests. "Give stock options to everyone at your company - all the way to the janitor. When employees have a sense of ownership, it creates a kind of self-enforcement process."

When all else fails, just start over. "What doesn't work, throw away," Jordan writes. "And what does work, run with it.

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