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每天30分钟创造一匹更好的马 第一章 8

(2012-06-03 22:18:35)
标签:

马术

体育

杂谈

分类: 30Minutes

1.3 30 Minutes to Make A Weekly Health Check

1.3 每周30分钟做健康检查

 

The better you know your horse, the more effortlessly you will register whether he looks ‘normal’ or under the weather. The ability to make an at-a-glance appraisal is essential, but a more thorough hand-on check should be carried out on a regular basis, and if you feel something is not quite right. Take 30 minutes once a week to run through this health check (details of each point are given on the following pages), and save yourself time and anguish by recognizing and dealing with any problems before they become major.

你对马匹越了解,你就越能轻易看出马匹是否看上去正常。能一眼评估马匹健康情况是必要的,但是一次更加全面亲手检查应该是定期的,而且如果你觉得什么时候不对,应该马上检查。每周花30分钟进行以下的检查,这样能够节省你的时间,而且在问题变得严重之前识别出来。

 

General Checks

First, check the ABS (Appearance, Behavior, Stable). Tie your horse up safely.

1) Step back and take a good look at him. The overall impression you receive should be of an alert, interested, healthy animal. He should be standing squarely, possibly resting a hind leg and dropping one hip, but definitely not resting a foreleg. Nor should he be shifting his weight from one foot to another. His coat should lie flat and have a bloom or shine to it; if he lives out this is quite difficult to perceive, but it should still be the case.

2) Any of the following can be an indication that things are not quite right: head hung; ear back; dull, staring coat; tail raised; any obvious swelling; runny eyes or nose; unusual posture; signs of tension or unexplained excitement.

3) Make a mental note of the horse’s general behavior, and register what is normal for your horse. A grumpy, argumentative horse showing signs of subservience is as much a cause for concern as a normally friendly horse suddenly being grumpy.

4) Take a look around his stable: is he eating his feed, finishing off his hay and drinking all his water? (Difficult to measure if you don’t use water buckets.) Are there little bits of food around the manger indicating that he is quidding (food is falling out of his mouth at one side or another due to an irregular bite or missing teeth) and has dental problems? Are there more, or fewer, droppings than usual? Try to watch your horse stable (urinate): the urine should be clear or slightly cloudy, but not thick, yellow or smelly. Does the stable look uncharacteristically messy?

基本检查

第一,检查ABS(外表、行为、马房)。把马匹安全的拴好。

1) 退后一步,好好观察一下他。你这时有的印象应该是一只警惕、有好奇心的、健康的动物。他应该笔直站立,可能用一条后腿正在休息或者单腿站立,但是绝对不可能用一条前腿休息。他也不应该把他的重量从一条腿转移到另一条腿。他的毛皮应该平滑而且有一种闪亮的光泽。如果他一直住在户外,那这点确实很难观察,但是马匹仍然应该是这个样子。

2) 有以下任何一点都是不正常的:头部低垂、耳朵朝后、皮毛暗淡、尾巴抬起、任何明显的肿胀、在眼部或者鼻部有黏液、不正常的姿势以及表现出任何不能解释的紧张和兴奋。

3) 列出马匹日常行为的记录,并记录马匹的正常行为。一匹坏脾气的马突然变得顺从要比一匹友善的马突然变得暴躁更值得考虑。

4) 观察一下他的马房。他是否吃光了他的饲料和干草?喝光了所有的水?(如果你不用水桶,你就很难监控。)食槽周围是否散落了食物?这些迹象可能是他有咀嚼病或是牙病的暗示(食物会从马匹的嘴部的一侧或两侧同时漏出来,这可能是由于不规则的咬合和缺齿导致的)。有没有比平时更多或是更少的排泄物?尽可能的观察一下马匹的尿液:尿液应该是清澈的或是稍微有些浑浊,但是绝对不会是不透明的、黄色的或是有臭味的。马房是否看上去不正常的混乱?


每天30分钟创造一匹更好的马 <wbr>第一章 <wbr>8

1.3.1 The 30-Minute Check in 12 Steps

1.3.1 12步完成30分钟检查

 

Now follow the 12 steps described here.

现在按照以下描述的12步完成检查。

 

每天30分钟创造一匹更好的马 <wbr>第一章 <wbr>8

 

1. Ears

Run your hands over horse’s ears to gauge whether he is warm enough. (To find out what is normal for your horse, make a point of checking his ears in extremes of weather, both hot and cold.) His ears should be ‘perky’ and directed at you, or at anything else that might have drawn his attention.

1.耳朵

用你的手翻弄马匹的耳朵来评估他是否足够的温暖。(为了找出马匹的正常体温,你应该在极端的气温下测量马匹的体温。)他的耳朵应该是活泼的而且指向你,或是指向任何引起他兴趣的东西。

 

每天30分钟创造一匹更好的马 <wbr>第一章 <wbr>8

 

2. Nose

The membrane on the inside of the horse’s nose should be a healthy red color. A slight discharge, especially after exercise, is not abnormal, but anything else, such as blood or a thick yellow or green discharge (a sign of infection), is far from normal.

2.鼻子

在马匹鼻子内侧的薄膜应该是一种健康的红色。在练习后鼻子流出一些少量的液体是正常的,但是其他任何形式的液体,比如血和粘稠的黄色和绿色(感染的标志)的液体从马匹鼻子是很不正常的。

 

每天30分钟创造一匹更好的马 <wbr>第一章 <wbr>8

 

3. Eyes

Your horse’s eyes should be bright and alert. There should be no discharge or unusual redness. If your horse is attempting to rub or close his eye, this could indicate that something is wrong.

3.眼睛

马匹的眼睛应该是明亮和警惕的。眼睛里应该没有黏液和不正常的红色。如果马匹试图擦拭他的眼睛或是闭上眼睛,那可能是有些问题的。

 

每天30分钟创造一匹更好的马 <wbr>第一章 <wbr>8

 

4. Mouth

Check the corners of his mouth to ensure that the bit is not rubbing here.

4. 嘴巴

检查马匹的嘴角以确保衔铁没有摩擦这里。

 

每天30分钟创造一匹更好的马 <wbr>第一章 <wbr>8

 

5. Pulse

The easiest places to feel a pulse is at one of the arteries either under the jawbone or inside the elbow. Make sure that the horse is relaxed and not eating, and after a few seconds you should feel the pulse. (It isn’t easy to detect – be patient.) Count the beats for 30 seconds, and then double that figure to give the heart rate per minute. Remember that exercise, pain, a high temperature or excitement can all increase your horse’s pulse rate. A resting horse should have a pulse of between 36-42 beats a minute.

(Note: An artery feels springy to the touch. A vein will flatten if you squash it.)

5. 脉搏

最容易感觉到脉搏的地方是下颌骨下侧或肘部内侧的动脉处。确保马匹正在休息而且没有在进食,按住几秒钟后你就应该能够感到脉搏。(脉搏并不容易察觉到,但是耐心点。)数一下30秒里的脉搏数,然后乘以二就可以得到每分钟的心跳数。记住,运动、疼痛、高体温或者兴奋都能够提高马匹的脉搏数。一匹正在休息的马匹正常的脉搏数应该在每分钟36-42次。

(注意:动脉很有弹性。但当你挤压静脉时,它会变平。)

 

每天30分钟创造一匹更好的马 <wbr>第一章 <wbr>8

 

Locating the Pulse of the Digital Artery

It is a good idea to try to locate the pulse of the digital artery that runs through the fetlock. This pulse is a good indicator of more serious foot problems such as developing abscesses and laminitis.

在指动脉上定位脉搏

能在穿过球节处的指动脉上定位脉搏也是个不错的办法。这种脉搏能够很好指出更严重的足部问题,比如正在发展的脓肿以及蹄叶炎。

 

每天30分钟创造一匹更好的马 <wbr>第一章 <wbr>8

 

6. Pinch Test

Is your horse dehydrated? Gently take a pinch of skin on the point off the shoulder: if your horse is not dehydrated, it will spring back into place immediately you let it go.

6.捏拧测试

马匹有没有脱水?轻轻的捏起一部分肩部处的皮肤:如果马匹没有脱水,皮肤能够在放手时立即回归原处。

 

每天30分钟创造一匹更好的马 <wbr>第一章 <wbr>8

 

7. Legs

Run your hands over your horse’s legs. You are checking for heat, swelling, and wounds. Check firstly for heat. If you can feel heat but are not sure whether it is ‘normal’, compare the heat of the problem spot to that of the same place in the opposite leg. Heat is an indication of a problem and should not be ignored.

You should treat any swelling that you may find in a like manner. At various stages in their lives and training horses may develop lumps and bumps such as windgalls and splints on their legs. It is important that you are familiar with these as they are permanent and unlikely to cause problems once established. However, swelling in more than one leg can be a sign of digestive problems, age, or lack of exercise. Swelling in one leg is more likely to be an injury and should be investigated. Locate your horse’s tendons and familiarize yourself with how they feel. Any swelling or thickening here should be looked at by a vet immediately, because to work a horse with a damaged tendon can have long-term effects.

If you apply pressure to either a warm patch or a swelling and the horse reacts it is likely that he is in pain. If possible, trot him up carefully to establish whether or not he is lame before calling the vet.

Now check for any cuts, grazes or wounds. Look out for mud fever during wet weather.

7. 腿部

用你的手抚摸马匹的腿部。你应该检查马匹是否有发热以及腿部是否有肿胀和伤口。最先检查马匹是否有发热。如果你能感觉到发热但是不能确定这是不是正常,把发热点和另一侧腿的相同地方进行比较。发热通常是健康问题的提示,所以不应该忽略这点。

你应该以相同的方式对待任何肿胀。在马匹的生命的任何阶段,马匹可能发展出肿块,比如在他们的腿上有可能有关节软瘤和夹板。很重要的一点是你最好对于这些永久的伤痕非常熟悉,因为这些伤痕在发生后不太可能产生问题。但是,多条腿的肿胀可能意味着消化系统问题、老化或是缺乏运动。一条腿的肿胀可能是由于受伤而且应该详细调查。找到马匹的筋键并记住它们感觉起来什么样子。任何肿胀和变厚应该马上去看兽医,因为让筋键受伤的马匹工作可能会有长期影响。

如果你按住斑点和肿块,马匹仿佛有痛感的话,最好在带他去看兽医前带它跑一圈,认真检查是不是因为马匹犯懒。

然后再检查有没有任何割伤、擦伤或是伤口。在潮湿的天气里检查马匹有没有沼地热。

 

Tip: Remember that a horse’s legs may swell or become warm after exercise.

提示:记住,在运动之后马匹的腿可能会肿胀或者变热。

 

每天30分钟创造一匹更好的马 <wbr>第一章 <wbr>8

 

8. Hooves

Check to ensure that the shoe is not loose and that the clenches – the nails attaching the shoe to the hoof wall – have not ‘risen’ (worked loose and moved too close to the sensitive laminae of the foot). The hooves should be evenly shaped with no cracks or missing chunks. The hind hoof should be slightly more upright than the fore. Take a look at the sole of the hoof: is the frog dry and clean? Does the foot smell clean and healthy? And indication of decay could be thrush and will need treating immediately.

8. 检查蹄子

检查蹄铁有没有松动以及连接的部分(指甲和蹄铁的连接处)没有抬起(是否松动以及移动到敏感的蹄叶)。蹄子应该形状左右对称而且没有裂缝和缺口。后蹄应该稍微比前蹄更加垂直。检查一下蹄子中间:蹄子中间是否干燥干净?脚步是否闻起来干净健康?而腐烂的出现可能是蹄叉腐疽而且必须马上治疗。

 

每天30分钟创造一匹更好的马 <wbr>第一章 <wbr>8

 

9. Weight

To the eye, your horse should be well covered but not fat, his rib just visible. Use a weigh-tape regularly; although not guaranteed to be accurate, it will provide an indication of whether he has put on weight.

9. 体重

通过肉眼观察,马匹应该肌肉覆盖良好但是不胖,且肋骨尽是可见。定期使用体重尺;尽管结果不能保证正确,它却能为马匹是否增重提供指示。

 

Tip: Use the back of your hand to double check heat – it is more sensitive.

提示:用你的手再次检查是否有发热——手更加敏感。

 

A Horse’s TPR

You may read or hear people talking about a horse’s TPR. This means temperature, pulse and respiration, and knowing all three will give a good indication of a horse’s general health. To establish your horse’s TPR, take all three readings at the same time of day for four days, when your horse is relaxed and settled in his stable or on the yard and before he expects a feed. Make a note of the readings.

马匹的TPR

你可能听说过或者读到过人们对于马匹TPR的谈论。这三个字母代表着温度(Temperature)、脉搏(Pulse)和呼吸(Respiration),而了解这三点可以大致了解一匹马的健康情况。要建立马匹的TPR,记录同一天的这三个读数,连续四天,马匹在测量时应该是放松的且在马房里或是在院子里,而且在他进食前。记录下这些读数。

 

10. Respiration

A fit horse’s respiration at rest is quite difficult to detect. Stand behind the horse and to one side and watch the flanks moving in and out as the horse breathes; each breath, in and out, is counted as one. Once again, time the horse for 30 seconds and then double that figure to establish the breaths per minute, which should be between 8 to 15 for a resting horse. Pay attention to coughs unusual respiratory noises as these can indicate many things from stress to respiratory airways obstruction (RAO, formerly known as COPD), and should not be ignored.

10. 呼吸检查

一匹状态良好的马匹在放松休息的时候是很难察觉到呼吸的异样的。站在马匹一侧的身后,然后在马匹呼吸时观察起伏的侧腹;一次起伏算作一次。测量30秒然后乘以二来测量每分钟的呼吸次数,一般来说一匹放松休息的马匹应该每分钟呼吸8到15次。需要注意的是咳嗽时不寻常的呼吸噪音,因为它们可能暗示着呼吸系统障碍(RAO,之前被认为是COPD),这种征兆不应该忽略。

 

每天30分钟创造一匹更好的马 <wbr>第一章 <wbr>8

 

11. Temperature

The simplest way to take your horse’s temperature is with a digital equine thermometer. A veterinary mercury thermometer is also available, but is more difficult to read and can therefore be inaccurate in inexperienced hands.

Lubricate the bulb of the thermometer you are using with petroleum jelly or saliva. If it is a mercury thermometer, shake it smartly to return the mercury towards the bulb. Stand behind and to one side of the horse and lift his tail towards you. Gently insert the thermometer in the horse’s anus. Allow it to enter at an angle and follow the wall of the rectum; this ensures you are not reading the temperature of a ball of droppings. Leave it in place for 30 seconds – and don’t let go! If the horse objects it is important to remove the thermometer immediately ensuring that it does not break. Clean and sterilize the thermometer before putting it away.

The normal temperature for a horse is about 38C, or 100.4F; if it goes above 39.5C, contact your vet.

11. 温度检查

检查马匹体温最简单的方式是使用数字马用体温计。兽医用水银体温计也可以,但是这种体温计更加难以使用,所以在没有经验的情况下可能会读数不准。

在使用温度计前,先用凡士林油或是口水润滑温度计。如果这是一只水印温度计,先把水银轻轻的甩回气泡中。站在马匹身后一侧,然后把尾巴像自己提起。轻轻的把温度计放入马匹的肛门。允许以一定角度进入,然后沿着直肠壁深入;这样可以保证你不是在测量马匹粪便的温度。把温度计放在直肠内30秒——然后不要拔出来!如果马匹反应强烈,应该马上把温度计移出马体,以免温度计断裂。把温度计收起来之前,应该清洁消毒温度计。

马匹的正常体温是38摄氏度,或者100.4华氏度;如果马的体温高于39.5摄氏度,请马上联系你的兽医。

 

每天30分钟创造一匹更好的马 <wbr>第一章 <wbr>8

 

12. Saddle Region

Run your hands over the area of the horse’s back where your saddle would be. Ensure that there are no areas of discomfort – he will react to your touch – or sores or cuts. If you are in any doubt, have your saddler come and check as soon as possible. Now run your hands over the rest of his body to check that there are no bald patches, sores or injuries. Watch out for rain scald and sweet itch.

12. 鞍区检查

把你的手放在你一般放鞍子的地方。确保这里没有任何地方会使马匹感到不舒服,如果按到这里马匹会有反应,而且鞍区也不应该有任何伤处。如果你有任何疑问,尽可能快的让你的鞍师过来检查。现在再用你的手抚摸马匹身体的其他地方,检查其它地方有没有任何秃毛或是伤处。当心Rain Scald和Sweet itch。

 

Trotting Up

In the early days of getting to know your horse, persuade a friend to trot him up so that you can watch his action from in front and behind.

His action should be easy and rhythmic. Note how the hind legs follow in the path of the fore legs so as to familiarize yourself with what is normal for your horse. Many successful competition horses dish (swing one leg out irregularly), but this is of no consequence: it is irregularities in stride that you are looking for.

小跑检查

在你刚开始了解你的马的时候,邀请一位朋友带他小跑一段,这样你就能够从前方和后方观察他。

他的动作应该是轻松地和有节奏的。注意观察他的后腿是否跟着前腿,这样你就能够使自己熟悉马匹的正常动作。许多成功的参赛马匹会换蹄(不规则的从一只蹄换到另外一只),但是这没有什么问题:不能公平的看待是不对的。

 

每天30分钟创造一匹更好的马 <wbr>第一章 <wbr>8

 

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