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马的控制和梳洗 第六章(下)

(2010-02-28 17:23:27)
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马术

杂谈

6.3 Using a Twitch to Subdue A Horse

使用Twitch来控制一匹马

 

A twitch is used to subdue a horse, especially during veterinary work such as treating wounds. Despite appearances, it is not the chain of the twitch that controls the horses so much as the horse’s own chemicals. When a twitch is applied, it causes endorphins (natural painkillers) to be released into the horse’s bloodstream, which calms the horse. A shoulder twitch works in a similar fashion. Twitching a horse by the ear is not recommended because it tends to make a horse “head shy”. Ear twitching is based on control by pain and may make a horse more excited rather that more relaxed. Practice applying a chain twitch when your horse is calm so you’ll be very familiar with the procedure during an emergency, when your horse might be excited.

Twitch是用来控制马的,尤其是在像治疗伤口这样的兽医工作中。尽管外观很象,Twitch 不是用它的链子来控制马匹,而是靠马匹自身产生的化学物质来控制的。当使用Twitch的时候,它会导致能够使马安静下来的内啡肽(自然镇痛剂)在马匹的血液中释放。在肩部使用的Twitch也是相似的原理。但是,在耳部使用Twitch是不推荐的,因为它会使马“Head Shy”(对手很敏感)。在耳部使用Twitch是基于疼痛的控制法,它会使马更加兴奋而不是放松。最好在马放松的时候练习使用Twitch,这样可以使你在马很兴奋的紧急情况下熟练使用。

 

6.3.1 Shoulder Twitch

肩部Twitch

 

A quick form of twitching that doesn’t require any equipment is the shoulder twitch. Grasp a fold of skin in the shoulder area and roll your hand forward.

在不需要任何设备的情况下,Twitch的快速方法是肩部Twitch。使用方法是抓起肩部的一把皮肤并向前滚动。

 

马的控制和梳洗 <wbr>第六章(下)

 

6.3.2 The Chain Twitch

链式Twitch

 

A conventional chain twitch is a chain loop fastened to a wooden handle.

一个普通的链式Twitch是一根用木头把手收拢的链子环。

 

马的控制和梳洗 <wbr>第六章(下)

 

6.3.3 Applying A Twitch

使用Twitch

 

1.To apply a nose twitch, stand on the near side with your horse haltered. Put the chain loop of the twitch around your left wrist like a bracelet. Grasp a generous handful of nose tissue with your left hand.

在使用鼻部Twitch的时候,使用者须站在上了龙头的马的内侧。把Twitch的链环像一个手镯一样套在你的左手手腕上。用你的左手抓起满满一把马的鼻部组织。

 

马的控制和梳洗 <wbr>第六章(下)

 

2.While you hold the nose tissue with your left hand, slip the chain loop off your wrist and onto the horse’s nose with your right hand. Begin tightening the chain around the horse’s nose with your right hand by twisting the handle of the twitch. (If the chain is attached in a customary fashion, twist clockwise. If the chain locks and buckles, you’ll have to twist counterclockwise.)

用你的左手拿住马的鼻部组织,用你的右手把链环从左手手腕移至马鼻子上。右手旋转twitch的把手来收紧套在马鼻子上的链环。(如果在正常的情况下,把把手顺时针旋转如果链子被固定住,你应该逆时针旋转。)

 

马的控制和梳洗 <wbr>第六章(下)

 

3.When the chain is tight enough to stay in place on the horse’s nose, hold the twitch and lead rope together with both hands.

当链子紧到能够保持在马鼻子上的时候,用双手同时拿住twitch和牵引索。

 

马的控制和梳洗 <wbr>第六章(下)

 

4.When you remove the chain, massage the horse’s nose to restore circulation and to prevent your horse from becoming nose shy.

当你移除链子时,应该按摩马鼻处使它恢复循环并防止你的马变得鼻部敏感。

 

马的控制和梳洗 <wbr>第六章(下)

 

6.4 Holding A Horse for the Farrier

为了蹄铁匠牵马

 

If you or your farrier prefer not to tie your horse when he is being shod or if there is no safe place to tie him such as at a horse show, you should learn how to hold a horse safely and effectively for farrier work.

如果你或是你的蹄铁匠喜欢在钉掌时不拴马或是没有安全的地方拴马,比如说一场马匹展示的时候,你应该学会怎样安全有效的为蹄铁匠牵马。

 

6.4.1 Holding A Horse Along A Wall

沿着墙牵马

 

If you are holding the horse along a wall or rail and the farrier is working on a front leg, stand on the same side as the farrier, next to your horse’s head, facing your horse but keeping one eye on your horse and one eye on the farrier.

如果你正沿着一堵墙或是围栏牵着马,而且蹄铁匠正在钉前蹄的时候,你需要站在蹄铁匠的同侧,挨着马头,面向马,但同时要注意你的马和蹄铁匠。

 

马的控制和梳洗 <wbr>第六章(下)

 

6.4.2 Holding A Horse Out In the Open

在开放的地方牵马

 

If you are holding the horse out in the open and the farrier is working on a front leg, stand on the opposite side of the horse. If the horse starts moving away from the farrier, you can touch the horse on the shoulder to keep him still. Keep the horse’s head up and still to make your farrier’s work easier.

如果你在一个开放的地方牵马而且蹄铁匠正在钉前蹄的时候,站在马的另外一边。如果马开始远离蹄铁匠,你可以触碰马的肩部使他保持静止。让马抬着头并且静止能使蹄铁匠的工作更加容易。

 

马的控制和梳洗 <wbr>第六章(下)

 

6.4.3 Keep An Eye On the Horse

始终注意马

 

When the farrier brings the horse’s leg forward on the hoof stand, don’t watch what your farrier is doing; keep an eye on your horse. Here the horse is nuzzling the farrier’s back, which covers his shirt in horse slobber and is often the prelude to a bite, not a kiss. Farriers have been seriously hurt by this lack of attention on the part of the handler.

当蹄铁匠把马的腿向前放到蹄撑上,不要光看着蹄铁匠在干吗;要注意你的马。图中的马正在用他的鼻子摩擦蹄铁匠的背,这样使得蹄铁匠的衬衫上都是马的口水而且这通常是马要咬你,而不是亲吻你的预兆。如果牵马人稍有大意,蹄铁匠会严重的受伤。

 

马的控制和梳洗 <wbr>第六章(下)

 

6.4.4 Keep the Horse’s Head Up

让马保持抬头

 

Make sure you keep the horse’s head up and away from the farrier’s back.

确保你的马抬着头而且要远离蹄铁匠的背。

 

马的控制和梳洗 <wbr>第六章(下)

 

6.4.5 Keep the Horse’s Head Forward

让马的头保持向前

 

When the farrier is working on a hind leg and the horse is along a rail or wall, keep the horse from turning around to look at what the farrier is doing. This only makes the farrier’s work harder, as he supports the shifting weight of the horse.

当蹄铁匠正在钉后蹄而马正沿着栏杆或是墙壁的时候,不要让马回头看蹄铁匠正在干什么。如果马匹回头的话,只能使蹄铁匠的工作变得更加困难,因为他要承担马移动时的重量。

 

马的控制和梳洗 <wbr>第六章(下)

 

6.4.6 Help the Horse to Balance

帮助马保持平衡

 

1.When the farrier brings the horse’s hind leg forward in the hoof stand, let the horse lower his head somewhat; this helps him to balance in this position.

当蹄铁匠把马的后蹄向前放在蹄撑上时,让你的马稍微低一点头;这样能帮助马在这个姿势下保持平衡。

 

马的控制和梳洗 <wbr>第六章(下)

 

2.When the farrier is getting ready to pick up a hind foot and you are holding the horse out in the open, the horse may try to move sideways.

当你在一个开放的区域牵着马而且蹄铁匠已经准备好抬起马的后蹄时,马或许会试着要向旁边移动。

 

马的控制和梳洗 <wbr>第六章(下)

 

3.Prevent the horse from moving sideways by having your hand ready to correct the horse if he begins to move.

要预防马向旁边移动,就要在他开始驿动的时候就准备用你的手去纠正他。

 

马的控制和梳洗 <wbr>第六章(下)

 

6.5 Picking Up A Horse’s Feet

抬起马蹄

 

Your daily hoof checks and most farrier work are usually performed in a horse that is tied. The horse must be standing balanced, not right up against a wall or post.

日常蹄子检查和大部分蹄铁匠的工作通常是马被拴住的情况下进行的。这时的马必须能够平衡的站着,而不能够靠着墙或是杆子。

 

6.5.1 Picking Up the Front Foot

抬起前蹄

 

1.To pick up a front foot, stand facing the opposite direction from the horse. Use a voice command such as “Foot”.

要抬起马的前蹄,面向马的反方向站好。发出声音指令,比如“Foot”。

 

马的控制和梳洗 <wbr>第六章(下)

 

2.As you pick up a front foot, use your index finger and thumb to pinch the tendon area above the fetlock to signal the horse to pick up his foot. Never try to lift up a horse’s foot. It is simply too hard and may teach a horse to resist you.

当你要抬起马的前蹄时,用你的食指和拇指去捏位于球节上方的筋腱来提示马抬起前蹄。绝对不要尝试去用自己的力气去抬起马蹄。这很困难而且会教会你的马反抗你。

 

How strongly you must pinch the tendon area will depend on the horse and his level of training. When first training a horse to pick up his feet, you might have to pinch harder. As the horse learns what you want, just a light touch will suffice. As the horse begins lifting his foot, let go of the tendon area and be ready to catch the foot when it is in the air.

你需要使用多少力气去捏筋腱根据马自身的情况和受训程度。如果是第一次训练马提起蹄子的话,你可能要更加用力的去捏。当马已经知道你要他干什么的时候,只要轻轻碰一下就可以了。当马开始提起蹄子时,松开筋腱同时准备抓住在空中的马蹄。

 

马的控制和梳洗 <wbr>第六章(下)

 

3.Grasp the front of the cannon with the palm of your hand.

用你的手掌抓住炮骨的前面。

 

马的控制和梳洗 <wbr>第六章(下)

 

4.Let your hand slide down to the hoof where you will support the leg as you clean the hoof.

把你的手向下滑向在清理蹄子的时候你需要支持的部位。

 

马的控制和梳洗 <wbr>第六章(下)

 

6.5.2 Picking Up the Rear Foot

提起后蹄

 

1.The same principles apply when you want to pick up a rear foot. Stand facing the opposite direction from the horse. The horse should not move or pick up his foot until you give him the cue.

同样的原理也可以应用在提起后蹄的时候。面向马的反方向站好。马不应该移动或是提起蹄子知道你给与指令。

 

马的控制和梳洗 <wbr>第六章(下)

 

2.Pinch the tendon above the fetlock.

捏住球节上方的筋腱。

 

马的控制和梳洗 <wbr>第六章(下)

 

3.Cradle the hoof in the hand closest to the horse.

用最靠近马的手抱住马蹄。

 

马的控制和梳洗 <wbr>第六章(下)

 

4.Bring the hoof back slightly and rest it on or against your leg. Keep the horse’s leg low while you work on it. This makes it most comfortable for the horse’s joints. If you practice hoof-handling skills in a systematic manner, you will end up with a cooperative, relaxed horse in any situation.

把马蹄稍微向后拉一点,然后把它放在或是靠在你的腿上。在你工作的时候把马蹄放低。这对于马的关节来说是最舒服的位置。如果你系统的练习马蹄控制技巧,你最终将会得到一匹在任何情况下都是合作放松的马。

 

马的控制和梳洗 <wbr>第六章(下)

 

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