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[转载]肖像照明

(2011-08-31 22:26:42)
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原文地址:肖像照明作者:摄影师陈恒艳
第二个光源- - -通常称为补光或填料,可大大提高闪光-肖像照明。It reduces the depth of shadows and softens the appearance of facial features, amongst other traits. 它降低了深度的影子和软化的出现,与其它性状的面部特征。Best of all, a fill light is easy to create: either a simple on-camera flash or a reflector is often sufficient. 最重要的是,一个填充光很容易创造:不是一个简单的闪光或反射器指向通常是足够了。However, a second light source can just as easily harm portraits. 然而,另一个光源可以伤害一样容易画肖像。This tutorial therefore focuses on how to control the location and intensity of the fill light in order to produce a desired portrait appearance.这篇教程因此着重于如何控制位置和强度的填充光为了产生令人满意的肖像的外观。

严厉的开销阳光肖像 头顶上的阳光与一个充满肖像的闪光
Harsh Overhead Sunlight严厉的开销阳光 Sunlight with a Fill Flash与一个充满阳光的闪光

Expertly crafted model used throughout is courtesy of熟练地使用在精心制作的模型是礼貌的Nikola Dechev日Dechev.
Example on right uses a fill light ratio of 1:2 (fill:sunlight) with an on-camera flash.正确使用例子比1:2的填充光(填:阳光)和一个摄影闪光灯。

If you haven't done so already, also take a look at the first part of this tutorial:如果你还没有这样做,也已经看一看这个指南的第一部分:
Introduction to Portrait Lighting: One Light Source介绍:一个肖像照明光源

OVERVIEW: TWO LIGHT SOURCES简介:两个光源

With a single light source, the most important considerations were its direction and apparent size. 单一光源,最重要的考虑因素是其方向和明显的大小。While these have the same effect with a second light, they aren't typically varied independent of the main light. 虽然这些有相同的效果与另一个光,他们不是典型的独立的主要不同光。Instead,相反,what's usually adjusted is the relative illumination of the secondary light compared to the main light.通常的调整是相对比较的二次光照明的主要的光。This controls how much the second light will "fill in" the shadows from the main light, and is why a secondary light is usually referred to as the fill light or fill flash:这第二个交通灯控制多少将“填写”的阴影从主要的光,就是为什么二次光通常被称为填充光充满快讯:

图:严厉开销阳光的肖像 图:在他的头顶上与一个充满阳光的闪光
Harsh Overhead Sunlight严厉的开销阳光 Sunlight with a Fill Flash与一个充满阳光的闪光

note: diagrams show the effect of a fill light, not necessarily its ideal position (more on this later)注:图表显示的填充光的效果,而不是它理想的位置(在这之后)

Perhaps the most common lighting scenario is to use an on-camera flash as the fill light, and sunlight as the main light. 也许最常见的照明场景是使用一个摄影闪光灯作为填充光,阳光会为主要的光。One could also use a secondary flash as a fill light in the studio, or could even use ambient light as the fill light and instead have the flash be the main light. 一个也可以使用一个次要的flash作为填充光在工作室,或甚至可以使用的填充光环境光,而是有闪光是主要的光。There are many possibilities. 有许多可能性。The key is knowing how to control the qualities of your fill light — regardless of what source is being used to create it.关键是知道如何控制你的填充光的品质——无论来源是被用来创造。

FILL LIGHT RATIOS

The terms "flash ratio" and "fill light ratio" describe* the relative amount of light from the main and secondary light sources, and effectively determine the overall contrast. 术语"闪光比率”以及“填充光比率”描述*量相对光从主要和次要的光源,并有效地确定整个的对比。For example, a value of 1:4 means that the fill light is a quarter the intensity of the main light. 例如,一个价值1:4意味着是一个季度的填充光强度的主要的光。More balanced ratios produce weaker shadows:更为均衡的比率产生较弱的阴影。

比较不同的填充光率
Choose a Fill Light Ratio:选择一个填充光率:
0:10:1 1:81:8 1:4选中 1:21:2 1:11:1
没有填充光 Fill Light Ratios:填充光率:

0:10:1

no fill light没有填充光

弱的填充光
1:8 - 1:21:8 - 1:2

weaker fill light较弱的填充光

填充光强
1:2 - 1:11:2 - 1:1

stronger fill light填充光强

Portraiture typically appears better with a flash ratio near 1:2. 一般出现得比较好写照附近闪光比1:2。This is strong enough to produce subtle shadows, but not so strong that it eliminates shadows entirely (causing the subject to be appear flat).这是强大到足以产生微妙的阴影,但不那么坚强,完全消除了阴影的标的物(导致出现平)。

However, one should always be wary of such seemingly strict rules in photography. 然而,一个人应该永远警惕看似严格的规章制度对摄影感兴趣。Less fill light is often used for dark, "low key" style portraits with well-defined shadows. 少是常用于填充光暗,“低调”风格的肖像有清楚的阴影。Similarly, more fill light might be necessary to render a brighter "high key" style, or just to provide a softer appearance (such as with a photograph of a baby). 同样,更多的可能是必要的填充光渲染一个更美好的“高的关键”的风格,或仅仅是为了提供一个软的外观(如有一个婴儿的照片)。When in doubt though, the 1:2 ratio is a safe starting point.有疑问的时候,虽然1:2比率是一个安全的起点。

*Note: These terms can be a little confusing, because a "fill light ratio" refers to the ratio between the secondary and primary sources of light, whereas the "flash ratio" refers to the ratio between the light from the flash and ambient light. *注:这些术语可以被容易引起混淆,因为一个“填充光率”之间的比率是指中小学光源,比例,而“闪烁”是指之间的比率光从闪光灯和周围的光。To make matters worse, sometimes the ratio is used to describe the ratio between total light (ambient+flash) and that from flash alone. 更糟糕的是,有时比是用来描述总光之间的比例(环境+闪光),从闪光独自一人。The numbers are sometimes also reversed, but the smaller number always refers to the fill light. 这些数字都是有时也逆转,但始终是指数量较少的填充光。We'll stick to the same definition throughout this tutorial, and since we'll only discuss scenarios where flash is weaker than other light sources, both terms are synonymous.我们将坚持以相同的定义在这个教程,因为我们将只讨论闪光是较弱的情况下比其他光源、两术语是同义词。

FILL LIGHT LOCATION

Unlike the main light source, the simplest location for a fill light is near the camera's line of sight ("on-axis"), but not so close that it appears in your image. 与主要的光源,最简单的地点附近的填充光相机的视线(“上”),但不是很近,它出现在你的图像。That way, any shadows cast by the fill light won't be visible from the camera's perspective, so it won't matter if these appear hard (due to a small source). 这样,任何以填充光投射出的阴影不可以从相机的视角,所以它不会事如果这些出现硬(由于一个小来源)。Perhaps the easiest way to achieve this type of fill light is to use a built-in or on-camera flash.也许最容易的方法去达到这个类型的填充光是使用一个内置或摄影闪光灯。

充满闪光摄影 内充满闪光
On-Axis Fill Light后轴的填充光
(shadows fall behind the subject)(阴影落后科目)
Off-Axis Fill Light离轴填充光
(shadows fall across the subject)(阴影)遇见主题

On the other hand, an on-axis fill light might be too restricting, and has a higher chance of producing direct reflections off the subject. 另一方面,一个上填充光可能太的限制,有更高的几率产生直接反映了这个话题。Many therefore use a fill light which strikes their subject from a direction which partially opposes the main light ("off-axis"). 许多因此使用填充光并袭击他们的专业方向部分反对主要光(“偏离”)。This targets main light shadows more efficiently — even if the fill light ratio remains unchanged — and is therefore also less likely to affect the overall exposure.这主要光阴影更有效的目标——即使填充光比不变,因此也不太会影响整个曝光。

离轴与后轴的填充光 离轴照明和填图上的灯
Choose选择
a Fill Light:一个填充光:
Off-Axis离轴
Hard努力
Off-Axis离轴
Soft
On-Axis报道
Hard努力

The square light represents the main light, and the octagonal disc represents the fill light.广场光代表着主要的光,八瓣代表填充光。
Above example uses a 1:1 fill ratio in order to improve visibility of fill shadows.以上的例子使用一个1:1填充比为了提高知名度填补阴影。

However, off-axis fill has its own disadvantages, with perhaps the worst being that one now has to worry about the appearance of shadows from the fill light. 然而,离轴填充有其不足之处,也许最坏的就是一个现在要担心的样子填充光暗处。If these aren't made sufficiently soft, they can cause unrealistic-looking double shadows. 如果这些还没足够软时,可能会导致unrealistic-looking双影。To counteract this, the further a fill light is placed from the camera's line of sight, the larger that light source needs to be. 以抵消这个,进一步的填充光从相机上放置的视线,大,光源需要。Move your mouse over the selections above to see this effect.把鼠标移动到选择以上看到这个效果。

Note the second shadow to the right of her nose with the "off-axis hard" fill lighting. 值得注意的是第二个阴影右边的鼻子长轴的“硬”填补照明。Also note how the on-axis fill light avoids producing double shadows even though it is a small (hard) source, but that it doesn't eliminate the shadows as thoroughly (even though it uses the same 1:1 fill light ratio).报道也指出如何避免生产双补光阴影,即使这是一个小(硬)来源,但这并不彻底消除阴影作为(尽管它使用同样的填充光比1:1)。

Also keep in mind that off-axis fill lighting requires a more complex lighting arrangement, and is therefore usually reserved for portraits in a studio. 也记住离轴照明需要填一个更复杂的灯光布局,因此通常只在肖像在演播室里。An off-axis fill light also technically isn't a true fill light, since it cannot lighten all shadows visible to the camera — just those from its direction. 一个离轴填充光也不是一个真正专门填充光,因为它不能减轻所有阴影可见的相机——只是那些从它的方向。For example, in the above portrait, the off-axis light is unable to reduce the shadows behind the hair on the upper right.例如,在上面的肖像,离轴抛物面反射式光无法减少后面的阴影右上角的头发。

FILL FLASH CAMERA SETTINGS

相机力闪光图标

Many only use flash when their scene has insufficient light for a hand-held photograph, but doing so misses out on perhaps an even more useful function: fill flash. 只有当他们许多用闪光美景曾为手持拍摄光线不足,但是做起来就错过在也许是更有用的功能:充满闪光。Although it might seem counter-intuitive, portrait flash is perhaps most useful when there is plenty of sunlight. 虽然它似乎有悖常理的,也许是最有用的肖像闪光充足的阳光。Fortunately, most cameras default to using their flash as a fill flash when the subject is well-lit* — but only if you force the flash to fire.幸运的是,大多数相机默认使用他们作为一个充满闪光灯闪光的主题是光线充足的* -但只有如果你迫使闪光开火。

Cameras usually default to a flash ratio near 1:1, but this can be substantially off because it relies on your相机默认一闪通常比接近1:1,但这可能会掉,因为它有赖于你的camera's metering system相机的计量系统.To fine-tune this ratio, you'll want to apply这一比率微调,您会想要申请flash exposure compensation (FEC)闪光曝光补偿(FEC).This modifies the amount of flash that your camera would otherwise emit, while leaving the other exposure settings unchanged.这个修改量的闪光,否则我们就会发出你的相机曝光设置,其他保留不变。

*Note: Well-lit means that your camera doesn't deem*注:照明良好意味着你的照相机不相信camera shake相机摇晃to be a threat, which usually translates into having an exposure time that is shorter than about 1/60 of a second.是一个威胁,它通常有一个转化为曝光时间较短,1/60秒。

OTHER CONSIDERATIONS

Other important fill light techniques and considerations include:其他重要的填充光技术和考量包括:

Natural Fill Lighting. 自然填补照明。Thus far we've focused on scenarios where natural light is the main light source, and the camera's flash is used as the fill light. 到目前为止我们已经关注情况下自然光线是主要的光源,相机的闪光灯作为填充光。However, these roles could easily be reversed. 然而,这些角色比较容易扭转。The source of natural light usually needs to be soft though, such as from an overcast day or a subject in the shade. 自然的光的来源通常需要被软虽然,比如一个阴暗的一天或一个主题在阴凉处。One also typically needs an off-camera or bounced flash in order for this to produce optimal results (see the discussion about lighting direction in the一个人也通常需要一个内,或是被闪光为了让这个产生最佳效果(见讨论光源的方向tutorial on portrait lighting教程在肖像照明).

反射

Reflectors. 少数厂家之一。These make a single light source illuminate a subject from a second direction. 这些构成单一光源照亮一个学科从另一个方向。The reflection is dimmer than the main light, so reflectors are most commonly used as a fill light. 反射是调光比主体的反射光线,所以是最常用作为填充光。An added benefit is that this light can easily have the same一个额外的好处是,这个光可以轻易的一样white balance白平衡as the main light, if desired. 作为主要的光,如果想要的。However, a disadvantage is that reflectors often don't provide enough light (even for a fill light). 然而,一个不利因素是反射常常不提供足够的光(甚至为一个填充光)。This is highly dependent on the reflectivity of the material, in addition to its distance from the subject. 这是个高度依赖的反射率的物质,除了距离这个主题。To increase illumination, reflectors are therefore usually placed as close to the subject as possible — often just outside the image frame.增加反射照明,因此通常放在尽可能靠近主题——通常在图像帧。

Subject-Background Separation. Subject-Background分离。With natural light portraits, a fill flash can help create additional subject-background separation, since the flash is likely to provide a lot more illumination to the (closer) subject than the (further) background. 画像与自然光、盛闪光可以帮助创造额外subject-background分离,因为闪光灯是可能提供更多的光照走近)主体的比(进一步)背景。You can control the strength of this effect by (i) moving closer to your subject and/or (ii) moving your subject further from the background.你可以控制这个效果的力量(我)接近你的主题和/或(2)移动你的主题再背景。

高对比度低环境光肖像

low ambient light低环境光

Ambient Light. 周围的光。All scenes have some amount of fill light — regardless of whether this has been added intentionally. 所有的场景有一定的填充光——无论这个已经加入了故意。Light from the main source bounces off walls and other objects, which collectively acts as a fill light. 光从反弹的主要来源,墙壁和其它物体的集体行为作为一种填充光。Shadows are therefore never fully black, and the actual amount of fill light is usually a little higher than that provided by your fill flash. 因此他从未完全黑色阴影,实际耗用的填充光通常是略高于饱所提供的闪光。However, studio lighting can still achieve very high contrast.然而,工作室灯光仍能取得很高的对比。

SUMMARY & FURTHER READING

Overall, the most important fill light choices are:总的来说,最重要的填充光的选择是:

  • Location:地点:whether to place the fill near your camera's line of sight (on-axis), or off to the side (off-axis). 是否将充满在你的相机的视线(上),或放置到一边(离轴)。On-axis fill is easier since one doesn't have to worry about how shadows appear, but off-axis fill gives more flexibility with placement and control over the appearance of reflections.因为一个补是容易后轴不必担心,但离轴阴影看起来如何填补了更灵活的位置和控制反射的样子。
  • Fill Ratio:填充率:the relative strength of your fill light, as compared to the main light. 相对强度的填充光,比较轻便为主。A good starting point is typically one part fill light for every two parts main light (denoted as a 1:2 ratio), but this will also depend on where your fill light has been located.一个好的起��是典型的每一部分的填充光两部分主要光(1:2比率来作为,但这个也将取决于已经在你的填充光所在地。

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