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F-22试飞员大卫·尼尔森中校访谈录[上]

(2009-12-31 14:34:55)
标签:

f-22

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分类: 航空/军事

日期: 2006-02-22 10:34:57 AM

F-22试飞员大卫·尼尔森中校访谈录[上]

转贴DSZH论坛,译者【无定河边骨】
Lt. Col. David Nelson
Interview by Eric Hehs
This interview appeared in the January 1999 issue of Code One Magazine.

大卫·尼尔森中校
采访记者:埃里克·赫斯
这篇采访文章发表于1999年1月的《Code One》杂志

The universe of flight testing is divided into two distinct worlds, developmental flight test and operational flight test. In the US Air Force, developmental test pilots tend to be graduates of USAF Test Pilot School at Edwards AFB, California. Operational test pilots tend to be experienced weapon instructors, graduates of USAF Weapons School at Nellis AFB, Nevada. Only a half dozen so current USAF pilots have been through both programs. Since graduates from either school are allowed to wear their Test Pilot School or Weapon School patches throughout their flying careers, the rare pilot who has graduated from both schools is called a "two-patcher."

试飞领域分为两个截然不同的世界,研究试飞和战斗试飞。在美国空军,研究试飞的飞行员大都毕业于加利福尼亚州爱德华兹空军基地的美国空军试飞员学校。战斗试飞员大多是经验丰富的武器教官,来自内华达州内尔尼斯空军基地的美国空军武器学校。当前美国空军的飞行员里只有6人完成了这两个学校的训练。由于从二者之中任何一个学校毕业就可以在其整个飞行生涯里佩带试飞员学校或是武器学校的臂章,因此这些从两个学校都毕业了的杰出飞行员被称之为"双臂章"。
美国空军武器学校的臂章:

F-22试飞员大卫·尼尔森中校访谈录[上]

美国空军试飞员学校的臂章:

F-22试飞员大卫·尼尔森中校访谈录[上]

Aircraft type further narrows today's small field of two-patchers. Just two come from the F-15 community. As one of the two, Lt. Col. Dave Nelson presented a logical target when the Air Force went hunting for an operational test pilot to send to the F-22 Combined Test Force at Edwards, the site where the F-22 is going through developmental flight testing. Logical, indeed. Lt. Col. Mike Bloomfield, the other two-patcher from the F-15 community, is a space shuttle astronaut for NASA. When the offer for the flight test job at Edwards came last spring, Nelson gladly gave up his desk job at the Pentagon to fly the Air Force's most advanced fighter.

飞机的类型进一步将'双臂章'局限在了今天这样一个小的范围里。只有两个人来自F-15的家族。作为这两个人当中的一个,大卫·尼尔森中校,在空军开始寻找一个试飞员派往爱德华兹空军基地的F-22综合测试大队时,成为理所当然的人选,在爱德华兹空军基地,F-22就要完成了它研究阶段的飞行测试。按道理来说,也真的只有他了。另一个出身于F-15家族的双臂章,麦克·布拉姆菲尔德,现在是太空总署的宇航员。当去年春天到爱德华兹基地从事试飞这样的一个工作摆在面前时,尼尔森高兴地放弃了他在五角大楼的文案工作,选择去飞空军最为先进的战斗机。
F-22试飞员大卫·尼尔森中校访谈录[上]

Nelson began his fighter career as a distinguished graduate from undergraduate pilot training. He was first assigned to fly F-15s as a first lieutenant at Holloman AFB, New Mexico, in 1981. There, he was qualified in all squadron missions, upgraded to instructor pilot, and performed as a Red Flag mission commander. He was later appointed chief of squadron weapons and tactics while still a first lieutenant. During his second fighter assignment in 1986, he attended Fighter Weapons School. He continued flying F-15s in the Tactical Air Command (now Air Combat Command) until 1990 at which time he attended Test Pilot School at Edwards. His other titles include Electronic Combat Pilot, F-15 RTU Instructor Pilot, Wing Electronic Combat Manager, Wing Simulator Training Officer, Program Manager for Weapon System uation Program, Chief of WSEP Investigative Firings, Wing Chief of uation, Chief of Developmental Flight Test, and Operations Officer.

尼尔森以在飞行员毕业训练中名列前茅的成绩开始了他的飞行生涯。1981年在新墨西哥州的霍罗门空军基地,他是第一个以中尉身份被任命为F-15飞行员的人。在那里,他通过了所有中队任务的考核,升级成为飞行员教官,并担任'红旗'演习任务的指挥官。他后来被指定为中队武器与战术的权威,而这时他依然还只是一个中尉。在1986年他的第二次战斗机部署期间,他进入了战斗机武器学校。此后他继续在战术空军司令部(现在的空战司令部)飞F-15直到1990年他进入爱德华兹空军基地的试飞员学校。他的其它职称还包括电子战飞行员,F-15替补人员训练部队教练飞行员,联队电子战主管,联队模拟训练军官,武器系统改进项目的项目主任,武器系统改进项目精细研究的主管,联队教育主任,定型试飞主管,以及作战主官。

Nelson has actively flown in support of test and uation programs since 1987, except for the two years he spent at the Pentagon on the Air Staff as Deputy Chief, Advanced Technology Division, Air Force Special Programs Directorate. He has flown and influenced the Air Force's most advanced operational and developmental air-to-air systems, including systems of special interest to the Air Force Chief of Staff and to the commander of Air Combat Command. He was USAF project pilot for the Integrated Control and Avionics for Air Superiority program and for the Full Envelope Agility Simulator Trials program. He has fired fifteen live air-to-air missiles in support of test and uation projects, downing six QF-100 drones and one QF-106. He has published fourteen articles on air-to-air weapons and tactics that have been distributed across USAF.

除了两年在五角大楼任职的时间,尼尔森从1987年开始就已经积极参与到试飞和评估项目的支持工作中。他飞过空军大多数先进的现役及发展中的空对空系统,并作出了自己的贡献,其中包括了空军参谋长和空战司令部司令员特别感兴趣的系统。他是美国空军空中优势集成控制与航空电子项目及全包线敏捷性模拟试验项目的项目飞行员。他在配合试飞与评估的项目中发射过了15枚空空导弹的实弹,击落和6架QF-100和一架QF-106靶机。他发表了14篇有关空对空武器和战术的文章,并在美国空军中分发。

Nelson has over 2,200 hours in the F-15, 300 hours in the F-16, 300 hours in the T-38, and flight time in a variety of other fighters, including the F-18, Mirage 2000, F-4, and F-86. Code One editor Eric Hehs visited Nelson at Edwards the week after Nelson piloted the F-22 for his eighth time. The flight took the F-22 past the 183-hour mark set by Congress and the Department of Defense as a prerequisite for releasing funds for the first six production F-22s. The day of the interview, one of the two F-22s at Edwards set off on the eighty-ninth F-22 flight and added to the 190 hours already accumulated.

尼尔森的飞行时数在F-15上有超过2,200个小时,在F-16有300个小时,在T-38上有300个小时,还有在其它一些飞机上的飞行时数,包括F-18,幻影2000,F-4,还有F-86。Code One杂志的编辑埃里克·赫斯于尼尔森完成其第八次F-22飞行的那一周在爱德华兹空军基地采访了尼尔森。此次飞行让F-22通过了由国会设定的183个飞行小时的门槛,只有通过这个门槛国会才同意批准首批6架生产型F-22的预算资金。在采访的当天,爱德华兹空军基地两架F-22中的一架开始了F-22的第89次飞行并将累积的飞行时数增加到了190个小时。

● Given the rarity of test pilots with developmental and operational test experience in the F-15, the aircraft the F-22 is to replace, were you the only choice for this job?

● F-22将要取代F-15,作为同时具有F-15研发与作战试飞经验的稀有试飞员,你是这项工作的唯一选择么?

I don't know if only one right person can ever exist for any job. I heard that the test for indispensability is to put your finger in a glass of water. If the hole stays there when you pull out your finger, you are indispensable. That's never happened to me. I prefer to think that I am a good choice for the job.

我不是知道是否存在适合某种工作的唯一人选这样的人。我听说过这样一个测试,把你的手指放入一杯水里,如果你把手指拿开后水里留下了手指形成的孔洞,那你就是一个不可缺少的人选。这种事从来没有发生在我的身上。我更愿意认为我是这项工作一个好的人选。

Though I may not be the most current test pilot, either operational or developmental, I am a known quantity to both communities. A lot of pilots could have looked at the jet from an operational perspective, but they might not be trained to fly the developmental test missions the program is focused on now. A lot of pilots are qualified to fly developmental test, but they might not have the Weapons School credential that allows Air Combat Command to trust their opinions more easily.

尽管我可能不是最前沿的试飞员,也不是最前沿的作战人员和研发人员,但我了解这两个圈子里的大量事情。许多飞行员都会从作战的角度来看待飞机,但他们可能无法通过训练来执行现在项目所关注的研发试飞任务。也有许多飞行员可以飞研发试飞,但他们可能没有武器学校的文凭来使空战司令部更轻松地认可他们的选择。

I am here to fly developmental test and to look at the F-22 from an operational perspective. My specific charter is to ask if the aircraft makes a good fighter. Everyone who flies the F-22 at the Combined Test Force has been an operational USAF fighter pilot. Each of the six pilots has thousands of hours of fighter time. When any of us is asked to uate the airplane for military utility, we know what we are doing. We know what to look for when flying tracking tasks and when flying in formation. We all know what characteristics make a good fighter. My job is to convey those findings to AFOTEC (Air Force Operational and Test Command) and to the ultimate customer, Air Combat Command.

我在这里从事研发试飞工作并从作战的角度看待F-22。我的专职就是要让这架飞机成为一架好的战机。任何一个在综合测试大队飞F-22的人曾经都是一名美国空军的战斗机飞机员。六名试飞员里的每一位都有数千小时的战斗机飞行时数。当我们中的任何一个人被要求就这架飞机的军事用途加以评估时,我们清楚我们在做什么。我们了解在按任务要求飞行和组成编队飞行时都要注意些什么。我们都知道一架好的战斗机要具备什么性能。我的工作就是把这些发现转达给AFOTEC(空军作战及试验中心)和飞机的最终用户,空战司令部。

● What are you doing to stay tactically current in the F-15?

● 你们是如何用F-15来保持与更新战术水平的?

To catch up with the latest operational test issues, I flew with the 422nd Operational Test Unit at Nellis after checking out in the F-15 at Edwards. I am going to the next Weapons School refresher course to get acquainted with the latest tactics in air combat. I also stay current in air combat maneuvering here at Edwards.

为了掌握最新的战斗试飞课题,在爱德华兹空军基地通过F-15的考核后我与第422作战试飞部队在内尔尼斯共同飞行。我将重新回到武器学校进修有关最新的空战战术。我也会在爱德华兹空军基地练习空战机动。

● Since most of the flying at this stage of the F-22 program concerns developmental tests, why does the F-22 CTF need an operational test pilot?

● 既然F-22项目现阶段最为关注的内容是研发试飞,为什么F-22综合测试大队会需要战斗试飞员呢?

Historically, we have split programs into developmental test and operational test as two distinct events. The approach limited the communication between the developmental test community and the operational test community. The two communities have different ideas. AFOTEC and the F-22 SPO are attempting to make the combined operational test and uation team more effective and more efficient by starting operational testing early. We want an operational look and an operational buy-in to what developmental test is doing so that, when they hand that airplane to us in 2002 for dedicated OT [operational test], we will experience no surprises.

从历史过程上来说,我们可以把项目分成研发试飞和战斗试飞两个不同的事件。这样做是因为受到研发试飞这个圈子与战斗试飞这个圈子之间沟通交流上的限制。这两个圈子里的人有不同的看法。空军作战及试验中心和F-22专项办公室正在尝试通过尽早地开始战斗试飞来让综合作战测试与评估小组的工作更有效率。对于研发试飞的进展我们要从作战角度加以看待和加以接受,这样到2002年他们将飞机交给我们进行专门的战斗试飞时,我们就不会措手不及了。

We are also involved in some of the logistics uations, too. We split our operational assessment into two categories effectiveness and suitability. While I am concentrating on effectiveness, Air Combat Command has people here addressing suitability. Suitability has a lot to do with maintenance and logistics; it means we can deploy the airplane with minimal support and do our job at a deployed location. For example, having to change tires after every flight would not be suitable even though the airplane is effective when airborne. Stealth has major implications for both suitability and effectiveness. We don't want to spend a lot of time maintaining low-observable treatments. By the same token, these treatments have to work once airborne.

我们还参与到一部分后勤保障的评估工作中。我们将作战物资分成作战威力和适用性两大类。当我集中精力于作战威力这个方面的同时,空战司令部会派人关注适用性问题。适用性涉及维护和后勤的大量内容;它意味着我们可以用最少的支援力量部署这种飞机然后在部署地点完成我们的任务。举个例子,尽管飞机降下来以后自身没有什么问题,但每次飞行之后就必需更换轮胎就是一种适用性问题。隐身问题就是一个大量牵扯到适用性和作战威力的问题。我们不愿意花大量的时间来从事隐形的养护工作。出于同样的原因,这种维护工作每次降落后就要进行一次。

● Is anything learned from the development of the F-15 being used here?

● 这次试飞当中用到了F-15研发过程当中的什么经验教训了没有?

The Air Force learned a lot from developing the F-15 and the F-16. Compared with the F-15 test program, the F-22 program is more ambitious. We have fewer flying hours to accomplish the same amount of work or more work. We have come a long way in modeling and simulation. We can figure out more things without flying the airplane. Computer capacity alone has given us a real advantage.

空军在研发F-15和F-16的过程当中学到了很多东西。与F-15的试飞项目相比较,F-22的项目更为宏大。相对于相同的试飞内容甚至是更多的试飞内容,我们完成任务所用的飞行时数更少了。我们通过建立模型和模拟做了很多工作。我们可以不经过驾机飞行就计算出很多的东西。计算机的独一无二的本领帮了我们大忙。

We are more fiscally constrained, which forces us to work smarter and more efficiently. Boeing has a flying testbed with a full avionics suite to help us. Lockheed Martin is building an air combat simulator to expose pilots to a wartime environment without having to fly the airplane. We have fewer flying hours and fewer planes at an equivalent point in the development cycle, but we are further along because we have more experience and better tools.

与F-15相比我们资金上的限制更大了,这迫使我们更为精心和有效地工作。波音公司有一套配有完整航空电子配件的飞行试验台在帮助我们。洛克希德·马丁公司开发了一个空战模拟器,让飞行员不必驾机升空就可以进入一个战时的环境。在研发周期相同的阶段,我们的飞行时数和使用的飞机都要少得多,但我们的研究要更为深入,因为我们更有经验了,工具也更强大了。

● How did you prepare for your first flight?

● 你是如何准备你的第一次飞行的呢?

The first thing I had to do, coming from a desk job, was to check out in the F-15. That took a month. After that, Brian O'Connor from Boeing gave me a ground academics course that prepared me to fly as a chase pilot for the F-22. I flew chase for three months and then took a full-blown course in F-22 academics from Steve Reeves, James Mynar, and Earle Holtzendorf, all from Boeing. The course went into great detail about every system on the airplane the hydraulic system, the fuel system, the environmental control system, the cockpit you name it. After the academics, I spent time in the F-22 simulators in Fort Worth with Jon Beesley, Jeff Harris, and the gang and in Marietta with Bret Luedke, John Dobbs, Cam Catts, and Ghost Johnson. I came back to Edwards where Paul Metz took me through an engine run. That was valuable. The airplane is very simple to start. The pilot turns on the battery and auxiliary power unit, puts the throttles in idle, and he's done. The F-15 and F-16 are also fairly simple to start, but the F-22 beats both of them. It also starts faster. We need to demonstrate that sometime. After parking at the end of the runway, I can take off in a minute and a half with full alignments on both of my inertial navigation systems. This is very fast, probably twice as fast as an F-15.

我从办公桌上走开后要做的第一件事,就是在F-15上通过考核。这大概花了一个月的时间。在这之后,波音公司的布莱恩·欧康纳给我上了一门地面上的理论课,让我做好成为一名飞F-22的护航飞行员的准备。我飞了三个月的护航任务,然后由史蒂夫·里夫斯,詹姆斯·麦纳,还有艾乐·霍特佐朵夫教我全面展示F-22性能的理论课,他们都来自波音公司。这些课程对你们所说的飞机的液压,油料,环境控制,还有座舱等各个系统的介绍非常深入。理论课之后,在沃斯堡基地我和乔恩·比斯尼,杰夫·哈里斯,还有其它一群人在模拟器上渡过和了一段时间,后来在玛丽埃塔基地和布雷特·路德克,约翰·多伯斯,克姆·克特斯,还有区斯特·约翰逊也是这样。在鲍尔·米特兹带我了解发动机工作过程之后我回到了爱德华兹基地。所有这一切的意义重大。这架飞机很容易启动。飞行员接通电池和辅助动力部件,将油门推到怠速位置,他的启动工作就完成了。F-15和F-16同样也容易启动,但F-22比它们还容易。而且它还要快得多。找个时间我们需要进行一下演示。在跑道头的位置上停好之后,我可以在一分钟内起飞并在半分钟内完全接通两套惯性导航系统。这是相当快的了,可能要比F-15快两倍。

F-22试飞员大卫·尼尔森中校访谈录[上]

● Were you nervous on your first F-22 flight?

● 你第一次飞F-22紧张么?

I wasn't nervous. I was a little anxious, but not about safety. And I wasn't afraid that I couldn't get the airplane off the ground, fly it successfully, or land it. I was more anxious about getting through the test points without screwing up. A test pilot has an audience of thirty people on the ground monitoring his every move in the air. If he sneezes, they hear it. I just wanted to do the best I could.

我不紧张。我有一点担心,但不是担心安全问题。我从不担心我无法把飞机从地面上飞起来,在天上顺利飞行,以及让它安全着陆。我担心的是无法圆满完成试飞内容。作为一名试飞员地面上有30个观众在监视着他在天上的一举一动。如果他打个喷嚏,他们就会听到。我只想发挥出我的最好水平。

● How was the first flight?

● 第一次飞的怎么样?

The F-22 flew much as I expected it to fly like a fighter plane. A real nice fighter plane. I flew formation on the wing of the F-16 chase. The plane is incredibly easy to land smoothly. My first flight lasted an hour and a half. Because of an instrumentation failure, the flight was more or less a familiarization flight for me. My second flight was more interesting. I flew to Mach 1.2, refueled from a tanker, and performed a few flutter tests. I've flown six more times since then. My longest flight was 3.6 hours. Pilots are so busy during a test mission that the time goes by real fast.

F-22的表现与我所期盼着去飞的战斗机几乎别无二致。它真是一架好战斗机。我在F-16的护航位置编队飞行。让这架飞机平稳着陆简单得令人无法相信。我的第一次飞行持续了一个半小时。因为一个仪表出了故障,这次飞行对我来说多少显得更为熟悉。我的第二次飞行更为有趣。我飞到了1.2马赫,从一架加油机那里加了油,并且进行了一些颤振试验。从那以后我又飞了6次。我最长的飞行记录是3.6个小时。在一次试飞任务中飞行员是很忙碌的,时间总是过得飞快。

● What are your initial impressions of the F-22?

● 你对F-22的初始印象如何?

It's premature to make a comprehensive uation of how the F-22 will eventually perform since only a portion of its envelope has been cleared so far. As with any new aircraft, the speed and g limits of the F-22 will gradually increase as flight testing verifies the engineering predictions for the airplane. We'll have a better idea of how the F-22 will do in its mission once its entire envelope is cleared. So far, I think all the pilots agree that the airplane flies great.

由于当前仅仅还只是了解了一部分F-22的飞行包线,要对F-22的整体性能如何做一个全面的评价还为时尚早。和任何一架新飞机一样,F-22的速度和G值极限会在试飞当中逐步加以提升以验证工程学对这架飞机的预言。一旦掌握了F-22整个飞行包线之后,我们就会对它在任务过程中将会如何出色得出一个更全面的看法。到目前为止,我认为所有的试飞员都认同这架飞机飞得相当不错。

Every pilot will like the engines. They produce a lot of thrust, even in military power. I was in military power the first time I went through Mach 1. In burner, the airplane reached Mach 1.2 real fast. It has very good acceleration better than anything I've seen. Though I wasn't plastered against the seat, I experienced the nice acceleration that comes from getting faster really quick. The movement of the airspeed indicator is most impressive. The Mach number clicks up real fast even above Mach 1.0. In the F-15, pilots have to hit afterburner and stay there to go supersonic.

每个试飞员都会喜欢它的发动机。即便是在军用推力状态下,它们也能产生大量的推力。我在军用推力状态下第一次飞过了1马赫。在加力状态下,飞机加速到1.2马赫的过程真的很快。这一加速性能比我以前见过的所有发动机都更为出色。尽管我没有被压在座椅上,但我还是感觉到了来自快速加速过程中的加速度。空速指示器的变化给人以最为深刻的印象。即便在超出1马赫之后马赫数的跳动还是很快。在F-15上,飞行员要保持超音速飞行就不得不打开加力。

Air refueling impressed me. I experienced a very small amount of play with the stick in neutral. That amount of play is all I need to stay in position below a tanker. On a smooth day, I never have to push the stick beyond the breakout forces. After I get in position behind a tanker in the F-15, I work a while to get the engines set just right before I can take my hand off the throttles. Even then, the F-15's thrust still has to be corrected occasionally. Once at a proper power setting in the F-22, I can take my left hand off throttle and the jet will stay in the right place. I'm not the only one who has noticed this. Flying chase, I see other pilots with their left arm up on the canopy rail because they don't have to mess with the power setting. I can trim the airplane almost to the point that I can take my right hand off the stick. I haven't pursued hands-off refueling further. The refueling boomers get a little nervous when they see both of the pilot's arms up on the canopy rail. I did some tracking tasks recently and the F-22 had excellent performance. We got behind an F-16 and had him do two-g loaded rolls. I kept the pipper right on him. It was great.

空中加油给我的印象也很深刻。在驾驶杆居中的情况下我感受到了非常小的操作量。这一操作量正是我要在加油机下方保持位置所需要的。在气流平稳的日子里,我从来不需要用大力气来移动驾驶杆。在F-15上我进入加油机后方之后,在把手从油门上移开之前我要花一定的时间把发动机调整到合适的状态。即使是这样,F-15的油门还是需要频繁加以校正。在F-22上一旦设定好发动机,我就可以把我的左手从油门上拿开了,飞机会保持在正确的位置。我不是唯一一个注意到这个现象的人。在飞护航任务时,我看见其它试飞员把左手举到座舱盖边缘的上方,因为他们不必参与到发动机的设定中。我可以把飞机配平到合适的状态然后让我的右手松开驾驶杆。我不再手动参与到此后加油过程。加油机操作手们在看到试飞员的两支手臂都悬在座舱盖边缘的上方时有点紧张。最近我执行了一些追击任务,F-22有出色的表现。我们占据了F-16的后方并迫使他作出了两个G的横滚。我始终用瞄准环套住了他。这真是太棒了。

F-22试飞员大卫·尼尔森中校访谈录[上]



 

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