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(2010-01-03 10:31:17)


分类: 译文
The yidams are symbolic manifestations and embodiments of Sambhogakaya. Even as dynamic creative energies of Enlightened consciousness, they are still to be understood as symbols in the sense that they exist as a means of transmission and communication at the highest levels of awareness. Evans-Wents calls them "tutelary deities." Communication with them is not given to people automatically, but is the rare result of intensive practice in the discipline of the path. This confirms Buddhism's cardinal principle that liberation and enlightenment are to be earned and are not given. The different forms of yidam associated with the practices of visualization and the transformation of energies are indeed a psychological device in the work of medition. The yidams symbolize and actually represent the character, qualities, attributes, and powers of Enlightened Beings. As such, they are approached by the practicing initiate as representation of the highest reality that is in himself and toward which he may strive. They are to be perceived neither as the Supreme Deity nor as supernatural agents. To the practicing initiate, their significance is as a reminder of his own undeveloped potentialities.
本尊是法身现象象征性的具体化和精神的肉体化。即使是作为觉悟动态的、创造性的能量 ,他们仍然被理解成觉悟在最高层次上的传播和交流手段这样一些符号。埃文斯·文兹把他们称为“监护神”。与他们的交流不会自动给人们,而是在求佛道上刻苦精修的罕见结果。这正应了佛教最重要的原理:解脱和觉悟是努力挣得的,而不是给予的。与清楚呈现在新的实践想联系的各种形式的本尊和能量转换的确是坐禅时的一种心理方法。本尊象征着、实际上代表了佛的特性、品质、属性和力量。同样,本尊是行者内心最高真实的代表和可以努力接近的。应该感知到本尊既不是至高的神,也不是超自然的中介。在修习密法时,本尊的意义是作为自身未开发潜质的提示。
The guardian deities are regarded as secondary manifestations of Sambhogakaya. They are often described as emanations of Bodhisattvas.
As for dakinis, who play  such a prominent role in the spiritual imagery of the Life, the term means literally "she who moves through the space." Among the many interpretations of this term, the one that is perhaps most germane to our text is "she who enjoys the expanse of Emptiness - that is, who has attained higher illumination. In a certain sense, the dakinis (and the dakas, their male counterparts) correspond to yidams in that they are manifestations of the highest state of Enlightenment within  both man and the universe. But the sense of their beauty or wrathfulness strongly suggests that an element of emotional relationship is fundamental. As one observer has put it ,"The lama is the Buddha outside oneself; the yidam is the Buddha within oneself; the dakinis are the Buddha as beloved."
On the trans-cosmic scale of realization, these beings of the third category are entrusted with the task of preserving the vast treasure of the esoteric teachings. On anothetr scale, with the dakas and dakinis, they assist the yogin in fulfilling his highest spiritual aims, and thus symbolize the counter-cosmic movement in the whole of the universe. Here, the Vajrayana surpasses the Mahayana's profound concept of the ultimate unity of samsara and nirvana by positing as inherent in the structure of the universe forces which actually assist man in the work of harmonizing and unifying these two opposite movenments within the realm of human consciousness.
The key to achievement lies in one simple and singular act of spontaneous awakening. This is already a state of awareness not distinguishable from the ultimate nature of Enlightenment, yet it is also the rapid path of immediate transformation, and thus gives scope for limitless possibilities of experience and inexhaustible skillful methods. The inward transformation at diverse levels of consciousness ultimately incorporates all the senses and functions of man, including reactions to pleasant or unpleasant circumstances as well as all actions arising from the physical organism -"body, speech, and mind." Whatever the method of spiritual practice, one essentially strives toward developing his inborn concern for universal release from suffering, ever extending the scope of love and compassion yet remaining aware of the true nature behind all apparent realities, which sees the hidden unity of all forms and its inherent emptiness. In so doing, one establishes a firm ground of inner experience so that even emotions of despair,fear,lust, and anger may be turned into the most beneficial and ecstatic experiences of Reality.
成功的关键在于自发觉悟这一简单的行动。这是已经觉悟的状态,不易和大澈大悟最后的状态相区别。而这也是直接转变的快速通道,因此为无限可能的经验和无尽的技巧留下余地。这种内在的、在不同觉悟水平上的转变最终要和人的所有意识和器官活动联合起来,包括对愉悦和不愉悦环境的反应以及从人的自然有机体产生的一切活动:“ 身、语、意”。无论精神实践的方法是什么,一个人必须要努力发展自己天生的、对全人类解脱苦难的关心,不断扩大爱和同情的范围,同时一直意识到所有表面真实后面真正的本性,看见所有形式的隐藏的统一以及统一内在的空无。这样,他就建立了内心经验的坚实的的基础,以便象失望、恐惧、贪婪和愤怒等情感都可以转变成对真实最有益和入迷的体验。
To an initiate every tradition symbol conveys multiple levels of meanings, as indicated in our textual note(p.215)dealing with the "six modes and the four methods" of elucidating the Buddhist tantric doctrine. Such symbols include icons, diagrams, sacred syllables, mandalas, the ritual scepter(dorje), bell, drum, costumes, ornaments, music, dance, and movements. In addition there are natural symbols equally esoteric in terms of their meaning, such as sound, voice, the human body, colors, the natural elements, sun, moon, sky, sea, animals, trees, birds, space and, indeed, the whole cosmic universe.
对密法修习者来说,每一个传统的符号都传达着多重含义,如有关阐述佛教密宗经典的六部四法,我们的原文注释(215页)就有简要 的说明。这样的符号包括肖像、图表、神圣的音节、曼德拉、神笏(多杰)、铃、鼓、装束、装饰、音乐、舞蹈和动作等。另外还有自然符号就意思来说同样深奥,如声音、嗓音、人体、颜色、自然元素、太阳、月亮、天空、大海、动物、树木、空间等以及——整个宇宙世界。
Merely by realizing the true significance of these symbols one may achieve insight into the reality that lies behind phenomena, thus transforming psychological distortions and fantasies. Through seeing things as no more than symbols or concepts a person does not thereby ignore their relative value and their practical significance in his life and relationships. One must appreciate that Emptiness and ultimate non-substantiality of all relative realities is what opens up their dynamic possibilities in the evolutionary, counter-cosmic stream of spiritual release.
As in the universe, so also within man himself: karmic process is inherent in everything. Man is therefore conditioned by diverse forces - inwardly through psychological factors and outwardly through physical, environmental, and circumstantial influences. The primal state of original awareness is submerged under the muddy swamp of all these conditions, and the course of human destiny is thereby bound within the cycle of existential realm. The esoteric path is considered to be the most effective means of breaking this vicious cycle of existential movements, and of effecting the upsurge of spontaneous awakening.
  Spiritual practices are thus what we have been speaking of on a cosmic scale as counter movements designed to help man gain control over the inner and outer tendencies which enslave him. When fully harnessed, these tendencies themselves become invaluable instruments for re-activating hidden sources of higher energy within man - the "nucleus" of subtle elements and the Inner Fire(Tummo). All these diverse forces are harmonized by progressive steps of perfect seeing and the incessant warmth of compassion as that persistent endeavor brings a man ever closer to the goal of final illumination.
精神实践因此是我们所说的在宇宙范围中的反运动,设计来帮助人类控制奴役自己的内在的和外在的趋向。当所有这些趋向都被约束时,这些趋向就边成非常宝贵的工具,使人内心更高的能量的隐藏的源泉 —— 细微元素和内火(图摩)的“核子”再活跃起来。当那种不懈的努力把一个人带近最后觉悟的目标时,一览无余的视觉和怜悯的温暖的不断前进的步伐协调着所有这些变化多端的力量。
Concerning the practice of Inner Fire(Tummo), the reader is referred to our textual note (p.213). Here it is sufficient to say that the theory and practice pertaining to Tummo involve the deepest concepts of metaphysics and psychology, as well as diverse practices of higher yoga.
The Westerner needs to be aware that many of the Vajrayana teachings are written down in what amounts to a coded language. The key to true understanding lies not only in the secret oral instructions, but in practicing with the humility and persistence exemplified by Milarepa himself.
The pracrices of higher yoga are grouped under different headings, such as the Six Secret Transmissions of Naropa, Five Steps to Complete Termination according to the Unified Excellence of the Unknown, Six Transformations according to the Transcendent Dimension of Time and so on. Milarepa's critical remarks on mere scholarship and booklearning stem not so much from prejudice against the study of ideas as from insight into the way the sacred pursuit of study may be profaned to satisfy egoistic desires and fulfill selfish aims. Though Milarepa admitted he had never worked toward scholarship, he demonstrated a thorough knowledge in depth of Buddhist metaphysics and doctrines, especially Madhyamika and Mahamudra.
His ability to present complex teachings in simple and lucid style is astonishing. His means of communication - singing the poems or hymns he had composed extempore - was all his own. An inner revolution has transformed the working of his critical mind into spiritual satire. His songs represent diverse approaches within the tradition and often  reveal vividly the hidden contradictions in human attitudes and behavior.
他用简单和明晰的风格表现复杂教义的能力令人震惊。吟唱他即席创作的诗歌或圣歌 —— 是他的特有的交流手段。内心深处的革命将他的批评思想转变为精神讽刺。他的道歌运用了传统诗歌多方面的表现手法,经常生动地揭露了人类行为观念中隐藏的矛盾。
Through the years of dedication to meditation and related practices in the mountain solitude, living as he did like a piece of rock, subjecting himself to the severest form of asceticism, Milarepa achieved the highest attainable illumination and the mind power that enabled him to guide and shape the destiny of innumerable human and non-human disciples. Through him, the contemporary movement for reviving Buddhism in Tibet received a tremendous impetus. Like millions of stars, the awakened disciples, lamas and cotton-clad yogins lighted up the country even as Milarepa passed into the all-embracing expanse of Dharmakaya. The subsequent history of the Kagyu tradition with its four major and eight minor orders has been one of magnificent achievement.

to be continued


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