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职位评估

(2011-03-29 15:11:24)
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What is job evaluation 什么是职位评估

Job evaluation can be defined as 'a method of determining the relative worth of a job to an organisation'.

职位评估可以被定义为:使用一种方法去定义一个岗位在一个组织中的相关的价值。

It's a useful process because job titles can often be misleading - either unclear or unspecific - and in large organisations it's impossible for those in HR to know each job in detail. As a rough guide, job evaluation, like many pay management techniques, tends to be desirable in organisations once the number of employees exceeds around 50. It usually becomes essential once employee numbers increase to more than 250. But each organisation is different and the use of job evaluation techniques will depend on individual circumstances.

职位评估是一个非常有价值的方式方法,因为岗位名称经常会被误解,或是不清晰,不具体,在一些大型的组织里人力资源部不可能知道每一个岗位的具体工作内容。粗略的理解,职位评估类似于许多的薪资管理技术,更像是在50个人以上的企业中的一种工作描述。它对一个企业员工的人数发展到250人以上时更为重要。但是每一个组织都是有差异的,职位评估技术的用途和每个组织的相应的环境相关。

Our most recent reward management survey finds that just over half of the sample use job evaluation. By sector and size, job evaluation is far more prevalent in the public and voluntary sectors and among larger employers. The survey also finds that around a quarter of employers plan to introduce a scheme for the first time this year, while a further 13% plan to amend their existing scheme.

我们最近的报酬管理调查发现大约有50%的案例都会使用岗位评估。根据部门和人数多少,一些公开的或自主的部门在大多数员工中普遍的运用职位评估。调查也发现今年大约有四分之一的员工计划被第一次被介绍这个方案,同时超过13%的案例准备计划去修正他们现有的方案。

When to use job evaluation 什么时候使用职位评估

Job evaluation is often used when:职位评估经常使用在如下方面:

- determining pay and grading structures 决定薪资和等级结构
- ensuring a fair and equal pay system  确保一个公平公正的薪资系统
- deciding on benefits provision - for example, bonuses and cars 决定福利规定,如:奖金或用车福利
- comparing rates against the external market 与外部薪酬市场数据、比率做比较
- undergoing organisational development in times of change 经历组织变革与发展
- undertaking career management and succession planning 确保职业规划管理与继任者计划
- reviewing all jobs post-large-scale change, especially if roles have also changed.回顾所有岗位过去比较大幅度的变化,特别是岗位角色发生变化
It is essential to have clear, detailed and up-to-date job descriptions on which to base the job evaluation.持有清晰的、具体的以及更新的岗位对需要进行职位评估的岗位是必要的。

Types of job evaluation职位评估的种类


There are two main types of job evaluation: analytical schemes, where jobs are broken down into their core components, and non-analytical schemes, where jobs are viewed as a whole. The use of an analytical scheme offers a better defence if a claim is made to an employment tribunal for equal pay for work of equal value.

主要有2职位评估的方法:分析法,用于岗位被拆分成他们的核心组成部分,另一种是非分析法,用于岗位被视作一个整体时使用。如果雇主被提出同工同酬的疑问时,分析法会提供一个很好的回答。

Analytical schemes分析法
These offer greater objectivity in assessment as the jobs are broken down in detail, and are the ones most often used by organisations. Examples of analytical schemes include Points Rating and Factor Comparison.

这种发放在进行工作具体分拆时具备非常强的客观性,经常被一些组织采用。分析法包括点数排序法和因素比较法。

Points Rating点数排序法


This is the most commonly used method. The key elements of each job, which are known as 'factors', are identified by the organisation and then broken down into components. Each factor is assessed separately and points allocated according to the level needed for the job. The more demanding the job, the higher the points value. Factors usually assessed include:这是一个最普通的方法。每一个工作最重要的元素,就是组织确定的因素,并被拆分成各种成分。每一个因素根据它对工作本身的重要性运用点数法进行评估。需求性更为重要的工作,被给予更高的点数。因素评估通常包含:

 

Knowledge and skills知识与技能
  • work experience 工作经验
  • qualifications 内部资格
  • external qualifications 外部资格
  • specialist training 特殊培训
  • length of service服务年限
      People management人员管理
  • human relations skills 人际关系技巧
  • ability to deal with work pressure 工作抗压能力
  • supervisory responsibility 领导能力
Communication and networking 沟通与合作                
  • social skills 社会经验
  • enthusiasm 积极性
  • diplomacy社交
Freedom to act主动性


  • depth of control 控制力
  • supervision received 监督能力
Decision-making 决策能力
  • judgement 判断力
  • initiative 主动性
  • analytical ability 分析能力
Working environment工作环境
  • knowledge of special working practices 特殊知识与工作实践
  • breadth of management skill required工作半径的宽度
Impact and influence影响力和感染力
  • efficiency 效率
  • impact on customers对顾客的影响
  • responsibility 责任心
  • results of errors 错误结果
Financial responsibility财务能力
  • budgeting预算能力

 

This list is not meant to be exhaustive, but gives examples of the characteristics that are frequently measured.

上述列表并不是非常详尽,但给到的这些特征是经常被用来衡量的。

Factor Comparison因素比较法


Factor Comparison is similar to Points Rating, being based on an assessment of factors, though no points are allocated. Use of the Factor Comparison method is not as widespread as the Points Rating systems, because the use of points enables a large number of jobs to be ranked at one time.因素分析法与点数排序法相近,是基于因素的评估,但是没有进行点数分配。使用因素比较法没有像点数排序系统来的普遍,因为点数法的使用在一个时间点上因排序点数带来大量的工作量。

Non-analytical schemes非分析法


These are less objective than analytical schemes, but are often simpler and cheaper to introduce. Methods include job ranking, paired comparisons and job classification.相比较分析法,非分析法不是很客观,但是是非常的简单和廉价。这种方法包括工作排序,比较配对以及工作分类。

Job ranking工作排序


This is the simplest form of job evaluation. It is done by putting the jobs in an organisation in order of their importance, or the level of difficulty involved in performing them, or their value to the organisation. Judgements are made about the roles based on aspects such as the jobs' scope and impact, their level of autonomy, the complexity of their tasks and the knowledge and skills needed. Once this analysis is done, the jobs together form a hierarchy which indicates the different levels, or ranks, within the organisation.这是一种简单的职位评估方式。根据工作的重要性将它们置于组织之中,或者根据它们表现出来的工作难度,或者它们对组织的价值。基于各方面,例如工作的范围及影响力,它们自主的程度,工作内容的复杂程度,和知识技能的需求程度作出相应的判断。当分析一经完成,在组织的范围内,各项工作将根据不同的水平和排序进行统一的层次划分。

Organisations often divide the ranks into grades. The number of grades chosen will depend on the organisation's needs. This process is easily understood by employees and is relatively cheap to undertake.组织内经常将排序分为不同的档次。档次的数量选择则根据组织的需求进行。这个流程相对简单的理解,主要根据员工的数量定义,并且不耗费精力去保证。

Paired comparisons配对比较

This is a statistical technique used to compare each job with others in an organisation. Using a ranking form, points are allocated to the job:这是一种数据统计的技术,通常将一个组织中的每个工作和其他工作比较。它使用一种排序,将点数分配给相应的工作:

- two points if it is considered to be of higher value 2点表示经过考虑后代表比较高的分值
- one point if it is regarded as equal worth 1点表示相等的价值
- no points if it is less important. 没有点数表示相应不是很重要

The scores are added up and then the final overall ranking can be given. Paired comparisons gives greater consistency, but takes longer than job ranking as each job is considered separately.分数被累加起来之后,最终可以排序可以得出。配对比较达到较高的一致性,但是,每一个工作都需要个别的去考虑,相对工作排序会耗费更长的时间。

Job classification工作分类

This method is also known as job grading. Before classification, an agreed number of grades are determined, usually between four and eight, based on tasks performed, skills, competencies, experience, initiative and responsibility. Clear distinctions are made between grades. The jobs in the organisation are then allocated to the determined grades.这种方法被认为是一种工作等级划分。在分类之前,等级的数量需要首先确定,通常在4-8等级之间,基于工作的表现,技能,资格,经验,主动性以及职责。在各等级之间有明显的差别。组织中的各项工作会被分配到决定的等级。

Designing job evaluation schemes设计职位评估方案
Both analytical and non-analytical schemes can be developed. Organisations can develop a system themselves, use consultants, buy a consultancy's off-the-shelf package, or employ the consultancy to tailor the package to suit the organisation.分析法和非分析法都可以不断开发。组织可以自主开发一个系统,也可以使用咨询顾问,也可以购买整体的解决方案,或者雇佣顾问度身定制适合组织的方案。

The Hay Guide Chart-Profile Method is the most widely used scheme, but there are many other schemes developed by other consultancies. What is chosen will depend on the size of the organisation and the aim of the job evaluation exercise. It is possible to use different schemes for different types of employee.   Hay(咨询公司)使用的图标剖析法被广泛的运用,但是也有其他顾问公司在开发很多的方案。如何选择则是根据组织的规模和职位评估的目的去定义的。也可能不同的员工采用不同的方案。

The following big consultancies offer off-the-shelf or tailor-made schemes:下列的这些知名的咨询工资提供现有的方案:

- HayGroup 
- Hewitt 
- Mercer 
- PricewaterhouseCoopers 
- SHL Group 
- Towers Perrin 
- Watson Wyatt.
Many smaller independent consultancies also offer job evaluation services.许多独立的小公司也提供职位评估服务。

Schemes that have been developed, often by consultancies, which operate in the public sector include:方案经常会由一些顾问去进行修正,这些参与修正的公共部门包括:

JEGS (Civil Service Job Evaluation and Grading Scheme) 文职工作的岗位评估及排序方案
GLEA (Greater London Employers' Association)大英工会 
GLPC (Greater London Provincial Council) 大英省级理事会
HERA (Higher Education Role Analysis) 高级教育角色分析
Local Government NJC.
A comprehensive job evaluation scheme is currently being introduced in the NHS.NHS当前正在介绍一个全面的职位评估方案。

Implementing a scheme执行一个方案

When introducing job evaluation for the first time, it's important to communicate with employees. A suggested process is:第一次介绍岗位评估时,和员工的沟通相当重要。建议的流程如下:

 


 

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