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英语写作中遣词造句的灵活多变

(2010-12-26 18:26:44)
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[内容摘要]词汇的贫乏与句式的单调,是制约我国学生写作水平的一个重要因素。而如何使词汇和句式多样化,使行文更生动精彩,也正是提高广大中学生英语书面表达能力的关键所在。

[关键词]词,短语,句型,句式,灵活多变

英语写作中遣词造句的灵活多变

谢晓晟   浙江嘉兴

    “文似看山不喜平”,“语不惊人死不休”,古人早就为我们提出了文字表达的一贯标准。无论中英文写作,我们都追求语言的生动流畅和文字的丰富多彩,而枯燥平淡与单调重复恰好是写作之大忌。

    那么,在英语书面表达中,我们如何做到让语言更生动,文章更富表现力呢?笔者认为,很重要的一条就是遣词造句的灵活多变。

    一个不可否认的事实是,我国的英语学习者,不管是中学生还是大学生,在词语的选择和句式的运用上,都是惊人的单调和重复。举例来说,一碰到“非常”就用“very”,一遇到“我认为”,只会用“I think”,想表达“好”,就知道一个“good”。事实上,英语的词汇和句式,是非常之丰富的,比起汉语来有过之而无不及。

    下面笔者从以下几个方面来说明我们应具体如何去做。

一.       词的灵活多变

英语的词汇可能是所有语言中最丰富的,据说有100万左右。世界上单词量最大的是二战时期的英国首相丘吉尔,大约6万左右,莎士比亚创作使用的词汇有2万左右。不过我们日常生活中使用的单词,也就几千而已。尽管如此,我们也尽可以尽情发挥,信手拈来,达到左右逢源,运用自如的境地。英语中的“好”,除“good”外,还有fine, OK, nice, great, excellent, wonderful, terrific, fabulous, fantastic, marvelous, splendid, extraordinary, outstanding, incredible 及amazing 等多种表达方式。另外,“死亡”一词,除了“die”之外,还有pass away等80多种表达方式!

下面我们再以“很”、“非常”为例来做详细说明:

    She is very happy.  她十分高兴。

    I’m terribly sorry.  实在抱歉。

    The movie was pretty good. 那部电影非常精彩。

    He was most kind to me.    他对我非常亲切。

    We were greatly shocked at the news. 听到消息我们大为震惊。

Thanks awfully for your help. 非常感谢你的帮助。

This story is highly significant. 这个故事很有意义。

I badly want to change my job. 我很想跳槽。

    The boss felt quite pleased with my work. 老板对我的工作很满意。

We were extremely excited at the news. 听到消息我们极其兴奋。

The performance was simply marvelous. 演出十分精彩。

What I said is perfectly clear.          我说得十分清楚。

I felt totally exhausted by the time I got home. 我到家时累到了极点。

二. 短语的灵活多变

英语中的短语也是非常丰富的,如“关于”除了“about, on, concerning”等这些单词外,还有多种短语表现形式,如as to, as concerns, as regards, with/in regard to, with respect to, in respect of/to, in/with relation to, in terms of等。下面以“喜欢”为例,看一下其短语表现形式。

I don’t care for baseball.        我不喜欢棒球。

She is fond of playing the piano.  她爱好弹钢琴。

Many football fans are crazy about Beckham.

许多球迷都疯狂迷上了贝克汉姆。

My son is mad about football.    我儿子狂热地迷恋足球。

Many people are keen on / about Jin Yong’s martial arts fictions.

许多人对金庸的武侠小说很着迷。

He has been addicted to the drug. 他已经吸毒成瘾。

Some adults are hooked on computer games as well.

一些成人对电脑游戏也上瘾。

John is infatuated with that girl.  约翰迷上了那位女孩。

She has a passion for rock music.

她热爱摇滚乐。

She has a great enthusiasm for personal computers.

她热衷于个人电脑。

三. 句型的灵活多变

如表达“一……就……”,除了最常见的as soon as 外, 还有“hardly…when…, no sooner…than…, soon/shortly after…”及“the moment/instant…”等多种表达方式。下面我们再看一下“我认为……”的不同表现方式。

I think you are right.

我认为你是对的。

I believe you will succeed sooner or later.

我觉得你迟早能成功。

I guess you have made a right choice.

我感觉你的选择是对的。

We hold that no country should interfere in the affairs of other countries.

我们认为任何国家都不应干涉别国的内政。

In my opinion, smoking should be forbidden in public places.

在我看来,公共场合应该禁止吸烟。

As I see it, nothing is more important than health.

依我看,什么都没有健康重要。

From my point of view, chatting online is a waste of time.

我个人认为,上网聊天是一种浪费时间。

From where I stand, quality is more important than quantity.

从我的角度而言,质量比数量更重要。

As far as I’m concerned, learning English is a piece of cake.

就我看,学英语是小菜一碟。

It seems to me that buying lottery tickets is a waste of money.

在我看来买彩票是浪费钱。

I accept the idea that College English Test should be cancelled.

我认为大学英语四六级考试应该取消。

    四. 句式的灵活多变

    以下一些句式,可以交替互换使用,从而加强句子的丰富多样性和文章的表现力。   

1.      主动与被动

We must take some effective measures to stop pollution.

Some effective measures must be taken to stop pollution.

我们必须采取有效措施来治理污染。

2.      陈述与感叹

You gave me a pleasant surprise.

What a pleasant surprise you gave me!

你给我一个惊喜。

3. 正常与倒装

    I have never seen such a beautiful picture.

    Never have I seen such a beautiful picture.

    我从没见过这么美的图画。

4.      普通与强调

We put off the football match because of the bad weather.

It was because of the bad weather that we put off the football match.

由于恶劣的天气,我们推迟了足球比赛。

5.      简单句与复合句

We were shocked at the news.

We were shocked when we heard the news.

听到消息我们震惊了。

6.      简单句与并列句

I help him and he helps me.

He and I help each other.

我和他互相帮助。

7.      简单句与复合句

The old man wants a small but comfortable room.

The old man wants a room that is small but comfortable.

那位老人想要一间小但舒服的房间。

8.      并列句与复合句

She did her work carefully and she never made any mistakes.

Because she did her work carefully, she never made any mistakes.

由于工作仔细,她从来都不犯错误。

另外,还可以尝试以下两条方法,来提升句子的质量:

五.        使用非人物主语起草句子

受顽强汉语思维的影响,中国学生极易使用与人有关的名词或代词开头造句,如“I, We, People”等等。事实上,我们完全可以独辟蹊径、标新立异,选择以事物开头而表达同样的意思。请对比以下两组句子:

I thought of a great idea when I woke up this morning.

A great idea occurred to me when I woke up this morning.

今天早上起床时我想到了一个好主意。

They didn’t come because of the bad weather.

The bad weather prevented them from coming.

由于糟糕的天气,他们没能来。

She began to cry.

Tears came to her eyes.

她哭了起来。

I like listening to cross talk.

Cross talk appeals to me.

我喜欢听相声。

I couldn’t say anything.

Words failed me.

我说不出话来。

很明显,每一组的后一个句子要比前者更生动、更形象、更精彩。

六.        使用非主语成分起草句子

这一条建议听起来更苛刻,因为我们“主语开头”的单一表达模式已经根深蒂固,很难改变和突破。然而,只要你刻意模仿,用心努力,获得地道的英语思维也不是不可能的。请看以下句子:

Generally speaking, men are stronger than women.

一般说来,男子比妇女强壮。

To make a long story short, they found the lost child at last.

长话短说,他们最后找到了那个失踪的男孩。

Gone are the days when we were discriminated.

我们受歧视的日子一去不复返了。

Not a single word did he say.

他一句话也没有说。

On the top of the hill stands a splendid tower.

山顶上矗立着一座壮观的塔。

True to his word, he arrived here on time.

他果然说话算数,按时来了。

Every now and then he went to the net café.

他不时地去网吧。

Located on the coast, the city enjoys convenient communications.

由于位于沿海,这个城市交通便利。

如果从以上几个方面去留心、注意并刻意培养,你的写作水平一定会有意想不到的提高。

 

参考书目:

①     新英汉词典. 上海外语教育出版社

②     托福作文突破. 张红岩著. 世界图书出版公司

③     英语写作手册. 丁往道著. 外语教学与研究出版社

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