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[转载]基础修辞之1

(2011-01-21 13:04:12)
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原文地址:基础修辞之1作者:God东方神谕
[转载]基础修辞之1 

基础修辞之1
  修辞学(Rhetoric)是一门高深的学问,其目的是在帮助写作的人使其运用语文的技巧达到艺术的境界,对每一个作家来说,乃是运用之妙存乎一心的玄奥,但是也有一些基本的规则可循。下面所举的都是基本的修辞句法,可作精进的阶梯。

  联贯和谐原则(Unity) :

(1)平衡对称(Parallelism)

  一个句子的两个部份必须写得有平衡对称的均匀组织;否则,读起来一定不顺口。注意下面句子斜体字部分的错与对。

  (Wrong) Philly's job is reading new books and to write book reviews.
  (Right) Philly's job is reading new books and writing book reviews.
  菲力的工作是阅读新书与写书评。

  (Wrong) Jim taught grammar and how to write.
  (Right) Jim taught grammar and writing.
  吉姆教授文法与写作。

  (Wrong) He was neither willing to pay nor was he able.
  (Right) He was neither willing nor able to pay.
  他既不愿付钱也无能付钱。



(2)语意转换(Transition)

  语意转换有其一定适当的连接试或连接词片语,将两个部份很恰当的接连起来。注意比较下面斜体部份的字。

  (Faulty) The main reason I left early was because I was bored.
  (Improved) The main reason I left early was that I was bored.
  我离开得很早的主要原因是我已厌烦。

  (Faulty) The main reason I left early was because I was bored.
  (Improved) The main reason I left early was that I was bored.
  我离开得很早的主要原因是我已厌烦。

  (Faulty) We came within sight of the village when our car suddenly caught fire.
  (Improved) When we came within sight of the village, our car suddenly caught fire.
  当我们看到村落时,我们车子突然起火。


(3)简明扼要(Conciseness)

  简明扼要的原则是在文句中不可以用赘词,因为多余的用字会使读者厌烦,有时甚至产生误解,造成词不达意的烦杂紊乱句构。写作如能做到'以最少的字表达最清楚的语意'为最最上乘之作。在这一原则下亦应包括用字的准确性(Accuracy) ,即辨字选词要绝对正确。

  (Wordy) When you are in doubt, look up in your dictionary.
  (Concise) When in doubt, look up ill your dictionary.
  当你怀疑时,去查字典。

  (Wordy) Although their strengths lie in different areas, the two nations are quite equal in total ness of power.
  (Consise) Although their strengths lie in different areas, the two nations are approximately equal in power.
  虽然两国的力量在各方面有所不同,而其势力却大致相当。

  (Inaccurate) At the range gate, I saw the cow suffering from farrowing.
  (Accurate) At the range gate, I saw the cow suffering from calving.
  我在牧场门口看到一只牛忍受着生产的痛苦。
清晰明白(Clearness)


  清晰明白的原则是在造句时应注意下面六项常常容易犯的错误:

   (1)修饰语位置放错(Misplaced Modifiers);
   (2)不联结修饰语的错误(Dangling Modifiers);
   (3)不合逻辑的结构(Illogical Construction);
   (4)分裂不联贯的结构(Split Construction) ;
   (5)语意不一致的错误(Consistency) ;
   (6)代名词的混用(Reference of Pronoun)。
  兹将这六项分别举例于后:


(1)修饰语位置放错(Misplaced Modifiers)

  错She was wearing a colorful scarf around her shoulders, which she had bought in Mexico.
  对Around her shoulders she was wearing a colorful scarf, which she had bought in Mexico. 
  她肩上围着一条从墨西哥购得的绮丽的披肩。

  错A car drove down the street decked with ribbons.
  对A car decked with ribbons drove down the street.
  一部装饰丝带的汽车驶过街道。

(2)不联结修饰语的错误(Dangling Modifiers)

  (a)不联结分词的错误(Dangling Participles)
   错Having solved the first problem, the second must be solved now.
   对Having solved the first problem, I must now solve the second.
   解决第一个问题之后,我现在必须解决第二个问题。

  (b)不联结不定词的错误(Dangling Infinitives)
   错To seek a new path for developing his forte, the task was assumed by him.
   对To seek a new path for developing his forte, he assumed the task.
   为了寻求发展才华的新路线,他承担起这份工作。

  (c)不联结动名词的错误(Dangling Gerunds)
   有些动词诸如"avoid/defer/deny/delay/postpone/risk",等在否定句构之后常接动名词作受词,如果动名词需接代名诃时,此代名词应该用所有格;在现代英语句法中即使是肯定句构,其后亦采这种句法。例如:He denied their having come.

   错I can't risk you signing the contract without my consent.
   对I can't risk your signing the contract without my consent.
   没有我的同意我不敢冒你签约的危险。

(3)不合逻辑的结构(Illogical Construction)

  错My younger sister is as beautiful, if not more beautiful, than you.
  对My younger sister is as beautiful as you, if not more beautiful.

  错He haven't and won't work hard for supporting his family.
  对He haven't worked and won't work hard for supporting his family.
  他不曾尽力养家,将来也不会尽力。

(4)分裂不联贯的结构(Split Construction)

  (a)在及物动词与单纯的受词之间不应插入副词。

   错:He flew into the air the kite.
   对:He flew the kite into the air.
   他把风筝放到天空去了。

  (b)在及物动词与含有修饰语的受词之间可以插入副词。

   错He flew the kite into the air which his brother made.
   对He flew into the air the kite which his brother made.
   他把他兄弟所做的风筝放到天空去了。

  (c)在不定词的符号"to"与其原形动词之间不能插上任何的字或片语。

   错The teacher asked the students to within half an hour finish the assignments.
   对:The teacher asked the students to finish the assignments within half an hour.
   老师叫学生在半个钟头之内将指定作业做完。

(5)语意不一致的错误(Consistency)
  
  错My friend asked whether I knew the coach and would he be with the team.
  对My friend asked whether I knew the coach and whether he would be with the team.
  我的朋友问我是否认得那位教练,并且问我那位教练是否跟他的球队在一起。

(6)代名词的混用(Reference of Pronouns)

  (a)泛指某人的"one"不能用"you"来代替。

   错When one's feet are tired, you should bathe them in warm salt water.
   对When one's feet are tired, one should bathe them in warm salt water.
   当一个人的脚倦累了,他应该将他的脚泡在醎的温水里。

  (b)指示代名词后不能再接人称代名词。

   错:With a view to keeping a normal sight, those of us who wear glasses should have theireyes examined frequently.
   对:With a view to keeping a normal sight, most of us have to have their eyes examined at regular intervals.
   为了保持正常视力,我们大部分的人都必须每隔一段时间去检查眼睛。
统一一贯原则(Coherence)]


  统一一贯原则是指句法语意不可残缺不全或者一个句子的二部份在时式上有首尾不一贯的毛病应该加以避免:

(a)语意混乱或残缺(Mixed Figures of Speech)

 (Confused) My castles in air came tumbling down into a bottomless heap.
 (Improved) My fancy comes to nothing in the long run. 
 我的幻想终于破灭。

(b)错综不清的结构(Mixed Construction)

 (Careless) I wrote and asked my nephew to let me know about the horses as soon as he can.
 (Improved) I wrote to my nephew and asked him to let me know about the horses as soon ax he could.
 我写信给我的侄儿,并叫他尽快告知我关于那些马匹的事情。

 (Careless) I have been reading Thackeray's Henry Esmond,
   who is one of the best authors of the nineteenth century.
 (Improved) I have been reading Henry Esmond, a novel by
   Thackeray, who is one of the best authors of the nineteenth century.
 我一直在读戴寇瑞的'伊斯曼德'那本小说,戴寇瑞是十九世纪最佳作家之一。

(c)错误的结构(Faulty Construction)

 (Faulty) This theme to which our teacher referred to was difficult.
 (Improved) This theme to which our teacher referred was difficult.
 老师所指的这个题材很难。

 (Faulty) She told us that she has difficult to follow the doctor's advice,
     although it seemed easy enough.
 (Improved) She told us that she had difficulty following the doctor's
     advice, although it seemed easy enough.
 她告诉我们,那虽是件看似容易的事,但是要她遵守医师的忠告却有困难。

(d)观点上的问题(Point of View)

 所谓观点上的问题,
 其一是一个句子的造成应以主要子句的主词为立场;即是说,另一子句的主词在不必要更换的情形下不要更换,且最好是与主要子句的主词一致;
 其二是名词与代名词之间的关系应注意单复数的一致性。

 (Poor) He ran to the station and the train was taken by him.
 (Good) He ran to the station and took the train.
 他跑到车站,搭上了火车。

 (Poor) If one tries hard, they, can accomplish much
 (Good) If one tries hard, one can accomplish much.
 如果一个人尽力去做,他定会大有作为。

 (Wrong) The two words that we wish to distinguish is "house" and "barn".
 (Right) The two words that we wish to distinguish are "house" and "barn".
 我们要区分的是'房屋'与'仓库'二字。

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