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[转载]西蒙娜·德·波伏娃《第二性》结论(中英文版对照

(2010-12-20 19:50:36)
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The Second Sex - Conclusion
by Simone de Beauvoir

 

第二性 结论

西蒙娜·德·波伏娃

 

以下为英文版和中文版的《第二性》最后“结论”部分的内容

 

  ‘NO, WOMAN is not our brother; through indolence and deceit we have made of her a being apart, unknown, having no weapon other than her sex, which not only means constant warfare but unfair warfare – adoring or hating, but never a straight friend, a being in a legion with esprit de corps and freemasonry – the defiant gestures of the eternal little slave.’

 

    不,女人不是我们的兄弟;通过懒惰和堕落,我们已把她变成了另一种人,一种未知的人(她除了性欲没有别的武器,而这种武器不但意味着不断争斗,而且也是永远长不大的小奴隶用以猜疑,用以崇拜或憎恨的不光明正大的武器),但决不是我们的坦诚伙伴,决不是具有esprit de corps[团结精神]与和衷共济精神的人。


  Many men would still subscribe to these words of Laforgue; many think that there will always be ‘strife and dispute’, as Montaigne put it, and that fraternity will never be possible. The fact is that today neither men nor women are satisfied with each other. But the question is to know whether there is an original curse that condemns them to rend each other or whether the conflicts in which they are opposed merely mark a transitional moment in human history.


    许多男人仍然会同意拉幅格的这番话;许多男人会认为,“争斗和争论”将会永远存在——如蒙田所指出的,并且根本不可能实现博爱。事实上今天男女彼此都感觉到不满意。但问题是要搞清楚,是否有一种固有的祸根在让他们受互相分裂之罚,或者,让他们对抗的那些冲突,是否仅仅标志着人类历史的转折关头。


  Legends notwithstanding, no physiological destiny imposes an eternal hostility upon Male and Female as such; even the famous praying mantis devours her male only for want of other food and for the good of the species: it is to this, the species, that all individuals are subordinated, from the top to the bottom of the scale of animal life. Moreover, humanity is something more than a mere species: it is a historical development; it is to be defined by the manner in which it deals with its natural, fixed characteristics, its facticité. Indeed, even with the most extreme bad faith, it is impossible to demonstrate the existence of a rivalry between the human male and female of a truly physiological nature. Further, their hostility may be allocated rather to that intermediate terrain between biology and psychology: psychoanalysis. Woman, we are told, envies man his penis and wishes to castrate him; but the childish desire for the penis is important in the life of the adult woman only if she feels her femininity as a mutilation; and then it is as a symbol of all the privileges of manhood that she wishes to appropriate the male organ. We may readily agree that her dream of castration has this symbolic significance: she wishes, it is thought, to deprive the male of his transcendence.

 

    我们已经看到,尽管有着种种传说,但生理学命运并没有这样把永久的敌意强加在雌雄两性身上;甚至有名的祈祷螳螂在吞噬它的雄性时,也仅仅是由于缺乏其他的食物和为物种的利益:在一切等级的动物生命当中,所有的个体都在受着这种控制,即受着物种的控制。而且人类不仅仅是物种,它也是历史发展;它应当取决于它对自身的自然的、固定不变的特征,以及对自身的facticite[人造特征]的态度。其实,即便是对世界极其没有诚意,也不可能证明存在于人类两性间的对抗,具有名副其实的生理学性质。而且,宁可说他们的敌意可能要划入生物学和心理学之间的中间领域:精神分析学。我们被告知说,女人嫉妒男人的阴茎并希望阉割他;但是,只有在成年女人认为她的女性气质是一种不健全时,对阴茎的这种幼稚欲望,才会在她的生活中起重要作用;而那时她会希望把男性器官当做男人所有特权的象征来加以占用;我们可以毫不勉强地认为,她的阉割梦想有着这样一种象征性的含义:据猜想,她希望剥夺男性的超越性。


  But her desire, as we have seen, is much more ambiguous: she wishes, in a contradictory fashion, to have this transcendence, which is to suppose that she at once respects it and denies it, that she intends at once to throw herself into it and keep it within herself. This is to say that the drama does not unfold on a sexual level; further, sexuality has never seemed to us to define a destiny, to furnish in itself the key to human behaviour, but to express the totality of a situation that it only helps to define. The battle of the sexes is not implicit in the anatomy of man and woman. The truth is that when one evokes it, one takes for granted that in the timeless realm of Ideas a battle is being waged between those vague essences the Eternal Feminine and the Eternal Masculine; and one neglects the fact that this titanic combat assumes on earth two totally different forms, corresponding with two different moments of history.

 

    但是,如我们看到过的,她的欲望是十分暧昧的:她希望以一种自相矛盾的方式拥有这种超越性,这就是说,她既重视它又否定它,既想投身于它,又想把它局限在她自身的范围里。这就是说,这一戏剧性活动并不是在性的层面上展开的;而且在我们看来,性的特征不能决定命运,本身也不能为解释人类行为提供重要线索,而只能表现它仅仅在帮助决定的整体处境。两性斗争并不直接含有男女人体结构有差别的意味。实际上,当一个人引起这种斗争时,他认为在无始无终的理念王国,永恒的女性气质和永恒的男性气质这两种含糊本质之间的斗争是理所当然的;他忽略了这一事实,即这种重大斗争,相应于两种不同的历史关头,毕竟有着两种完全不同的形式。


  The woman who is shut up in immanence endeavours to hold man in that prison also; thus the prison will become interchangeable with the world, and woman will no longer suffer from being confined there: mother, wife, sweetheart are the jailers. Society, being codified by man, decrees that woman is inferior: she can do away with this inferiority only by destroying the male’s superiority. She sets about mutilating, dominating man, she contradicts him, she denies his truth and his values. But in doing this she is only defending herself; it was neither a changeless essence nor a mistaken choice that doomed her to immanence, to inferiority. They were imposed upon her. All oppression creates a state of war. And this is no exception. The existent who is regarded as inessential cannot fail to demand the re-establishment of her sovereignty.


    一个被封闭于内在性的女人,也会极力把男人关在那个牢笼中;这样一来,那个牢笼便会和世界混为一体,女人也不会再因为被囚禁在那里而痛苦,因为母亲、妻子和情妇变成了看守。社会根据男人制定的法典宣判女人是低人一等的,所以她只有摧毁男性的优越地位才能消除这种劣等性。于是她去攻击使她不健全的、对她进行支配的男人,她和他大唱对台戏,她拒绝接受他的真理和价值。但她这样做仅仅是为了自卫;使她注定是内在的、低人一等的,既不是固定不变的本质,也不是错误的选择。它们是硬加在她身上的。被看做次要者的生存者,不能不要求重树她的主权地位。


  Today the combat takes a different shape; instead of wishing to put man in a prison, woman endeavours to escape from one; she no longer seeks to drag him into the realms of immanence but to emerge, herself, into the light of transcendence. Now the attitude of the males creates a new conflict: it is with a bad grace that the man lets her go. He is very well pleased to remain the sovereign subject, the absolute superior, the essential being; he refuses to accept his companion as an equal in any concrete way. She replies to his lack of confidence in her by assuming an aggressive attitude. It is no longer a question of a war between individuals each shut up in his or her sphere: a caste claiming its rights attacks and is resisted by the privileged caste. Here two transcendences are face to face; instead of displaying mutual recognition, each free being wishes to dominate the other.


    今天,这种斗争采取了另一种形式;女人不是希望把男人囚禁起来,而是努力逃避他。她不想再把他拖入内在性王国,而是她自己显露出超越性。然而男性的态度却制造了新的冲突:男人不愿意把她松开。他非常乐意仍去做一个主权的主体,绝对的优越者,主要者;他拒绝承认他的伙伴在任何具体方面是一个和他平等的人。她则以进攻的态度来回答他的不信任。这不再是一个各自在各自范围里的两个人之间的战争问题:要求自身权利的等级从战壕里跳出来,有特权的等级则在进行抵抗。在这里,两种超越在面对面的斗争;自由的每一方都不想承认对方,并都想支配对方。


  This difference of attitude is manifest on the sexual plane as on the spiritual plane. The ‘feminine’ woman in making herself prey tries to reduce man, also, to her carnal passivity; she occupies herself in catching him in her trap, in enchaining him by means of the desire she arouses in him in submissively making herself a thing. The emancipated woman, on the contrary, wants to be active, a taker, and refuses the passivity man means to impose on her. The ‘modern’ woman accepts masculine values: she prides herself on thinking, taking action, working, creating, on the same terms as men; instead of seeking to disparage them, she declares herself their equal.


    这另一种态度不但表现在精神方面,也表现在性方面。“女性化的”女人在把自己变成猎物的同时,也想用自己的肉体被动性去降服男人;她在顺从地变成猎物的同时,也在忙于激起他的欲望,以此为手段将他捕入罗网,把他给束缚住。相反,解放型的女人却想成为主动者和占有者,她拒绝接受男人想硬塞给她的被动性。所以,爱丽丝以及模仿者拒绝承认男性那种类型的活动具有价值;她们将肉体置于精神之上,把偶然性置于自由之上,把她们的日常智慧置于大胆创作之上。但是“现代的”女人也承认男人的价值:她为自己以男人的方式去思考、行动、工作和创造感到骄傲;她不是蔑视他们,而是自称是和他们平等的。


  In so far as she expresses herself in definite action, this claim is legitimate, and male insolence must then bear the blame. But in men’s defence it must be said that women are wont to confuse the issue. Many women, in order to show by their successes their equivalence to men, try to secure male support by sexual means; they play on both sides, demanding old-fashioned respect and modern esteem, banking on their old magic and their new rights. It is understandable that a man becomes irritated and puts himself on the defensive; but he is also double-dealing when he requires woman to play the game fairly while he denies her the indispensable trump cards through distrust and hostility. Indeed, the struggle cannot be clearly drawn between them, since woman is opaque in her very being; she stands before man not as a subject but as an object paradoxically endued with subjectivity; she takes herself simultaneously as self and as other, a contradiction that entails baffling consequences. When she makes weapons at once of her weakness and of her strength, it is not a matter of designing calculation: she seeks salvation spontaneously in the way that has been imposed on her, that of passivity, at the same time when she is actively demanding her sovereignty; and no doubt this procedure is unfair tactics, but it is dictated by the ambiguous situation assigned her. Man, however, becomes indignant when he treats her as a free and independent being and then realises that she is still a trap for him; if he gratifies and satisfies her in her posture as prey, he finds her claims to autonomy irritating; whatever he does, he feels tricked and she feels wronged.


    就她以明确行动表现自己而言,这种要求是合法的,不过男性的傲慢肯定要为此承担责任。但男人也必然会辩解说,女人常把问题搅得一团糟。一个叫梅布尔·道奇·卢汉的人,想用她的女性魅力征服D·H·劳伦斯,以便以后能在精神上支配他;许多女人为了成功地证明她们和男人是平等的,都尝试以性为手段去取得男性的资助;她们玩弄两面手法,既要老式的尊重也要新式的尊重,即靠她们的旧魔力,也靠她们的新权利。男人当然要愤然自卫;但他也是口是心非,他一方面要求女人公平竞争,另一方面又由于不信任和敌意而拒绝给予她们以必要的王牌。其实,他们之间不可能发生明显的斗争,因为女人的存在是含糊的;她在男人面前不是主体,而是荒谬地带有主观性的客体;她把自己即当做自我,又当做他者,这种矛盾产生了令人费解的后果。即使她把自己的弱点和强点都当做武器,也算不上老谋深算,因为她在积极争取主权地位的同时,也在不由自主地为她的受骗和被动寻找借口;这种做法固然不属于正当策略,但这是由她既定的暧昧处境所决定的。然而,当男人把她作为自由的独立者来看待,同时又看到她对他仍是陷阱时,他是愤怒的;如果她摆出一副猎物的架势时他让她感到满意和满足,那么他会觉得她的自主要求是令人恼火的;无论他做什么,他都有受骗感,而她则会产生受虐感。


  The quarrel will go on as long as men and women fail to recognise each other as equals; that is to say, as long as femininity is perpetuated as such. Which sex is the more eager to maintain it? Woman, who is being emancipated from it, wishes none the less to retain its privileges; and man, in that case, wants her to assume its limitations. ‘It is easier to accuse one sex than to excuse the other,’ says Montaigne. It is vain to apportion praise and blame. The truth is that if the vicious circle is so hard to break, it is because the two sexes are each the victim at once of the other and of itself. Between two adversaries confronting each other in their pure liberty, an agreement could be easily reached: the more so as the war profits neither. But the complexity of the whole affair derives from the fact that each camp is giving aid and comfort to the enemy; woman is pursuing a dream of submission, man a dream of identification. Want of authenticity does not pay: each blames the other for the unhappiness he or she has incurred in yielding to the temptations of the easy way; what man and woman loathe in each other is the shattering frustration of each one’s own bad faith and baseness.


    只要男女彼此不承认对方是同等的人,也就是说,只要女性气质照这样一直存在,这种不和就会继续下去。哪个性别会更渴望维持女性气质呢?女人虽然正在从这种气质得到解放,但依旧希望保持它所带来的特权;如果那样,男人会希望她会对它加以限制。“谴责一个性别比原谅一个性别要容易,”蒙田说。赞美和谴责都是徒劳的。实际上,如果说这种恶性循环十分难以打破,那是因为两性的每一方都是对方的牺牲品,同时又都是自身的牺牲品。在两个以完全自由面目出现的互相对抗的敌手之间,可以很容易达成协议:如果战争对双方都无益,则更是如此。但是,整个恋爱事件的复杂性来自于这一事实,即每一方都在为对方提供帮助和舒适;女人在追求屈从的梦想,男人则在追求认同的梦想。贫乏的真实性没有得到补偿:每一方都在屈从于舒适诱惑的同时,指责对方引起了不幸;男女彼此都讨厌对方使自己的不真诚和卑鄙遭受到了毁灭性的失败。


  We have seen why men enslaved women in the first place; the devaluation of femininity has been a necessary step in human evolution, but it might have led to collaboration between the two sexes; oppression is to be explained by the tendency of the existent to flee from himself by means of identification with the other, whom he oppresses to that end. In each individual man that tendency exists today; and the vast majority yield to it. The husband wants to find himself in his wife, the lover in his mistress, in the form of a stone image; he is seeking in her the myth of his virility, of his sovereignty, of his immediate reality. But he is himself the slave of his double: what an effort to build up an image in which he is always in danger! In spite of everything his success in this depends upon the capricious freedom of women: he must constantly try to keep this propitious to him. Man is concerned with the effort to appear male, important, superior; he pretends so as to get pretence in return; he, too, is aggressive, uneasy; he feels hostility for women because he is afraid of them, he is afraid of them because he is afraid of the personage, the image, with which he identifies himself. What time and strength he squanders in liquidating, sublimating, transferring complexes, in talking about women, in seducing them, in fearing them! He would be liberated himself in their liberation. But this is precisely what he dreads. And so he obstinately persists in the mystifications intended to keep woman in her chains.


    我们首先已经看到了男人为什么会对女人进行奴役;女性贬值是人类进化的必要一步,但它也可以导致两性间的合作;所谓的压迫应当解释成生存者通过认同于他人(他因此压迫他人),来逃避自我的倾向。在每一个作为个体的男人身上,今天都有这种倾向;而且大多数人还屈服于这一倾向。丈夫想通过妻子,情人想通过情妇,发现自己具有永久不变的偶像形式;他要用她去寻找他的男性气质、他的主权地位、他的即刻实现的神话。“我丈夫根本不看电影,”他的妻子说,因而把含糊的男性见解铭刻在永恒的大理石上。但他本人也是他的双我的奴隶:要树立使他充满危险的形象是多么费力啊!尽管他在所有方面都是成功的,这一形象也仍要取决于女人反复无常的自由:他必须时刻注意让这一形象有利于自己。男人念念不忘让自己显得像个男性,显得重要和优越;他是如此做作,以至于得到了做作的回报;他也是有攻击性的、不安的;他之所以对女人怀有敌意,是因为他害怕她们;他之所以害怕她们,是因为他害怕他自己所认同于的那个人、那个形象。在消除、升华和转移种种情结时,在谈论女人时,在诱惑她们时,在害怕她们时,他花费了多少时间和精力啊!他想在解放她们的同时让自己得到解放,但这又正是他所恐惧的。所以他顽固地坚持那种神秘物,以便把女人继续束缚在锁链中。


  That she is being tricked, many men have realised. ‘What a misfortune to be a woman! And yet the misfortune, when one is a woman, is at bottom not to comprehend that it is one,’ says Kierkegaard. [In Vino Veritas. He says further: ‘Politeness is pleasing – essentially – to woman, and the fact that she accepts it without hesitation is explained by nature’s care for the weaker, for the unfavoured being, and for one to whom an illusion means more than a material compensation. But this illusion, precisely, is fatal to her ... To feel oneself freed from distress thanks to something imaginary, to be the dupe of something imaginary, is that not a still deeper mockery? ... Woman is very far from being verwahrlost (neglected), but in another sense she is, since she can never free herself from the illusion that nature has used to console her.’] For a long time there have been efforts to disguise this misfortune. For example, guardianship has been done away with: women have been given ‘protectors’, and if they are invested with the rights of the old-time guardians, it is in woman’s own interest. To forbid her working, to keep her at home, is to defend her against herself and to assure her happiness. We have seen what poetic veils are thrown over her monotonous burdens of housekeeping and maternity: in exchange for her liberty she has received the false treasures of her ‘femininity’. Balzac illustrates this manoeuvre very well in counselling man to treat her as a slave while persuading her that she is a queen. Less cynical, many men try to convince themselves that she is really privileged. There are American sociologists who seriously teach today the theory of ‘low-class gain’, that is to say, the benefits enjoyed by the lower orders. In France, also, it has often been proclaimed – although in a less scientific manner – that the workers are very fortunate in not being obliged to ‘keep up appearances’. Like the carefree wretches gaily scratching at their vermin, like the merry Negroes laughing under the lash, and those joyous Tunisian Arabs burying their starved children with a smile, woman enjoys that incomparable privilege: irresponsibility. Free from troublesome burdens and cares, she obviously has ‘the better part’. But it is disturbing that with an obstinate perversity – connected no doubt with original sin – down through the centuries and in all countries, the people who have the better part are always crying to their benefactors: ‘It is too much! I will be satisfied with yours!’ But the munificent capitalists, the generous colonists, the superb males, stick to their guns: ‘Keep the better part, hold on to it!’


    许多男人已经意识到她在受骗。“做女人是多么不幸啊!然而,当一个人身为女人时,其不幸还在于她实际上并没有认识到这就是一种不幸,”克尔恺郭尔说。①长期以来人们一直在努力掩饰这种不幸。例如,监护制度虽然早已废除了,女人却一直有着“保护人”,如果他们被赋予旧时监护人的权利,这是为了女人本人的利益。不准她参加工作,让她呆在家里,这是为了让她免受她自己的伤害,并为了确保她的幸福。我们已经看到,人们是把多么美妙的面纱抛到了她那单调乏味的家务和母性负担上面的:她用她的自由换来了“女性化”这笔虚假财富。巴尔扎克十分生动地描述了这种诡计,他劝告男人要把她当做奴隶对待,同时又让她相信她是王后。许多男人并不那么玩世不恭,他们想承认她确实有特权。美国的有些社会学家今天在传授“下层阶级利益”理论。法国也经常有人宣称工人很幸运(虽然不那么科学),因为他们没有必要去“保持仪容”,乞丐则更幸运,因为他们可以衣衫褴褛地睡在人行道上,所享受的快乐是德·博蒙伯爵和温德尔家族万万享受不到的。和快活地抓着身上跳蚤的无所顾忌的穷人一样,和挨鞭子抽时仍在笑的可怜黑人一样,和埋藏自己的饿死的孩子时仍面带笑容的乐天的突尼斯阿拉伯人一样,女人也有那种无法比拟的特权,即没有责任感。她虽然摆脱了讨厌的负担和操劳的束缚,不过仍具有“那好的一面”。但令人不安的是,由于延续了几个世纪并在所有国家都存在的一种顽固变态(它无疑和原罪有关),那些有好的一面的人们始终在向他们的保护人求援:“我受不了了!你给点东西让我吃饱吧!”但是,慷慨的资本家,宽厚的殖民者,超等的男性却在手里紧握着他们的枪:“继续保持好的一面,把它坚持下去!”


  It must be admitted that the males find in woman more complicity than the oppressor usually finds in the oppressed. And in bad faith they take authorisation from this to declare that she has desired the destiny they have imposed on her. We have seen that all the main features of her training combine to bar her from the roads of revolt and adventure. Society in general – beginning with her respected parents – lies to her by praising the lofty values of love, devotion, the gift of herself, and then concealing from her the fact that neither lover nor husband nor yet her children will be inclined to accept the burdensome charge of all that. She cheerfully believes these lies because they invite her to follow the easy slope: in this others commit their worst crime against her; throughout her life from childhood on, they damage and corrupt her by designating as her true vocation this submission, which is the temptation of every existent in the anxiety of liberty. If a child is taught idleness by being amused all day long and never being led to study, or shown its usefulness, it will hardly be said, when he grows up, that he chose to be incapable and ignorant; yet this is how woman is brought up, without ever being impressed with the necessity of taking charge of her own existence. So she readily lets herself come to count on the protection, love, assistance, and supervision of others, she lets herself be fascinated with the hope of self-realisation without doing anything. She does wrong in yielding to the temptation; but man is in no position to blame her, since he has led her into the temptation. When conflict arises between them, each will hold the other responsible for the situation; she will reproach him with having made her what she is: ‘No one taught me to reason or to earn my own living’; he will reproach her with having accepted the consequences: ‘You don’t know anything you are an incompetent,’ and so on. Each sex thinks it can justify itself by taking the offensive; but the wrongs done by one do not make the other innocent.


    必须承认,男性更多地是把女人看做同谋,这和压迫者对被压迫者的通常看法不一样。他们由此得到授权,虚伪地宣称,她一直在渴望得到他们所硬加给她的命运。我们已经看到,她受的教育的所有主要特征,都联合起来阻止她走上反抗和冒险的道路。社会通常(从受她尊重的父母开始)虚伪地向她赞美爱情、献身、自我奉献的崇高价值,进而向她隐瞒了这一事实,即无论是情人或丈夫,还是她的孩子,都不愿意接受这一切沉重负担。她之所以愿意乐于相信这些谎言,是因为它们在诱使她走容易走的下坡路:在这方面其他人对她犯下了最严重的罪行;在她从小到现在的整个一生中,他们都把这种服从当做她的真正使命(这对每一个对自由感到焦虑的生存者都是很诱人的),以此去损害她,收买她。如果一个孩子从小就被教得懒惰,整天寻欢作乐,不去学习,也不去证明自己是有用的,那么长大以后,很难说是他自己愿意无能和无知的;可是女人就是这么被教育大的,她从来没有对必须为自己的生存负责留下什么深刻印象。所以,她很容易让自己去依靠他人的保护、爱情、帮助和监督,很容易让自己迷恋于自我实现的希望而不去做任何事情。她在屈服于这种诱惑时犯了错误,但是男人不配去指责她,因为是他让她受到了诱惑。当他们产生冲突时,每一方都会让对方为这种处境负责;她会指责他,是他让她变成了这个样子:“没有人教我去推理和自谋生计”;他则会指责她,她已接受了这种后果:“你什么也不懂,你是个无能的人”等等。每一个性别都认为它能够通过采取这种攻势来为自己辩护;但是,一方所犯的错误不能成为为对方的罪责进行开脱的理由。


  The innumerable conflicts that set men and women against one another come from the fact that neither is prepared to assume all the consequences of this situation which the one has offered and the other accepted. The doubtful concept of ‘equality in inequality’, which the one uses to mask his despotism and the other to mask her cowardice, does not stand the test of experience: in their exchanges, woman appeals to the theoretical equality she has been guaranteed, and man the concrete inequality that exists. The result is that in every association an endless debate goes on concerning the ambiguous meaning of the words give and take: she complains of giving her all, he protests that she takes his all. Woman has to learn that exchanges – it is a fundamental law of political economy – are based on the value the merchandise offered has for the buyer, and not for the seller: she has been deceived in being persuaded that her worth is priceless. The truth is that for man she is an amusement, a pleasure, company, an inessential boon; he is for her the meaning, the justification of her existence. The exchange, therefore, is not of two items of equal value.


    使男女相互对立的无数冲突源于这一事实:每一方都不准备承担由一方所提供的、由另一方所接受的处境造成的一切后果。“不平等中的平等”是一个可疑的概念,这一方用它去掩饰他的专制,那一方则用它去掩饰她的懦弱,这个概念经不起体验的考验:在双方交换时,女人所要求的抽象平等实际上已经得到了保障,男人所要求的具体不平等也已经存在。结果,在每一个结合中都有关于“给予”和“占有”的含糊意义的无休止争论:她抱怨他给予了她的一切,他则抗议她占有了他的一切。女人不得不懂得了,交换(这是政治经济学的基本法则)是以提供的商品对于买主而不是对于卖主所具有的价值为基础的;而她却认为自己有无限的价值,她受骗了。实际上,她对男人是一种娱乐、一种快活、一个伙伴、一种次要的礼物;他对于她则是她生存的意义,她生存正当性的证明。所以,这种交换并不属于等价交换。


  This inequality will be especially brought out in the fact that the time they spend together – which fallaciously seems to be the same time – does not have the same value for both partners. During the evening the lover spends with his mistress he could be doing something of advantage to his career, seeing friends, cultivating business relationships, seeking recreation; for a man normally integrated in society, time is a positive value: money, reputation, pleasure. For the idle, bored woman, on the contrary, it is a burden she wishes to get rid of; when she succeeds in killing time, it is a benefit to her: the man’s presence is pure profit. In a liaison what most clearly interests the man, in many cases, is the sexual benefit he gets from it: if need be, he can be content to spend no more time with his mistress than is required for the sexual act; but – with exceptions – what she, on her part, wants is to kill all the excess time she has on her hands; and – like the greengrocer who will not sell potatoes unless the customer will take turnips also – she will not yield her body unless her lover will take hours of conversation and ‘going out’ into the bargain. A balance is reached if, on the whole, the cost does not seem too high to the man, and this depends, of course, on the strength of his desire and the importance he gives to what is to be sacrificed. But if the woman demands – offers – too much time, she becomes wholly intrusive, like the river overflowing its banks, and the man will prefer to have nothing rather than too much. Then she reduces her demands; but very often the balance is reached at the cost of a double tension: she feels that the man has ‘had’ her at a bargain, and he thinks her price is too high. This analysis, of course, is put in somewhat humorous terms; but – except for those affairs of jealous and exclusive passion in which the man wants total possession of the woman – this conflict constantly appears in cases of affection, desire, and even love. He always has ‘other things to do’ with his time; whereas she has time to kill; and he considers much of the time she gives him not as a gift but as a burden.


    这种不平等尤其表现在这一事实上,即他们所共同度过的时间,尽管看上去是等量的,实际上对于双方却有着不同的价值。在男人和他的情妇一起度过傍晚的时候,他可以去做对他的职业有利的事情,可以去看朋友,可以去培养业务关系,可以去谋求再创造;对一个通常被并入社会的男人来说,时间是一种积极的价值,意味着金钱、名誉和快乐。相反,对于懒散无聊的女人来说,时间却是她希望加以摆脱的负担;如果她能够成功地把它给消磨掉,这对她是有益的,所以男人的出现会带来足够的好处。在许多情况下,男人之所以十分明显地对私通感兴趣,是因为他从中得到了性的利益:如果需要的话,他会情愿和情妇呆在一起的时间与性行为所需要的时间一样多;但是除了例外情况,就她而言,她所希望的却是把她手头上的多余时间全部给打发掉;而且和除非顾客买萝卜否则就不会卖给他土豆的店主一样,她也是除非情人舍得花时间陪她谈话和“出去”,否则就不会交出自己的身体。如果在男人看来这种代价基本上还不算太高,便会达到平衡,而这当然要视他的欲望有多强和他认为要作出的牺牲有多大而定。但是,如果女人所要求或献出的时间太多,她就会像溢出河岸的河水那样只会起到侵犯作用,这时男人宁肯什么也得不到,也不愿意要得太多。于是她会降低自己的要求,但达到平衡常以双方的紧张为代价,因为她会觉得男人廉价地“占有”了她,而他则会认为她的要价太高。这样分析当然有点幽默;但是,除非这些恋爱具有嫉妒和排他的情欲,因而男人想完全占有女人,否则在感情、欲望乃至爱情的情况下,会不断出现这种冲突。他总是有“别的事情要做”,这需要花费他的时间;而她却有的是时间去挥霍;他认为她献给他的许多时间,不是礼物而是负担。


  As a rule he consents to assume the burden because he knows very well that he is on the privileged side, he has a bad conscience; and if he is of reasonable good will he tries to compensate for the inequality by being generous. He prides himself on his compassion, however, and at the first clash he treats the woman as ungrateful and thinks, with some irritation: ‘I’m too good for her.’ She feels she is behaving like a beggar when she is convinced of the high value of her gifts, and that humiliates her.


    通常,他同意承受这种负担是因为他很清楚自己属于特权的一方,他问心无愧;如果他是一个通情达理、心地善良的人,就会试图慷慨补偿这种不平等。不过他也会为自己的怜悯感到自豪,所以他在第一次冲突时就把女人当做忘恩负义之徒对待,有点恼火的认为:“我对她太好了。”她深信自己的奉献具有高度的价值,可是又觉得自己的举止像个乞丐,令她蒙受耻辱。


  Here we find the explanation of the cruelty that woman often shows she is capable of practising; she has a good conscience because she is on the unprivileged side; she feels she is under no obligation to deal gently with the favoured caste, and her only thought is to defend herself. She will even be very happy if she has occasion to show her resentment to a lover who has not been able to satisfy all her demands: since he does not give her enough, she takes savage delight in taking back everything from him. At this point the wounded lover suddenly discovers the value in toto of a liaison each moment of which he held more or less in contempt: he is ready to promise her everything, even though he will feel exploited again when he has to make good. He accuses his mistress of blackmailing him: she calls him stingy; both feel wronged.

 

    我们在这里无情地发现了女人经常显示具有实践能力的原因;她之所以问心无愧是因为她属于无特权的一方;她觉得她没有义务去善待那个收益的等级,她唯一的念头就是自卫。如果有机会发泄她对不能满足她要求的情人的怨恨,她甚至会感到快乐:既然他没有给够她,她便从他那儿抽回一切,以此来野蛮地取乐。这时受伤害的情人会突然发现,在他或多或少予以轻视的每时每刻,都有着私通的in toto[全部]价值,于是他会欣然允诺她一切,即使他在被迫兑现时又会有被利用的感觉。他会指责情妇对他敲诈:她则会叫他小气鬼;两个人都会有受虐感。


  Once again it is useless to apportion blame and excuses: justice can never be done in the midst of injustice. A colonial administrator has no possibility of acting rightly towards the natives, nor a general towards his soldiers; the only solution is to be neither colonist nor military chief; but a man could not prevent himself from being a man. So there he is, culpable in spite of himself and labouring under the effects of a fault he did not himself commit; and here she is, victim and shrew in spite of herself. Sometimes he rebels and becomes cruel, but then he makes himself an accomplice of the injustice, and the fault becomes really his. Sometimes he lets himself be annihilated, devoured, by his demanding victim; but in that case he feels duped. Often he stops at a compromise that at once belittles him and leaves him ill at ease. A well-disposed man will be more tortured by the situation than the woman herself: in a sense it is always better to be on the side of the vanquished; but if she is well-disposed also, incapable of self-sufficiency, reluctant to crush the man with the weight of her destiny, she struggles in hopeless confusion.


    指责和辩解依旧无济于事,因为正义绝不可能在非正义中实现。殖民地官员绝无可能公正对待土著人同样将军也绝无可能公正对待他的士兵;唯一的解决办法就是不去做殖民者,不去做军事首领;但男人不可能不做男人;于是,一方面,他不知不觉地处于该受指责的地位,对其实并不是他的错误造成的后果深感苦恼;而另一方面,她则在不知不觉当中变成了受害者和泼妇。有时他会反抗,变得残酷无情,但那样他会让自己变成非正义的同谋,那种错误就会真的属于他。有时他会让自己被那个苛求的受害者给消灭掉,给吞噬掉;但那时他又会感到受愚弄。他往往只好妥协,而这妥协既让他受到贬低,又让他心神不宁。一个性情温和的男人,会受到这种处境而不是受到女人本人的折磨,所以在某种意义上,被征服者的一方反倒要好一些;但如果她也是性情温和,既不能自立又不愿意用她的沉重命运去压垮男人,那么她就会在无望的混乱中挣扎。


  In daily life we meet with an abundance of these cases which are incapable of satisfactory solution because they are determined by unsatisfactory conditions. A man who is compelled to go on materially and morally supporting a woman whom he no longer loves feels he is victimised; but if he abandons without resources the woman who has pledged her whole life to him, she will be quite as unjustly victimised. The evil originates not in the perversity of individuals and bad faith first appears when each blames the other – it originates rather in a situation against which all individual action is powerless. Women are ‘clinging’, they are a dead weight, and they suffer for it; the point is that their situation is like that of a parasite sucking out the living strength of another organism. Let them be provided with living strength of their own, let them have the means to attack the world and wrest from it their own subsistence, and their dependence will be abolished – that of man also. There is no doubt that both men and women will profit greatly from the new situation.


    在日常生活中,我们会碰到很多这样的情况,它们由于取决于讨厌的环境,无法得到满意的解决。一个男人若是被迫在物质上和精神上资助他不再去爱的女人,便会觉得自己是个受害者;但他若将一个把一生都低押给他的女人彻底抛弃,她就会成为受到不公正对待的受害者。这种不幸并不是始于个人堕落(当一方指责另一方时,无诚意就已经开始出现了),宁可说是始于个人在其面前无能为力的处境。女人是“缠人的”,她们完全是个负担,她们因此而受罚;问题的实质在于,她们的处境同吸吮另一个机体的有生力量的寄生虫的处境毫无二致。让她们有自己的有生力量吧,让她们有向世界进攻并夺回她们自己本质的手段吧!那时她们的依附性就会得到消除——男人的依附也会得到消除。毫无疑问,男女双方将会从这一新的处境中得到巨大的利益。

 

  说明:
  以上英文版内容源自The Second Sex, 1949, translated by H M Parshley, Penguin 1972;中文版内容源自陶铁柱先生从英文版转译的中文版《第二性》,中国书籍出版社,1998年2月;法文原版Le Deuxième Sexe,Simone de Beauvoir,1949。以上内容为该书最后一部分“结论”(Conclusion),本博引用仅供好友参考交流,请勿转载。


  作者简介:
  西蒙娜·德·波伏娃(1908-1986),享誉世界的法国著名作家,当代最负盛名的女权主义者。存在主义的鼻祖让-保尔·萨特的终身伴侣,她的存在主义的女权理论,对西方的思想和习俗产生了巨大的影响。法国前总统密特朗称她为“法国和全世界的最杰出作家”;另一位法国前总统希拉克则在一次讲演中说:“她介入文学,代表了某种思想运动,在一个时期标志着我们社会的特点,她的无可置疑的才华,使她成为一个在法国文学史上最有地位的作家。”她的代表作《第二性》是女权主义的重要理论著作,被誉为女人的“圣经”。

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