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虚拟语气的用法(quote&share)

(2009-11-25 13:58:13)
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杂谈

虚拟语气是一种特殊的动词形式,一是用来表示说话人所说的话不是一个事实,而是一种假设、猜测、怀疑等(用在条件从句中或让步状语从句中);二是表示说话人的愿望、要求、命令、建议等 (用在主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句、同位语从句中)。
  下面我们分以下五种情况来讲述虚拟语气的用法。
  一、虚拟语气在if 引导的条件从句中的用法。(主句与从句中的谓语动词的形式如下表)

虚拟语气的用法(quote&share)

 
   e.g. 1. If I were you, I would go at once.
  假如我是你的话,我会马上走。(表示与现在事实相反)
  2. If you had come a few minutes earlier, you would have met him.
  要是你早来几分钟的话,你就能见到他了。(表示与过去事实相反)
  3. If it should rain tomorrow, the meeting would be put off.
  如果明天下雨的话,会议将被推迟。(表示与将来事实相反)
  注意:(一)当if条件从句中谓语有were, should, had 时,可省略if, 把were, should, had提到句首,采用倒装。e.g.
  1. If I were you, I would agree to the plan.
  Were I you, I would agree to the plan.
  如果我是你的话,我就会同意这项计划。
  2. If I had known more about giving first aid, I would have helped them.
  Had I known more about giving first aid, I would have helped them. 如果我懂得更多如何给予急救的知识的话,我就能够帮助他们了。
  3. If it should rain, the crops would be saved.
  Should it rain, the crops would be saved.
  如果下雨的话,庄稼就能获救了。
  (二)含蓄条件句
  有时if条件句是以其他形式表示出来的,如上下文或介词短语形式等,常见的有but for (要不是),without, otherwise…。e.g.
  1. But for you, I should be dead by now.
  要不是你, 我现在早死了。
  2. Without your help we couldn’t have finished the job yesterday.
  要不是你的帮助,我们昨天完不成工作。
  3. He hesitated for a moment before kicking the ball, otherwise he would have scored a goal.在踢球前他犹豫了一下,否则的话他就会破门得分了。
  (三)混杂条件句
  即从句与主句的动作发生的时间不同,那么主从句谓语就依据相应的时间,使用相应的谓语。e.g.
  1. If he had followed the doctor’s advice, he would be all right now. 要是他听从医生的意见, 他现在就好了。
  2. If he had listened to me, he would not be in such trouble now.
  如果他当时听了我的话, 现在就不会遇到麻烦了。
  3. If it had rained last night, it would be very cool today.
  如果昨天晚上下了雨的话,今天就会非常凉爽了。
  二、 虚拟语气在名词性从句中的用法。
  (一)虚拟语气在主语从句中的用法
  ★在It is important/strange/natural/necessary…+that从句中,谓语动词常常用should+do(should可省略)。e.g.
  1. It’s necessary that we (should) have a walk now.
  我们有必要出去散散步。
  2. It’s natural that she (should) do so. 她这样做是很自然的。
  3. It’s important that we (should) take good care of the patient.
  重要的是我们要照顾好病人。
  ★在“It be+ordered\insisted\suggested that…这一类句型中,主语从句中的谓语动词应用虚拟语气。即(should)+do。这一类动词有order, suggest, insist, demand, require等。e.g.
  1. It was suggested that the medicine should be sent there by plane. 这种药被建议空运到那里。
  2. It was ordered that we should start work at once.
  我们被命令立刻开始工作。


To be continued

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