加载中…
个人资料
浍夢之卷
浍夢之卷
  • 博客等级:
  • 博客积分:0
  • 博客访问:449
  • 关注人气:0
  • 获赠金笔:0支
  • 赠出金笔:0支
  • 荣誉徽章:
相关博文
推荐博文
谁看过这篇博文
加载中…
正文 字体大小:

九年级英语

(2011-01-03 13:35:06)
标签:

杂谈

1  a bit/ a little
 这两个词都意为“一点儿”有时可以互换,但有时不能。
Ⅰ.二者作程度副词修饰形容词、副词、动词或比较级时,意义相同,为“一点儿” “有些”。如:
① I am a bit / a little hungry. 我有点饿。
② He walked a bit / a little slowly. 他走路有点慢。
Ⅱ.二者都可以作名词词组,充当主语或宾语。如:
① A little / bit is enough for me. 我有一点儿就够了。
② I know only a little / a bit about her. 我对她的情况只了解一点。
Ⅲ。a little可直接修饰名词;a bit后须加of才可以。如:
①. There is a little water in the bottle. = There is a bit of water in the bottle.
[注意] a little of 后的名词通常特指,表“……中的一些”,如:
①May I have a little of your tea?
Ⅳ. 否定形式 not a little 作状语,相当于very/ quite, “很”, “非常”;作定语和宾语时,相当于much, 意为 “许多”。而not a bit 作状语时,相当于not at all, 意为“一点也不”,作宾语时则相当于not much. Eg:
① He is not a little (=very) hungry. 他饿极了。
② He is not a bit (=not at all) hungry.他一点也不饿。
③ She ate not a little (=much). 她吃得很多。
Ⅴ. Not a bit 中的not 可以分开使用;not a little中的not 则不能分开。Eg:
① He felt not a bit tired. = He didn’t feel a bit tired.  他觉得一点也不累。
② He felt not a little tired. 他觉得非常累。但不能说:He didn’t fell a little tired.

§13 feel like / would like
Ⅰ.feel like 与would like 意思很相近,但feel like 后面常跟名词;动名词。构成:feel like (doing) sth. 而 would like 一般接名词;动词不定式。构成:would like (to do) sth.的句式。如:
① I feel like (having) a drink. = I would like (to have) a drink. 我想喝一杯。
② Do you feel like talking a walk. = Would you like to take a walk? 你要不要散步?
③ I don’t feel like eating. 我不想吃东西。
Ⅱ.feel like 还表示:“觉得好像,摸起来像”。如:
① It feels like silk. 它摸起来像绸缎。

§15. ago/before
Ⅰ. ago adv. “……以前”指从此刻起,若干时间以前,通常与过去连用。如:
① It happened two days ago.这件事发生在两天以前。
② I met him a few minutes ago.我在几分钟以前碰到他。
Ⅱ. before adv, prep & conj “……以前”指从那时起若干时间以前。通常与完成时、过去时等连用。还可用作前置词或连接词表时间,而ago 则不能这样用。
① He said that he had seen her two days before.他说他两天前见到过她。(表从她说话那时起两天前)
② I had been fine the day before.(那天)前一天的天气很好。
③ I’ve seen that film before.
④ I never met him before.

§16. agree to/ agree with/ agree on(up on)
Ⅰ. agree to “同意、应允”通常用于同意某件事情(我们可以同意我们自己有不同看法而并不赞同的事情)。如:
① Do you agree to this plan?
② He agreed to my proposal.他同意了我的提议。
③ I agreed to his terms. 我同意了他的条件。
Ⅱ. agree with “同意、赞同”常常表示同某人意见一致,也可表赞同某件事情。还有“(气候、食物等)适合”之意。如:
① I quite agree with you.我很同意你。
② Do you agree with me ?
③ I agree with all you say.我同意你所说的。
④ His words do not agree with his actions.他言行不一致。
⑤ Too much meat doesn’t agree with her.  吃太多肉对她身体不合适。
[注]:agree with 不能用于被动语态。
Ⅲ. agree on /upon “对……取得一致意见”指两方或多方就某个问题取得了一致的意见或达成了某种协议。如:
① After discussion the two sides agreed on a cease-fire.  经过讨论,双方就停火问题达成了协议。
② They all agree on the plan.他们对这个计划意见一致。
[注]:此句型可转换成agree in doing sth.如:
① All of them agreed on / upon it. = All of them agreed in doing it. 他们对做这个问题达成了共识。

§17 at times / at all times / all the time
Ⅰ. at times “不时;偶尔”如:
① The tide is , at times, very high. 潮水有时涨得高。
② I make mistakes at times  when I speak English. 我说英语偶尔会出错。
Ⅱ. at all times.“随时;任何时候;总是” 如:
He has a cool head at all times. 他随时都有清醒的头脑。
Ⅲ. all the time “一直;始终” 其中time用单数形式。如:
The baby cries all the time. 那婴儿一直哭。

§20. all/ every
Ⅰ. all 和 every 意思十分相近,二者都可用来泛指人或物。但all可与算数的名词连用,而every 只能与单数的名词连用。如:
① All Mondays are horrible. 星期一总是可怕的。
② Every Monday is horrible. 每个星期一都是可怕的。
Ⅱ. all 和 every 也可用来指某一类东西中的个体。但all 后跟the 或其它“限定词”,而every后却不能。它往往强调无一例外的意思。
--She is eaten all the biscuits[‘biskit]. –What, every one? –Every single one! 她把饼干都吃光了。怎么,把每一块都吃光了吗?每一块全都吃了!
Ⅲ. all 还可和单数名词连用,表示every past of 而every却不能有此义。如:
She was here all day. 她在这呆了一整天。

§21. all/ whole
Ⅰ. 二者意义(“全部、都、整个”)相同,然而词序不同。
Ⅱ. all用于冠词,所有格或其它“限定词”之前。
   whole 则用于冠词之后。如:
① all the time. ────→the whole time.全部时间
② all my life  ────→the whole life.我的一生
③ all this confusion ─→  this whole confusion.整个混乱状况。
Ⅲ. 如果没有冠词,或其它限定词,whole不能与单数名词连用。可以说:
① The whole city was burning.但不能说:
② Whole London was burning.
Ⅳ.whole 和 all 与复数名词连用时意思不同。Whole 的意思为“全部”,而all的意思则近乎“每一个”如:
① All Indian tribes([traib]部首 ) suffered from white settlement in America. 所有印第安人部首都因白人移民美洲而遭殃。
② Whole Indian tribes were killed off. 有些印第安人部落整个被杀光了。
Ⅴ. whole 一般不用来修饰不可数名词(包括物质名词)
① 可以说:all the money 或all the wine
② 不可以说:the whole money 或the whole wine.
③ The whole of = whole 与单数名词连用。它用于冠词、所有格之前。
the whole of the time.
      the whole of my life
the whole of this confusion

§25  aloud/ loud/ loudly
Ⅰ. aloud adv. “出声地”有使能听得到的意味。如:
① Please read the story aloud. 请朗读这个故事。
② They were shouting aloud.他们在高声地呼喊。
Ⅱ. loud. adv “高声地、大声地、响亮地”常指在说笑等方面。如:
① Don’t talk so loud. 不要如此高声地谈话。
② Speak louder. 说得大声点。
Ⅲ. loudly adv. “高声地”有时与loud 通用,但含有喧闹的意味。如:
① Someone knocked loudly at the door. 有人大声敲门。
② Don’t talk so loudly(loud). 不要如此高声地谈话。

§27  also/ as well/ too/ either “也”
Ⅰ. also较正式,位置通常靠近动词,用于句中;且用于肯定句中。如:
① He also plays football. 他也踢足球。
② I was also there.我也在那儿。
Ⅱ. too 多用于口语,通常置于句末,前边须用逗号隔开,也可用于句中,且前后均须用逗号隔开,;用于肯定句中。如:
① He is a worker, too.
② The two cows, too, are white.那两头奶牛也全都是白的。
Ⅲ. as well 是副词短语,多用于口语,只用于句末。如:
① She not only taught us English but taught us maths as well.她不但教过我们英语,还教过我们数学。
② He is a teacher and a writer as well.他是位教师,也是一位作家。
Ⅳ. either 用于否定句中,常置于句末。在肯定句变否定句时,其中的also, too, as well都要改为either.
① Yesterday I didn’t watch TV and I didn’t see the film, either  .昨天我没有看电视,也没有看电影。

§28 for / from / since
Ⅰ. 三者都能用来表示时间,但用法不同。
  since “自从”,所表示的是一个时间点。可用作介词,也可用作连词,后接时间名词或短语,或引导时间状语从句;要求前面的谓语动词或主句的谓语动词必须用完成时态,要用延续性动词。而since引导的从句中的谓语动词通常应是短暂性的动词。若接时间,则应为点时间。如:
① He has worked there since1989. 
② She has lived here since she moved here.
Ⅱ. from “自从” 只用作介词,表一个事情的开始点,可用于过去、现在或将来的时态。如:
① They worked from 7:00 to 12:00 this morning.
② We have been good friends from childhood.
Ⅲ. for 作为介词,后面接段时间,用于完成时、现在时、过去时和将来时,句中要用延续性动词。如:
① We’ll stay here for ten minutes.我们将在这儿呆10分钟。
② They have studied English for three yeas.

§30 always / yet
Ⅰ. always “总是;一直”常与一般现在时连用。有时也与进行时连用, 但并不强调动作正在进行,而是表示“赞叹、厌烦、不满”等情绪。常用于肯定句中,放在“三类词”(情态动词、助动词、系动词本书称为“三类词”)之后,行为动词之前。如:
① We always get up before six o’clock. 我们总是六点前起床。
② He is always thinking of others. 他总是想着别人。
Ⅱ. yet. “仍然;还”常与not连用。用于否定结构中。如:
①He hasn’t finished the work yet. 他还没完成这项工作。

§36  another/ the other/ other/ others/ the others
Ⅰ. another 指不定数目中的“另一个、又一个” (三个以上)用来代替或修饰可数名词。如:
I don’t think the coat is good enough. Can you show me another?
Ⅱ. other 泛指“另外的”修饰复数名词。如:
We study Chinese, maths, English and other subjects.
Ⅲ. others 泛指“另外的人或物”, 但不指其余的人或物的全部。如:
Some like swimming, others  like boating.
Ⅳ. the other 指两个中的“另一个”如:
He has two sons, one is in Shanghai, the other is in Beijing.
Ⅴ. the others 特指某一范围内的“其余全部的人或物”如:
There are thirty books on the bookshelf. Five are mine, the others are my father’s.

§44  arrive/ reach/ get to
Ⅰ. arrive, reach, get to 均有“到达”之意,意义基本相同,但arrive(in)/(at) 与reach, 是正式用语,get to 是通俗用词,常用于口语。
Ⅱ. arrive 是不及物动词,表到达什么地点时,后面应接前置词in或at, 一般说,到达一个大地方常用in, 到达较小的地方常用at, 但这不绝对的。(与地点副词连用时当然不用任何前置词)如:
① He arrived in Beijing yesterday.
② When he arrived at the stop, the bus had left.
Ⅲ. reach 是及物动词,后面直接跟表地点的名词。如:
When does the train reach London?
Ⅳ. get to 只是较口语化。接地点副词时不用to. 如:
① He got to  the shop at 5:00 o’clock this afternoon.
② When I got there, the film had been on for 5 minutes.

§46  as soon as/ as early as/ as quickly as
Ⅰ. 这三个词都有“尽快、尽早”之意。
Ⅱ. as soon as 侧重于“极短时间内”。还表示“一……就……”之意,引导状语从句。如:
① I’ll return it as soon as I can.我将尽快地把它还给你。
Ⅲ. as early as 侧重于一天中的早晨或在限定的时间内再早点,以便能达到预期的目的。如:
① You should arrive there as early as you can.  你应尽早到达那里。
Ⅳ. as quickly as 表做某事的速度非常之快或动作非常之敏捷。如:
① Please read the text as quickly as you can. 请把课文尽快读一遍。

§48  as well as/ as well
Ⅰ. as well as “也”“不仅…而且”意同:not only … but also具有连词性。
① She is my friend as well as my doctor.  他不仅是我的医生,也是我的朋友。
② Small towns as well as big cities are being industrialized.  小城市与大城市一样都在迅速实现工业化。
Ⅱ. as well “也”具有副词性。大致相当于also 或 too . 如:
He can speak Chinese as well.

§53  asleep/ sleep / sleepy
Ⅰ. asleep adj “睡着的”;常作表语。如:
① The children have been asleep.孩子们已睡着了。
② He was too tired and fell asleep at once.  他太累了,立刻就睡着了。
Ⅱ. sleep v & n “睡着”。如:
① You have a good sleep. 你需要好好睡一觉。
② Last night I sleep very well. 我昨天晚上睡得很好。
Ⅲ. sleepy adj “困乏的、想睡的”。如:
① She is always sleepy. 她总是想睡觉。
② I feel very sleepy now. 我现在昏昏欲睡。

§54  at Christmas/ on Christmas
Ⅰ. at Christmas 表示“在圣诞节期间”,既可以表示在圣诞节当天,也可以表示在圣诞节前后不久。如:
I’ll return at Christmas 我将在圣诞节期间回来。
Ⅱ. on Christmas 则指“在圣诞节”,一般仅指在十二月二十五日当天。如:
Children always get many presents on Christmas Day. 在圣诞节孩子们总是收到许多圣诞节礼物。
[注]:on Christmas Eve 指的是“在圣诞节前夜”相当于中国的除夕。

§57  at school/ in school/ in a (the) school
Ⅰ. at school表示“在学校、在上学”相对于在家里或在校外。如:
① My son is at school now. He is not at home or somewhere else. 我儿子现在在学校,他不在家,也不在别的地方。
② When my brother was at school, he studied very hard. 在学校时,我兄弟学习很用功。
Ⅱ. in school “在求学、在上学”相对于有工作。如:
My daughter still in school She doesn’t work.。 我女儿还在上学,她不在工作。
[注]:①和②用at school 强调所在场所或时间。③中的in school 则强调主语的身份是学生。因此,in school. 和 at school的着重点不一样,通常不互换使用。
Ⅲ. In a / the school “在学校”,不一定指上学。类似的还有:
in hospital “生病住院”
in a / the hospital表“在医院”(工作或探视病人等)
at table “在吃饭”
at a / the table “在桌边”(有可能在聊天或看报)
① Is your friend in school? 你的朋友在上学吗?
① Your friend looked for you in the school just now. 刚才你的朋友在学校里找你。
② Children are often in hospital when they are young. 孩子们小的时候经常生病住院。
③ She is a good doctor in the hospital .她是医院里的一名好大夫。

§72  be pleased with/ at/ to
Ⅰ. be pleased with “对……人/物,感到满意”介词with后接人或物。 如:
① Both Mark and her mother were pleased with the girl.  马克和他妈妈都有喜欢这个女孩。
② I wasn’t very pleased with / at my exam results.  我对自己的考试成绩不太满意。
Ⅱ. be pleased at “对……某事/物,感到满意”。介词at 常与事物搭配使用。
He was very pleased at the news.他对这个消息感到很满意。
Ⅲ. be pleased to “乐意……; 因……而高兴”。to 不是介词,而是小品词。后接动词原形。如:
① I shall be pleased to go. 我将乐意去。
② We are quite pleased to be working in this country.  能在这个国家工作,我们是十分高兴的。

§76  be used for/ be used as/ be used by
Ⅰ. be used for “(被)用来做……”,强调用途或作用。
Ⅱ. be used as  “(被)作为……而用”,强调被当作工具或手段来用。
Ⅲ. be used by “被……使用”,by后跟人物,强调使用者。如:
① Keys are used for opening locks. 钥匙是用来开锁的。
② “Swim” can be used as a noun. “Swim”可作名词用。
③ Recorders are often used by English teachers. 英语教师经常使用录音机。
④ Wood can be used for  making paper. 木材能用来造纸。

§91 forget to do / forget doing
Ⅰ. forget  如:
① I forgot to tell him about it.我忘了把事告诉他。
② I forgot telling him about it. 我忘了,我曾把这事告诉过他。
[注意]:类似的还有:
① try 如:
1. Let’s try knocking at the back door..让我们敲敲后门试试看。
2. We will try to go home tomorrow. 明天我们争取回家。
② remember  regret doing sth/to do sth 与此亦同。
③ go on 
④ need 
want doing sth / to do sth. 与此相同。

§98  borrow/ lend /keep
Ⅰ. borrow “借”指从别人那里借来东西(借入)。指“向某人或某处借某事”时,用搭配: Borrow sth from sb / sw.如:
① Can I borrow your pen? 可以借用一下的笔吗?
② Do you often borrow books from the library? 你经常从图书馆借书吗?
Ⅱ. lend “借”指把东西供给别人(借出)。指“把某物借给某人”时用:lend sth to sb. 如:
① Can you lend me your pen? 把钢笔供给我好吗?
② You mustn’t lend it to others.你一定不要把它供给别人。
Ⅲ. keep 表“借多长时间”, 时延续性动词。可用于完成时态。而borrow 和 lend 是短暂性动词。则不能用于完成时态,或与表段时间的状语连用。如:
① He has kept the books for two weeks.他借这书两天了。
② ---How long can I keep the book? ---Two weeks.

§100  bring/ take/ fetch/ get/ carry
都有“拿”的意思,但用法差别很大,切勿混同。
Ⅰ.bring“拿来、带来”强调从别处带某人或某物来到说话人所在地。如:
The teacher asked the students to bring their dictionaries to the class.
Ⅱ.take“拿走、带走”强调人或事物离开说话人所在地,与bring的关系相当于go与come的相对关系。如:
May I take this magazine home?
Ⅲ.fetch“去取来、去拿来” 指去取了东西又回来这一往返过程,相当于go and bring,但不同于bring,如:
Please fetch me some chalk.
get与fetch意思相似,多用于口语。如:
Go and get/fetch some water.
Ⅳ.carry“携带、搬运”强调某物从甲地移至乙地,带有物体随身移动但无固定方向。如:
① He carried the box upstairs.
另外空气、水、电携带物也用carry.如:
① The boat was carried by ocean currents to a small island.这船被大洋的水流飘至一小岛。

§158 put down/ put up/ put on/ put away /
put off /put one’s heart into…
Ⅰ.   如:
① Don’t put down your hands. Put them up.  不要放下手,举起来。
② A new notice has been put up. 已经贴出来一张新的通告。
③ He took down the old picture and put up the new one.  他把旧画拿了下来,挂上了一幅新画。
④ A big building has been put up (= set up / build)in our school. 我们学校又盖起了一座大楼。
⑤ He put on his coat and hat and went out. 他穿上大衣,戴上帽子出去了。
⑥ Has the play been put on at this theater? 这个剧院上演过那部戏剧吗?
⑦ Let’s put our Christmas gifts away and keep them a while. 我们还时把圣诞礼物暂时保存起来吧。
⑧ Put away your coats in summer. 夏天时把大衣收起来。
⑨ The meeting has been put off because of the rain.  大会因大雨而延期举行。
⑩ You can do anything well if you put your heart into it. 如果你全心身地投入,你什么事都能做好。
He put his heart into his work and didn’t notice me.

§159  dress/ put on/ wear/ in/ try on
Ⅰ. dress “穿”指穿的动作,也指其状态。如:
① His mother dressed him in new clothes. 他的母亲给他穿上了新衣服。
② Get up and dress quickly. 快起床穿衣。
③ She dresses neatly.  他穿着整齐。
[注]:作vt,直接对象是人,而不是穿的衣服;作vi时,不能表穿什么衣服。
Ⅱ. put on “穿;戴”强调其动作。如:
① Put on your coat. 穿上大衣。
② He put on his hat and went out. 他戴上帽子出去了。
Ⅲ. wear “穿;戴” 强调其状态。如:
① He wears a coat. 他穿着大衣。
② The teacher wears glasses.老师戴着眼镜。
Ⅳ. in “穿;戴” 是介词。它构成的短语作定语或表语表其状态。其后还可接表颜色的词。如:
① She is in a coat . 她穿着大衣。
② The boy in blue is my brother.  那个穿蓝色衣服的男孩是我的弟弟。
Ⅴ. try on “试穿/ 戴”如:
Please go to the tailor’s to have a suit tried on.  请到裁缝店去试穿一套衣服。

§172  even if / even though/ though
三者都可以引导让步状语从句。Even if 与even though一般可以换用,意为“即使、纵然”,引出的从句叙述的是假设或把握我大的事情,有时动词可用虚拟语气;though 意思是“虽然”,引出的从句叙述的是事实。如:
① He won’t tell me about it though he knows the news 虽然他知道这个消息但他不愿意告诉我。(他是肯定知道的)
② He won’t tell me about it even if / though he knows the news 即使他知道这个消息,但他不愿意告诉我。(他对消息或知或我知,句子含有一定的推测意味)
③ I will try even if I may fail. 即使失败,我也要尝试一下。
④ Though it was very late, he went on working. 虽然很晚了,他还继续工作。
[注] though 和but 不能同时出现在句中。

§213  have been to / have been in / have gone to
Ⅰ. have been to … 表示:“曾经到过某处”但目前人未在那儿。如:
① Where have you been? 你到哪儿去了?(现在已回来)I have been to Beijing. 我去北京了。(现不在北京)
② I have never been there before, have I?  我以前从未去过那儿,是吗?
Ⅱ. have been in 表示:“去了某地,并曾在那儿(一段时间),或现在仍在那儿。
① She has been in Shanghai for a few weeks.
Ⅲ. have gone to … 表示:“去了”指人已经走了,(至少目前不在说话的地点,在去的途中或已经到目的地)。如:
① Kate isn’t at home, She has gome to school.  凯特不在家,她上学去了。(在路上或已经在学校了)。
② She isn’t here, she has gone to Nanjing. 她不在这儿,她去南京了。
§214  have sth done/ have sb done/have sb do sth/ have sb(sth) doing/ have sb(sth) +prep
Ⅰ. have sth done “让某事被做”如:
I’ll have my hair cut tomorrow.  明天我要去理发。(让别人理)。
Ⅱ. have sh done。“让某人被……”如:
He had me whipped. 他叫人用鞭子打我。(让别人打)
Ⅲ. have sb do sth. “让某人做某事”如:
I will have Uncle Wang repair my TV.  我要让王叔叔修理我的电视机。
Ⅳ. have sb./ sth. doing “让某人/ 某物处于某种状态。如:
① Don’t have the students studying all day. 别整天让学生們学习。
② They had the machine working all day and all night. 他们让这机器整日整夜地工作。
Ⅴ. have sb./ sth. +介词短语或副词,如:
① The teacher had her students in the classroom.老师让学生留在教室里。
② Have her here! 让她到这儿来。
§215  have to / must
Ⅰ. have to “必须”往往着重于客观的需要,含有不得不的意味。如:
① Do you have to see a doctor today? 你今天要去看医生吗?
② It was late and we have to stay at home. 时间已晚,我们只得呆在家里。
Ⅱ. must “必须 ”往往着重于主观上认为有义务,有必要。如:
① We must work hard. 我们必须努力工作。
② We must go. 我必须去。
§216  have/ own
Ⅰ. have “有”表人与物/人,物与物之间存在的“所有;所属”的关系。有时人不一定是物/人的主人。如:
① I have an English book here. 我这儿有一本英语书。
② Do you have any money with you? 你带有钱吗?
Ⅱ. own 用于较正式场合,强调“(合法地)拥有”某物的所有权,主语一定是该物的主人。如:
① I own a bike. 我有一辆自行车。
② Who owns the car? 这辆小汽车是谁的?
§218  hear/ hear of/ hear from
Ⅰ. hear “听见”指听力,强调听的结果。如:
① I often hear Lucy sing in the next room.
Ⅱ. hear of “听说”强调间接听到有关某人的情况或得到消息。有时可用about 代替of,意义无多大的区别。如:
① We are all glad to hear of your success. 听到你成功的消息,我们都很高兴。
② Have you heard of her lately? 你最近听到她什么情况吗?
Ⅲ. hear from “接到……的来信(电话等)”如:
① Hope to hear from you soon. 希望你早点来信。
② We have not heard from him since he left. 自从他离开后,我们一直没有收到他的来信。
§228  if/ whether
Ⅰ.都有“是否”之意。在某种情况下右互换。如:
⑤ I don’t know if / whether he’ll come tomorrow. 我不知道明天他是否来。
Ⅱ. 但在下列6种情况下if 不能替换whether:
1. 正式文体中,句中有or not时。如:
I wonder whether it is big enough or not. 我不知道它是否够大。
  2.引导主语、表语、同位语从句时。如:
   Whether it is true(or not) is still a question. 它是不是真的还是一个问题。
  3. 作介词宾语时,如:
  I haven’t decided the quwstion of whether I’ll go back home. 我还未决定是否要回家去。
  4. 放在不定式前,与不定式组成词组。如:
  Li Lei hasn’t decided whether to go or not. 李雷还未决定去还是不去。
  5. 作discuss等词的宾语时,如:
   They discuss whether they should close the shop. 他们讲座是否该关闭那家商店。
  6. 引导的从句放在句首时。如:
   Whether this is true or not, I cannot say.这件事是否真实我说不上。
Ⅲ. if 还有连词的功能,意为“如果”引导条件状语从句;而whether另有“不管,无论”之意,引导让步状语从句。如:
① I will be happy if you call me. 如果你打电话给我,我将很高兴。
② Whether you like it or not, you’ll have to do it. 不管你喜欢不喜欢,你必须做这件事。

§232 in the future/in future
这两个词组都有“在将来”的意思,但含义上有区别。
Ⅰ.in furture多指从现在开始近期的将来,在时间上包括现在。如:
① You must be more careful in furture. 你今后必须更加小心。
② He promised to give me more help in furture. 他答应今后给我更多的帮助。
Ⅱ.in the furture多指较遥远的将来的某一时间,在时间概念上一般不包括现在。如:
① Who can tell what will happen in the furture? 谁能说准将来会发生什么?
② In the furture travel agencies may be organizing trips to the moon. 将来,旅行社可能会组织去月球的旅行。
[注] in the furture 的 furture 前加形容词时,不要去掉 the 。如in the near/far /distant furture。
§233 in time/on time
Ⅰ.in time“及时”,指的是不迟到或在提前的时间之前做某事,后面可接不定式或for短语。
Ⅱ.on time“准时”,指按规定的时间或指定的时间做某事,后面不可以跟不定式或for短语。如:
① Joe was just in time for the bud. Joe正好赶上那班汽车。
② They got there on time to see the exhibition.  他们准时到那儿,去看了那个展览。
③ Can you get there in time? 你能及时感到那儿吗?
④ You must always return your library book on time. 你必须总是按时归还从图书馆借的书。

§239  join / join in / take part in
Ⅰ. join 可用来表示加入某个政党、团体、组织等, 指成为其中的成员。如:
① My uncle joined the Party in 1989.
② We are going for a swim .Will you come and join us. 我们要去游泳,你和我们一起去好吗?
Ⅱ. join in 表“加入、参与”某种活动,后接名词或动词的ing 形式,表“参加某人的活动”可以说:join sb. in (doing) sth. 如:
① He joined them in the work.他同他们一起工作。
② Will you join us in playing basketball? 你跟我们一起打篮球好吗?
Ⅲ. take part in 指“参加”会议、考试、竞赛或群众性活动,重在说明句子主语参加该项活动并在其中发挥作用。如:
① The teacher took part in our discussion yesterday. 昨天老师参加了我们的讨论。
② When will you take part in the meeting?  你将在什么时候参加会议?
[注意]:join in 后面可以不跟宾语。而take part in 后面必须跟宾语。如:
Let me  join in.  让我参加吧。

§258  none / nobody / no one
Ⅰ. none 既可指人,也可指物,意为“没有人;没有东西”等,表三者或三者以上的人或物的全部否定。与all是反义词。后可接of 短语。作主语时,如果它指代的是可数名词,谓语动词用单数、复数形式都可以,用单数时强调个体,表“没有一个人”;用复数则强调整体,表“所有人都没有”。如果它指代的是不可数名词,谓语动词用单数形式。常常用来回答how many & how much 以及有特定范围的问题。如:
① How many of the women are teachers? None (of them is / are). 这些女士中有多少是老师? 一个也没有。
② How much water is left in the bottle? Nove (of it is left). 瓶子里还剩多少水? 一点儿也没剩。
③ Which of the boys plays football well? None(of them does). 这些男孩中哪个足球踢得好? 一个也没有。
Ⅱ. nobody & no one 指代人,意为“没有人”。作主语时谓语动词有单数形式,后不能跟of 短语,常常用来回答who 和不确定的问题。如:
① Luckily, nobody / no one  was gurt in this accident.  幸运的是,没有人在这场事故中受伤。
② Who went to the net bar this week? Nobody / No one.  这周谁去过网吧? 没有人。

§259  look/ seem
Ⅰ. seem “看来、似乎”既可作连系动词,以可做不及物动词,后接:形容词、名词、介词短语或不定式。    如:
① Mother seemed to know that. 母亲好像知道那件事。
② Bill doesn’t seem to a understand. 比尔似乎不太理解。= Bill seems not to understand.(这更正式)
Ⅱ. 常用搭配:
① It seems (that)好像、看来、似乎,如:
1. It seems to me that her accident is all your fault! 在我看来她出事都是你的错。
2. But it seemed that it wasn’t the only letter. 但是好像这不是唯一的一封信。
② seem as if / though. “看起来像”如:
1. It seems as though Ken will win the rice.看来赛跑Ken好像要赢。
2. It seems (as if ) it is going to rain. 天好像要下雨了。
Ⅲ. look “看来、似乎”着重于由视觉得出的印象,seem 则暗示有一定根据,这种判断往往接近事实。在搭配上两者都可接:形容词、名词(前常有形容词修饰)、动词不定式to be、过去分词 和 介词短语。如:
① He looks / seems a nice man.他看上去是个好人。
② You look / seem tired. Let’s have a rest. 看来你累了,我们休息一会儿。
③ The boy looked / seemed to be very ill. 那男孩看上去病得很重。
Ⅳ, 但在下面情况下,只能用seem, 不能用look:
1. 后面接动词不定式:to do 时。如:
① The captain seemed to know all his soldiers.
2. 用于It seems that …结构时。如:
① It seemed that he had missed the train.看来他没搭上火车。
3. 用于There seemed to (不定式) 结构时:如:
There seemed to be hundreds of people on the playground. 运动场上好像有几百人。

§262  many/ much/ a lot of/ lots of/ a good or great  many/ many a / a number of/ a great or large number of/ a great deal of/ plenty of/ the number of
Ⅰ. many “许多、大量”修饰可数名词复数。如:
① Many students think so. 很多学生都这样想。
Ⅱ. much 指量而言,与不可数名词连用。如:
① He mever eats much breakfast.他早餐从来吃得不多。
Ⅲ. the number of “……的总数”number 指“数目、人数”是句中真正的主语。故动词须用单三式。如:
①The number of the students in our class is sixty-five.
其它的见下表:
 词汇 后面可跟的词 作主语时
谓语动词的形式
many 复数可数名词 复数
much 不可数名词 单三式
 
复数可数名词与不可数名词(一般用于肯定句中;否定句和疑问句多用many, much) 复数或
单三式
a many
复数可数名词 复数
many a 单数可数名词 单三式
 
复数可数名词 复数
a great deal of 复数可数名词
与不可数名词 复数或
单三式
plenty of  复数可数名词或不可数名词(一般用于肯定句中;否定句或疑问句多用enough, many much) 复数或
单三式

§272  neither/ either
Ⅰ. neither “(两者)都不”,pron 如:
① Neither of the books is mine. 这两本书都不是我的。
[注]作连词用时,neither 与nor连用,表示“既不……也不”如:
② The ground must be just right ?????——neither too wet nor too dry.地面务必适合——既不太湿,也不太干。
Ⅱ. either “(两者中的)任何一个”pron. 如:
① There are two bikes in the room. You can ride eitheri of the two. 房里有两部自行车,你可以任骑一部。
[注]作连词用时,与or连用,表示“或者……或者……”、“不是……就是……”。如:
② They were either too big or too small.  它们不是太大,就是太小。
▲ 作副词用时,二者都有“也不”之意,但所使用的句型及在句中的位置不同。如:
① He doesn’t like swimming, I don’t like swimming, either.
② He doesn’t like swimming. Neither do I . (用于倒装结构中)

§273  neither/ none
Ⅰ. neither “两者都不”与both相对,其后的谓语动词用单三式。如:
① Neither of my parents is at home.  我父母亲(任何一个)都不在家。
Ⅱ. none “三者或三者以上都有不”,与all相对。如:
① None of the students are in the classroom. They have all gone to the playground. 所有的学生都不(一个也不)在教室里,他们都到操场上去了。
§274  next / the next
Ⅰ. next  用于将来时态中
Ⅱ. the next  用于过去时态中。有时也可用于将来时。如:
① I’ll finish school next June. The next month I’ll go on trip to my hometwon.  明年六月我要毕业了,第二个月(即七月)我就要回家乡。
② She said in her letter that she would visit us the next week. 她在信中说她要在第二个星期拜访我们。

§276  no longer/ not…any longer/
no more / not any more
Ⅰ. no longer = not … any longer, “不再”强调时间和动作不再持续,常与状态动词和延续性动词连用,如wait, stay, be等。 但no longer与no more 一样通常放在“三类词(情态动词、 助动词、连系动词)”之后。行为动词之前。而not … any longer 与not … any more 一样,其中的not与谓语动词构成否定式,常放在“三类词”之后。any longer,与any more 放在句末。如:
③ He’s no longer living in this city. 他不住在这个城市了。
④ You are not a child any longer. 你已不再是个孩子了。
Ⅱ. no more = not … any more “不再”强调数量、次数上不再增加和强调动作终止的结果,因此,常与名词、瞬间动词连用,如hear, see, leave等。如:
① There’s no more bread. 不再有面包了。
② He didn’t go there any more. 他再没去过那儿。

§280  on time/ in time
Ⅰ.in time “及时”,指的是不迟到或在提前的时间之前做某事,后面可接不定式或for短语。
Ⅱ.on time“准时”,指按规定的时间或指定的时间做某事,后面不可以跟不定式或for短语。如:
① Joe was just in time for the bus. Joe正好赶上那班汽车。
② They got there on time to see the exhibition.  他们准时到那儿,去看了那个展览。
§281  one/ it
Ⅰ. it 所指代的,与前面的名词是同一事物;它常替代限定词the, this, that 所修饰的单数名词,此外还可用来表示称赞或责备某人做了某事。如:
① Whose is the pen? Oh it’s mine. 这支笔是谁的?哦,是我的。
② It’s very kind of you to invite me to the party. 承蒙邀请,不胜感激。(代to invite…)
Ⅱ. one 所指代的是前面名词提到的同类事物,但不是同一件,它具有泛指的性质;它只能代替可数名词,复数形式是ones 如:
① Have you got a pen?  No, I haven’t. Please ask Tom, I think he has got one. 你有钢笔吗?不,我没有。你去找一下汤姆吧,我想他有一只。

§313  talk with/ talk of/ talk on/ talk about
Ⅰ. talk with 后接的对象作宾语,介词with可用to代替。如:
① He was talking with / to a friend. 他在与一位朋友谈话。
Ⅱ. talk about “谈论”,后接谈话的内容,宾语可以是人,也可以是物。如:
① What are you talking about ?你们在谈论什么?
② Let’s not talk about it now. 咱们别谈这事了。
Ⅲ. talk of “谈到、谈及”,与talk about 同义,只是talk of 仅指“浅谈表面现象(如作者、书名等)”如:
① We often talk of you. 我们常谈到你。
Ⅳ. talk on “论述”不仅指内容,而且还指评论。如:
① They seldom talk on politics in those days.  那时候他们很少谈论政治。

§317  that/ who/ which
Ⅰ. 引导定语从句的关系代词有:who, whom, whose(一般指人),which(一般指物),that ( 指人或物)等。关系副词有:where(地点)when(时间), why(原因)等。
Ⅱ. that 在从句中指物,也可指人,可作主语和宾语。如:
① Water that is polluted often causes serous illness. 受污染的水常会引起重病。(that 在句中指物,用作主语)
② Do you have everything that you need? (that在从句中指物,用作宾语) 你所需要的东西都有了吗?
③ He is the man that they talked about just now. (that 在从句中指人,用作宾语) 他时刚才他们谈论的那个人。
④ Do you know the man that / who spoke just now? 你认识刚才讲话的人吗?
Ⅲ. who 和whom 在句中指人,分别作主语和宾语。如:
① A doctor is a person who looks after people’s health. ( who 在从句中用作主语) 医生是保护人们健康的人。
② I have just met a lady whom I saw last week. (whom在从句中用作宾语) 我刚遇上一位我上星期见过的人。
Ⅳ.which 在从句中指物,可作主语和宾语。如:
① My aunt was not on the train which arrived just now. (which 在从句中作主语) 我阿姨不在刚才到达的那列火车上。
② This is the coat which you wanted.(which 用作宾语)这就是你要的那件外套。
Ⅴ. whose 在从句中多指人,也可指物,用作定语。如:
① You are the only one whose advice he might listen to. (whose 作advice的的定语) 只有你的话他可能听。
② I’d like a room whose window looks out over the sea. 我想要一个窗户面临大海的房间。
[注意]:在下述情况下,定语从句中关连词只能用 that. :
Ⅰ. 先行词是 all, everything, nothing, something, anything, little, much 等不定代词时,如:
① Only a scientist could understand all that this pursuit meant.只有科学家知道这追求意味着什么。
② I am sure she has something that you can borrow. 我相信她有你能借到的东西。
③ Everything that we saw was of great interest to us. 我们对见到的一切都感兴趣。
④ There is little that I can use. 我能用的东西几乎没有。
⑤ He saw much that was bad. 他见了很多坏东西。
[注]:① 先行词是 something 时,关系代词用 that 或 which 都可以。
      ② 先行词是:someone, anyone, everyone, somebody, anybody, nobody,everybody 时,关系代词用 that 或 who 都可以。
Ⅱ. 先行词被 all, every, very no, some, any, little, much 等修饰时,如:
① I have read all the books that you gave me.  我把你给我的书全都看了。
② He is the very man that came here yesterday. 他就是昨天来的人。
Ⅲ. 先行词被序数词、形容词最高级 修饰时。如:
① This is the first composition thathe has written in English. 这是第一篇他用英语写的作文。
② The smallest living things that can be seen under a microscope are bateria. 在显微镜下我们能看见的最小的东西是细菌。
③ ?This is the best novel that I have ever read.  这是我读过的最好的小说。
Ⅳ. 先行词被 the only, the very, the same, the last 等修饰时。
① That white flower is the only one that I really like.白花是我唯一真正喜欢的花。
② This is the very book that I want to find. 这正是我想要的书。
③ The last place that we visited was the chemical works. 我们最后参观的是化工厂。
Ⅴ. 当有两个或两个以上分别表示人和物的先行词时,定语从句只能用that 与主句连接,而不能用who / whom / which引导。如:
① He talked about the teachers and schools that he had visited 他谈了关于他访问过的老师和学校的情况。
Ⅵ. 当主句是以 who 或which 开头的特殊疑问句时,关连词只能用that . 而不能用 who / whom / which. 如:
① Who is the person that is standing at the gate?站在门口的那人是谁。
② Which of us that knows something about physics does not know this?我们当中哪一个懂物理的人不知道这个?
[注]:在使用一些固定搭配的短语动词时,that 与其它关系词有时可以互用,其介词不能提前,而必须放在动词之后,这时指物用that, which 均可,指人时用who, whom, that 均可.
① This is the key which / that you are looking for.
② He is a man (whom / that ) you can safely depend on.  他是你能依赖的人。
③ The person whom / that / who he looks after is his mother.

§318 think of / think about/think over
Ⅰ. think of “想起、记起;有……想法、看法;对……有意见;考虑” 如:
① Will you think of me after I’ve left? 我离开后,你还会记着我吗?
② I know the person you mean,but I can’t think of his name. 我知道你讲的人是谁,但记不起他的名字。
④ We are thinking of going to Spain for our holiday this year.我们今年有 到西班牙去休假的想法(打算)。
⑤ What do you think of my new dress? 你认为我的新衣服怎么样?(可与think about 互换)
⑥ She thinks of no one but herself.她除自己外不考虑任何人。
Ⅱ. 当它作“想到过去的某事”或“考虑到某事”解时,常与think about 通用。即:“……考虑”;“对……看法”
① We have many things to think of / about before going there. 在动身去那之前,我们还有许多事情要考虑。
② 见Ⅰ④
Ⅲ.think about 可以表“想、回想”着重于想的过程。如:
① I am thinking about the friends I have lost.我正在回想那些失去了的朋友。
[注]:think of 可以表“想象一下,想想”而think about 则不能。—→Think of your mother!想想你的母亲吧!
    —→Think of the danger! 想象一下危险吧!
Ⅳ.think over “仔细考虑”其中over 是副词。如:
①I will think the thing over. 我要把这事仔细考虑一下。                                    END

 

0

阅读 评论 收藏 转载 喜欢 打印举报/Report
  • 评论加载中,请稍候...
发评论

    发评论

    以上网友发言只代表其个人观点,不代表新浪网的观点或立场。

      

    新浪BLOG意见反馈留言板 电话:4000520066 提示音后按1键(按当地市话标准计费) 欢迎批评指正

    新浪简介 | About Sina | 广告服务 | 联系我们 | 招聘信息 | 网站律师 | SINA English | 会员注册 | 产品答疑

    新浪公司 版权所有