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英语3

(2011-01-01 23:45:51)
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杂谈

Unit 1

Chemical reaction 化学反应

Group reaction 基团反应

Resistance to oxidation 抗氧化 不易被氧化

Petroleum 石油

Vapor phase 气相

Meth-甲

Eth-乙

Prop-丙

But-丁

Pent-戊

Hex-己

Hept-庚

Oct-辛

Non-壬

Dec-癸

(alkyl)-yl烷基

-ane烷

-ene烯

-yne炔

Cyclo-环

Oxidation of hydrocarbons 烃类物质的氧化

Benzene ring苯环

Peroxide过氧化物

Thus the alkyl hydro peroxides formed break up in such a manner as to form additional radicals and these in turn react with fresh hydrocarbon molecules to set up a multiplicity of reaction chains forming additional supplies of hydrocarbon radicals .由此形成的烷基过氧化氢以这样的方式裂解以便形成额外的自由基,而这些自由基又与其他的烃分子反应从而生成多种的反应链,形成新的烃自由基来源。

The ratios of activities of primary to secondary to tertiary carbons have been  calculated as 1.0:3.6:6.9,somewhat analogous to those for hydrocarbon response to  chlorination and nitration .已经计算出的伯仲和叔碳原子活性比率为1.0:3.6:6.9,有类似烃的氯化和消化反应。

The benzene ring itself is not susceptible to low-temperature oxidation ,but its substitution into a paraffinic chain increases the response of the latter .苯环本身对低温氧化并不敏感,但当它取代进入烷烃链后,将增加链对低温氧化的响应。

Recent work on varnishes, however, has recognized that oxides of nitrogen produced in the combustion ,rather than oxygen alone ,are involve in the varnish formation.但是近来对于膜层的研究已经证实,并非仅仅是氧而是在燃烧过程中生成的氮的氧化物与膜层的形成有关。

Unit 4

Chemistry of surfactants 化学表面活性剂

Contact angle 接触角

Surface tension表面张力

Spent acid残酸

Fine颗粒

Anionic阴离子

Cationic阳离子

Nonionic非离子

Amphoteric两性离子

Non-emulsifying agent破乳化剂(non-emulsifier)

Retard agent缓速酸

Oil-soluble油溶性

Water-soluble水溶性

Foaming agent起泡剂

Interface界面

Positive charge正电

Negative charge负电

Emulsion乳化剂

Formation形成 地层

Permeability 渗透率

Propping agent支撑剂

The greater the attraction of these molecules for one anther the greater the surface of the liquid ,and the greater the amount of work per unit area required to rupture the surface of the liquid will be ,分子间相互吸引力越大,液体的表面张力就越大,因而增加单位液体表面积所需的功也越大。

Since the water-loving group is more soluble in water than the oil-loving group, a surfactant molecule orients itself at the air –water interface with the oil-soluble group in the air and the water-soluble group in the water. 由于亲水基在水中的溶解性比亲油基更好,因此表面活性剂的亲水基深入水相,亲油基深入气相,从而定向吸附于气-液界面。

These materials function by adsorbing onto the steel and providing a protective barrier between the steel and acid .缓蚀剂通过吸附于钢材表面,进而在钢材和酸之间形成一层保护屏障而起作用。

Unit 5

Polymers and their use in oil field 聚合物及其在油田中的应用

Repeat unit重复单元

Oil field油田

Linear线型的

Branched支链的

Cross linked交联的

Refer to 把…….归类

Sheer rate剪切速率

Newtonian牛顿

Non-Newtonian非牛顿

Viscosity黏度

Molecular weight相对分子质量

Cationic ,positively charged ,polymers are compatible with salts to an equal or greater extent than nonionic polymers.带正电的阳离子型聚合物的抗盐性能与阴离子型聚合物相当或者比它更好。

It should be noted that hydrogen bonding is reversible, and a polymer solution which has a low viscosity at an elevated temperature will regain its viscosity upon cooling unless polymer degradation by one of the above mentioned mechanisms has occurred.应该注意的是,氢键是可逆的,因而除非有上述任何一种降解作用发生,高温下具有低黏度的聚合物溶液,在冷却时黏度会再度升高。

Mobility is a measure of the ease with which a fluid moves through porous media.流体用来表征一种流体通过多孔介质的难易程度。

Unit 6

Dehydration ,desalting of crude oils原油的脱水和脱盐

Demineralization 脱矿

Creaming 乳状液

The last step, viz sedimentation, proceeds faster with increasing y droplet size and is favoured by a low viscosity and a higher density differential, such as exists, on account of the electrolyte content of the formation water .破乳的最后一步,即沉降过程,随小水滴的合并增大饿迅速进行,在低粘度和高密度差时更为突出,只是由于地层中含有电解质的缘故。

In cases where low to medium electrolyte contents are present the decrease of the electrolyte content in the crude is virtually proportional to the water separated. 在中低电解质含量的情况下,电解质含量的降低与沉降分离出的水量成正比。

The shortest necessary residence time of the crude in the treatment plant is determined by a minimum time required for a sufficient creaming of residual oil from the water phase that has to be separated. 原油在脱水厂所需的最短滞留时间由从托出水中分离足够的残余油乳液所需的最短时间所确定。

Depending on the size of the oil field this should be done at several injection points and so chosen that sufficient mixing with the oil takes place and no excessive demulsifier concentrations occur in individual lines, which might result in persistent emulsions that are difficult to break in the field. 根据油田的规模选择一系列的加药点,并且使其破乳剂与油充分混合,在各自管线中不能过量使用破乳剂,因为这样做也许会导致产生很难破坏的永久性乳状液。

Unit 8

Enhanced oil recovery 强化采油

Subsurface 地表下

Primary recovery process 一次采油

Secondary recovery process二次采油

Tertiary recovery process 三次采油

Injection well注入井

Well head井口

Well hole井眼(wellbore)

Enriched hydrocarbon gas富气

Lean gas干气

Hydrocarbon烃

Enhanced oil recovery is the description applied by the oil industry to non-conventional techniques for getting more oil out of subsurface reservoir than is possible by natural production mechanisms or the injection of water and gas 强化采油石石油工业所使用的术语,它所描述的是从地下储层采出比自喷生产或注水,注气更多原油的非常规技术。

If there is a likelihood of over-running or fingering, as in most present projects, water can be injected and a repeated solvent gas slug injection scheme applied.像在目前的大多数工程中存在的那样,如果有水窜或指进现象发生,就可进行注水或反复有溶剂气体段塞进行处理。

Increased interest in the use of nitrogen developed when it became economically more attractive to manufacture and injection this inert gas than a hydrocarbon gas.当生产和注入这种惰性气体比注入烃类气体都在经济方面更有吸引力时,人们使用氮气而非烃类气体的兴趣就日益增长了。

Unit9

Fracturing fluids and additives压裂液及添加剂

Breaking 破胶

Gelled acid胶凝酸

Polyacrylamides rather than gum guar are used control these properties at higher temperature .聚丙烯酰胺而不是胍胶被用于控制高温下压裂液的这些性能。

Popularity of acid emulsion treatment is duo to the fact that can be used in high temperature wells and slow reaction rate which results in a deeper fracture penetration。乳化酸处理法的流行是由于它可用于高温深井且能够降低反应速度,这会形成更深的裂缝。

Aqueous foam usually exhibit excellent post fracture cleanup characteristics when used in stimulating abnormally low-pressured reservoirs or reservoirs that present post fracture cleanup problem 。当水基泡沫用于处理反常的低压地层或存在压裂后返排问题的底层时,一般都表现出优异的压裂返排特性。

Conventional传统的

Non-conventional非传统的

Viscoelastic 粘弹性

Transportation运输

Institu地下

Electrolyte电解质

 

 

 

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