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赵小宁9、10页

(2009-10-26 17:39:24)
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杂谈

 
Figure 1.20    Cylindrical roller bearing, design NJ
图1.20  圆柱滚子轴承  NJ设计
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Figure 1.21  Cylindrical roller bearings: (a) design N. (b) design NU.(c) design NUP. (d) design NJ with angle ring larger diameter and length, which considerably increases the load-carrying capacity (Figure 1.22).
图1.21   圆柱滚子轴承:(a)N设计。(b)NU设计。(c)NUP设计。(d)NJ设计的角环拥有更大的直径和长度,这显著提高了它的承载能力(图1.22)。
Up to medium size, cylindrical roller bearings are generally fitted with a cage of glass-fibre reinforced polyamide or a pressed sheet-steel cage. Machined metal cages are preferred for larger bearings. They are made from brass, steel or light alloy, and they are guided on the rollers. The cages of high-speed bearings are guided on the ground lips of the inner or outer ring.
直到中号尺寸,圆柱滚子轴承一般都配置一个玻璃纤维增强尼龙保持架或一个钢板冲压保持架。制作更大的轴承首选加工过的金属保持架。它们由黄铜、钢或轻质合金制成,且通过滚子引导。高速轴承的保持架由外圈或内圈的磨削挡边引导。
The basic shape of the rollers and raceways of cylindrical roller bearings is cylindrical. Precisely cylindrical rollers and raceways, however, would lead to peak stresses at the roller and raceway ends (Figure 1.23), which might reduce the bearing life. To avoid this ill effect, cylindrical rollers have long been produced with a logarithmic profile (Figure 1.24). A modified line contact is the result. And nowadays a logarithmic profile is sometimes given to inner rings and outer rings [191a]; the profile is adapted to the individual stressing of the rings. Bearings with logarithmic profiles are less susceptible to shaft deflection and misalignment. The profiles are calculated in such a way that, under normal load conditions, life-reducing edge stresses do not occur at a tilting angle of up to 4' between inner ring and outer ring (Table 5.2).
圆柱滚子轴承的滚子和滚道的基本结构类型是圆筒形的。然而,精确的圆柱滚子或滚道将会导致在滚子和滚道的边缘产生峰值应力(图1.23),从而缩减轴承寿命。为了避免这一副作用,圆柱滚子已经很长时间都被生产成一个对数轮廓(图1.24)。修正的结果是形成一个线接触。现如今对数轮廓有时也用于内圈和外圈[191a];此轮廓是为了适应内外圈的特殊压力。有对数轮廓的轴承对歪斜和角误差不太敏感。通过这种方式计算的轮廓,在正常的载荷情况下,内外圈之间的偏斜角度超过4'时不会发生缩减寿命的边缘应力(表5.2)。
The inner faces of the ring lips are slightly inclined outward (Figure 1.25). This inclination and the modified roller face result in a contact geometry which
 
Figure 1.22 Cylindrical roller bearing of higher capacity design compared with an earlier bearing
图1.22    圆柱形棍子轴承的高强度设计和传统设计的比较
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Figure 1.23  Load distribution at a precisely cylindrical roller on cylindrical raceway
图1.23    在精确的圆柱形滚子和滚道上载荷的分布
supports the formation of a hydrodynamic lubricating film between roller face and lip during operation, effecting low-friction running and high axial load-carrying capacity.
内外圈挡边的内表面稍微向外倾斜(图1.25)。这种倾斜和修正的滚子表面形成了一个接触几何关系,这个几何关系致使操作中滚子表面和挡边之间水动力润滑膜的形成,从而实现了低摩擦运转和高的轴向承载能力。

Cylindrical roller bearings are used in machine tools, transmissions, vibration machines, and as wheelset bearings for rail vehicles. They are employed as floating bearings in electric motors of medium to high power and in general machine construction. Owing to their favourable rolling conditions and low friction, cylindrical roller bearings with cage are suitable for high speeds. Single-row (series 10 and 19) and double-row (Figures 1.26 and 1.27) cylindrical roller bearings are also available in increased precision classes. These bearings have a low section height and a high radial rigidity. They are employed for machine tool spindles, cutter shafts, etc. In the tapered bore design (suffix K), the radial clearance can be adjusted by axially displacing the inner ring on the tapered shaft (Section 6.4.1)
圆柱滚子轴承用于机械工具,传输,振动机器和作为轮副轴承用于轨道车辆中。它们也作为浮动轴承用于中等到高能量的发电机和一般的机器制造中。由于它们的良好的滚动状况和低摩擦,带保持架的圆柱滚子轴承适合高速运转。单列(系列10和19)和双列(图1.26和1.27)圆柱滚子轴承可以达到较高的精度等级。这些轴承截面高度低,径向刚度高。它们被用于机床主轴,刀轴等。在锥孔设计中(后缀K),径向间隙可以通过轴向地移置锥形轴上的内圈来调节(章节6.4.1)。
Backup and work rolls in rolling mills are frequently supported by multi-row cylindrical roller bearings as shown in Figure 1.28. The rollers of these bearings are axially through-bored and are guided by the pins of a so-called pin-type cage. Such bearings have a very high load-carrying capacity because the pin-type cage can accommodate the highest possible number of rollers.
轧机中的支持辊和工作辊常常通过图1.28所示的多列圆柱滚子轴承支撑。这些轴承的滚筒是轴向钻通的,通过所谓的插销式保持架的插销引导。这种轴承有很高的承载能力,因为插销式保持架可以适应可能有的最高的滚子数目。
 
Figure 1.24   Logarithmic profile of a cylindrical roller
图1.24        圆柱形滚子的对数轮廓
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Figure 1.25   Contact geometry roller face/lip of cylindrical roller bearings
图1.25      圆柱形滚子轴承的几何接触关系
Single-row and double-row full-complement cylindrical roller bearings (suffix V) are used for particularly high loads at low speeds. Full-complement NJ designs can be taken apart (suffix VH). The roller set and the outer ring form a self-retaining unit. Inner ring and outer ring can therefore be mounted separately. The other designs are non-separable.
单列和双列满滚子圆柱滚子轴承(后缀V)特别用于高负荷低速运行。满滚子NJ设计可拆卸(后缀VH)。滚子组和外圈形成一个自动单元。内圈和外圈可以因此被分开安装。其它设计则不可以分开安装。
Needle Roller bearings
滚针轴承
The needle roller bearing is a cylindrical roller bearing with thin, long rolling elements. They take up only radial loads. The ratio diameter: length of the needle rollers varies between 1:2.5 and 1:10. The needle roller diameter decreases towards the ends. The needle roller faces are flat or rounded. They are axially guided by the axial sliding areas of the cage or by the lips of machined bearing rings. Due to their very small section height, needle roller bearings are particularly
滚针轴承是拥有薄的,长的滚动体的圆柱滚子轴承。它们只承受径向载荷。滚针的直径和长度之比在1:2.5和1:10之间。针滚直径越向末端越小。针滚的表面是平直的或圆形的。它们通过保持架的轴向滑动区或加工过的轴承圈挡边轴向的引导。由于他们非常小的断面高度,滚针轴承特别适合轻型结构和横截面可用空间受限制的地方

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