加载中…
个人资料
互联网PM牛犊子
互联网PM牛犊子
  • 博客等级:
  • 博客积分:0
  • 博客访问:66,002
  • 关注人气:50
  • 获赠金笔:0支
  • 赠出金笔:0支
  • 荣誉徽章:
相关博文
推荐博文
正文 字体大小:

认识“八年研究”运动(读书笔记十九)

(2009-10-22 14:30:09)
标签:

教育

分类: ET学科基础理论

   美国进步主义教育之"八年研究"

   “八年研究"是20世纪前半期美国中等教育目标嬗变和社会大转折的产物.这项著名的教育实验,旨在探索中等教育新的培养目标,改善中学和大学的关系,兼顾升学与就业的双重目标.实验过程涉及到教育实验理论、教育原理、课程理论和教育评估理论的构建与运用,具有重要的理论与实践价值和影响,是美国进步主义教育的一项"杰作"。

    The Eight-Year Study (also known as the Thirty-School Study) was an experimental project conducted between 1930 to 1942 by the Progressive Education Association (PEA), in which thirty high schools redesigned their curriculum while initiating innovative practices in student testing, program assessment, student guidance, curriculum design, and staff development.
  “八年研究”(也称三十年代学校研究),是项在1930年到1942年之间由进步教育联盟(PEA)指导实施的实验性项目,其中三十所高中参与了他们的课程,包括学生测试,项目评估,学生指导,课程设计和教师发展等。

   Purpose By the late 1920s the members of PEA acknowledged that only one out of six American high school students continued on to college, yet conventional college preparation programs still dominated the basic course of study at the secondary school level. Seeking to address the needs of non-college-bound students while also providing better coordination between high schools and colleges for those students who continued their postsecondary education, the PEA initiated in 1930 the first of three Eight-Year Study commissions, the Commission on the Relation of School and College (also known as the Aikin Commission), chaired by Wilford Aikin. The purpose of the commission was to foster relations between schools and colleges that would permit experimentation of the secondary school curriculum and would address how the high school could serve youth

more effectively.
    目的
    PEA二十世纪二十年代末其成员认为六分之一美国高中学生能够上大学,但合作大学预备项目仍掌握了次级学校学习水平的基本课程。满足非大学联盟学生需求,提供高中和在大学进行继续教育的学生合作机会,使得PEA在三十年代启动八年研究。其中有以威尔福德·艾金为主席的高中与大学关系委员会(也称艾金委员会)的参与,该会旨在培养高中与大学关系,以保证二级高中课程实验的实施和指导高校如何更加有效帮助青年一代。
The Aikin Commission proceeded to select approximately thirty schools (including some school systems) that were freed to revise their secondary curriculum. Over 250 colleges agreed to suspend their admissions requirements for graduates of the participating high schools, and alternative forms of documentation were provided by the secondary schools for college

admission. All of these secondary schools did not embrace Progressive Education practices, however. While some of the most progressive schools in the country participated, including Denver's public high schools, Chicago's Parker School, New York's Lincoln School, Ohio State University's Laboratory School, Des Moines's Roosevelt High School, and Tulsa's Central High

School, other participating secondary schools displayed few progressive practices and little interest in experimenting with their curriculum.
    艾金委员会选取了大约能够自由改革其二级课程的三十所高中(包括一些高中附加体系)。约250所大学同意支持其毕业生参与高中并提供其二级院校的一些可变表单。但是所有这些附属学校都没有囊括进步主义教育实践。当其中多数进步主义学校,包括丹佛公立高中,芝加哥帕克高中,纽约林肯高中,俄亥俄州立大学附属文学高中,德斯蒙利的罗斯福高中和图尔萨的中心高中,参与的时候,其他参与的二级高中没有多少进步主义教学实践,对他们的课程实验也不太感兴趣。
    Method
    During the initial years of the study, each school staff developed its own curricular program–core curriculum–which sought to integrate and unify the separate academic subjects. A series of innovative staff-development workshops were scheduled beginning in 1936 to assist teachers in reconsidering the basic goals and philosophy of their specific school and to support

the development of their own teaching materials. The Aikin Commission coordinated the Follow-Up (uation) Study and selected 1,475 students to follow from high school into college. These Progressive school graduates were matched with graduates from traditional secondary school programs, and the pairs of students were uated as they proceeded through college. In comparison

to their counterparts, the Progressive school graduates performed comparably well academically and were substantially more involved and successful in cultural and artistic activities. The Follow-Up Study also concluded that graduates from these thirty experimental schools did not experience any impairment in their college preparation. The Eight-Year Study confirmed that schools could experiment with the curriculum while attending to the needs of all students, and in so doing, those college-bound graduates would not be ill-prepared. The Commission on the Relation of School and College released a five volume report in 1942, titled Adventures in Learning, which described the curriculum and uation of the schools.
   方法
   在研究的前几年,每位教师都开发了自己的课程项目,即核心课程,这些核心课程整合并同意了分散的学科。一系列创造性的教师发展团体计划在1936年开始在重新思考基本目标及其特定学校的哲学,以及支持教师自我开发教学材料等方面来支持教师。艾金委员会联合了Follow-up挑选并研究了1,475名从高中考入大学的学生。这些进步主义教学下的毕业生学术表现相对良好,在文化和艺术领域也被认为更加成功些。

   Follow-up团队也认为这三十所学校的毕业生在考大学时没有成绩下滑。八年研究证实了学习在满足学生需求时所进行的课程改革,如果确实这么做了的话,那些学习与大学课程挂钩的毕业生才不会准备不足。高中和大学联盟在1942年发表了一片名为《学习的冒险之旅》的五期刊,它描述了课程和相关学校的情况。
    As the Aikin Commission worked with school and college staff, the Commission on Secondary School Curriculum (also known as the Thayer Commission), chaired by V. T. Thayer, was formed in 1932 to develop curriculum materials for the participating schools. The Thayer Commission recognized that further study of youth needed to be undertaken, and within the auspices of

this PEA commission, the Study of Adolescents was conducted. Between 1937 and 1940, five volumes of curriculum materials aligned to the traditional subject areas of general education (science, mathematics, social studies, arts, and language) and an additional six volumes encompassing the study of adolescence were published. A third PEA commission, the Commission on Human Relations (also known as the Keliher Commission) formed in 1935, prepared social-science-related curriculum materials incorporating the then-innovative use of motion pictures–and examined those human problems faced by youth. Six volumes were released by the Keliher Commission between 1938 and 1943, some written directly for high school students and others written for professional educators who sought to integrate the school curriculum around the needs, interests, and problems of youth.

    Membership among these three commissions overlapped greatly and are now viewed as integral components of the Eight-Year Study.
    当艾金委员会和高中大学教师一起研究时,第二高中课程委员会(也称泰勒委员会)在1932年由V.T.泰勒主持成立,它旨在为参与的学校开发课程材料。泰勒委员会认为青年人的继续教育需要开展起来,伴随着PEA委员会的开展,成人研究得以指导。在1937年到1940年间,课程材料的那个五期刊联合了一般学科(科学、算数、社会研究、美术和语言)和传统学科领域,另外还有个六期刊囊括了成人研究。PEA的第三个委员会,人脉委员会(也称科奈尔委员会)成立于1935年,研究社科相关的人脉课程,这些课程材料纳入了动态图像等创新内容,然后考察年轻人碰到的人际问题。这个六期刊由泰勒委员会在1938年到1943年出版,其中有些是指导高中学生的,有些是写给那些寻求将需求、兴趣等年轻人问题的因素整合到课程当中的教育专家的。这些委员会成员都是相似的,现在看来是八年研究的一个整体。
   Results
   To correct a general misconception, the Aikin Commission's Follow-Up Study was not the sole purpose of the Eight-Year Study.Important outcomes of the Eight-Year Study included developing more sophisticated student tests and forms of assessment;innovative adolescent study techniques; and novel programs of curriculum design, instruction, teacher education, and staff development. Moreover, the Eight-Year Study proved that many different forms of secondary curricular design can ensure college success and that the high school need not be chained to a college preparatory curriculum. In fact, students from the most experimental, nonstandard schools earned markedly higher academic achievement rates than their traditional school counterparts and other Progressive-prepared students.
    结果
    为更正错误概念,艾金委员会的Follow-up研究不是八年研究的唯一目的。八年研究的重要成果在于开发了更多复杂的学生测试和评价方式;在承认学习技术上有所创新;标志了课程设计、指导、教师教育和发展项目的展开。更多的,八年研究证明了二级课程设计的不同形式可以保障大学的成功,而且高中不需要和大学预备课程挂钩。事实上,试验中的学生,和非标准化学校的学生都在学术成果上,比传统学校和其他进步主义性质的学校的学生,取得更好的成绩

0

阅读 评论 收藏 转载 喜欢 打印举报/Report
  • 评论加载中,请稍候...
发评论

    发评论

    以上网友发言只代表其个人观点,不代表新浪网的观点或立场。

      

    新浪BLOG意见反馈留言板 电话:4000520066 提示音后按1键(按当地市话标准计费) 欢迎批评指正

    新浪简介 | About Sina | 广告服务 | 联系我们 | 招聘信息 | 网站律师 | SINA English | 会员注册 | 产品答疑

    新浪公司 版权所有