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定语从句讲解

(2009-11-29 19:08:41)
标签:

语法讲解

定语从句

胡立新

分类: 语法总结

                             定语从句讲解

 

1. 主语+谓语(vi.)  I arrived.

      

2. 主语+系动词(谓语)+表语  It is red.

 

3. 主语+谓语(vt.)+宾语  I bought a book.

 

4. 主语+谓语+间接宾语+直接宾语    I gave him a book.

                 双宾语

 

5. 主语+谓语+宾语+宾语补足语   I called him Tom.

               复合宾语

 

次要成份:定语、状语

He is a good student.

I arrived at the village at 8 o’clock.

 

这是一张美丽的图画。  This is a beautiful picture.

这是我昨天买的一张图画。 This is a picture (that/which) I bought yesterday.

 

先行词是人,而且先行词在从句中作主语,关系代词用who, that而且不能省略。

This is the student         arrived at our school yesterday.

Is he the boy         is talking to the teacher?

 

先行词是人,而且先行词在从句中作宾语,关系代词用whom, who, that而且可以省略。

This is the person             I met yesterday.

She is the girl            her mother sold last week.

 

先行词是物,而且先行词在从句中作主语,关系代词用 that, which而且不能省略。

This is the pen          was bought by me just now.

Have you seen a picture          is very beautiful?

 

先行词是物,而且先行词在从句中作宾语,关系代词用 which,that而且能够省略。

This is the pen          I bought yesterday.

Have you seen the book          I stole just now?

 

先行词不管是人还是物,在定语从句作表语都用that, 可以省略。

China is not the country ______ it used to be.

 

先行词不管是人还是物,在定语从句中作定语都用whose。whose+n. = the+n.+of which/whom或of which/whom+the+n.

This is the book ________ cover is red.

---This is the book the cover of which is red.

---This is the book of which the cover is red.

 

Do you know the tree ________ top is very high?

 

I know the boy ________ father is a worker.

---I know the boy the father of whom is a worker.

---I know the boy of whom the father is a worker.

 

关系代词:which, that, who, whom, whose

This is the song          we listened to just now.

Do you know the woman            my father is talking to?

This is the house          windows face the south.

Do you know the boy          father is a headmaster?

 

关系副词:when, where, why

I have forgotten the day ________ my son joined the army.

He regretted the days ______ he spent on play.

 

I can’t find the farm __________ we worked last year.

Have you been to the West Lake ________ is very beautiful?

This is the factory __________ we visited yesterday.

 

This is the reason __________ I was late.

This is the reason __________ he gave us just now. (He gave us the reason just now.)

 

限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句

His son who joined the army last year is 18 years old.

Last year I visited Beijing, which is the capital of China.

His father, who is 55 years old, is very kind to him.

 

在非限制性定语从句中,先行词为物,先行词在从句中作主语或宾语时都用which,不能省;先行词为人,在从句中作主语,用who,作宾语用whom或who,不能省;whose, when,where等也可引导非限制性定语从句。

 

关系代词as

如果先行词是such或者是the same, 更多的情况是先行词被such或the same 修饰,而且先行词在从句中作主语、宾语或表语,用关系代词as 引导定语从句。as是不能省略的。

 

This is the same factory _______ my father worked ten years ago.

 

You can read such books ______ you understand.

This is the same pen ________ I lost yesterday.

I will buy the same pen _______ was bought by you last week.

He is feeling the same ______ you did yesterday.

 

as/which

which可以引导一个非限制性定语从句,先行词不是一个词,而是整个主句或者主句的一部分(如宾语从句)内容。as 也可以引导一个非限制性定语从句,先行词是整个主句。

Taiwan is part of China, which/as we all know.

 

as:正如     which:这一点 

He was late, ________ we had expected.

He was late, ________ we hadn’t expected.

 

Taiwan is part of China, as we all know.

As we all know, Taiwan is part of China.

Taiwan, as we all know, is part of China.

 

先行词作介词的宾语

This is the house __________ I lived in last year.

He is the student __________ the teacher talked with yesterday.

 

This is the house __________ I lived last year.

He is the student __________ the teacher talked yesterday.

 

注意:look at, look after, look for, listen to, care for, take care of…

 

This is the map _________ he is looking at.

---This is the map at which he is looking. ( ╳ )

 

 

特殊情况:

 

1. 先行词是不定代词,如:all, everything, anything, something, nothing, any, much, little, few, some, none, one等,关系代词在which和that之间选择时,选that。(something后有时也可用which)

All ______ glitters is not gold.

That is all ________ he told me just now.

There is nothing _______ can be done now.

 

2. 先行词被only, very, any, no, all, next, last, few, little, every, some, much等修饰,关系代词在which和that之间选择时,选that。

This is the very book ________ we are looking for.

This is the only clock ________ can tell the time.

 

3. 先行词是(更多的时候是被)序数词或形容词最高级修饰时,关系代词在which和that之间选择时,选that。

This is the best film ________ I have ever seen.

This is the second chair _________ will be sold.

 

4. 先行词既有人也有物,用什么关系词?用that。

He told us the people and things _______ he remembered.

I like the people and the place ______ I visited last year.

 

5. 先行词不管是人还是物,只要在从句中作表语,用that,that可以省略。

This city is no longer the city ________ it used to be.

 

6. 先行词为way(方式、方法)且在从句中作状语,关系词正式的用in which, 非正式的可用that或不用。(how是老用法)

This is the way ________ he did the experiment yesterday.

This is the way ________ he told us yesterday.

 

7.复杂介词只能置于关系代词which/whom之前。

at the top of, at the foot of, in front of, …

I arrived at a school, in front of which there is a river.

 

8. why引导定语从句有时可省略。

This is the reason ________ I was late.

This is the reason ________ he explained to us.

The reason _______ he didn’t attend the meeting is _______ he was ill.

 

9. (that)可用作关系副词,代替when, 特别当先行词为time, moment等时。

It’s time (that) we went to school.

It’s the first time (that) I have come to Beijing.

I had finished my homework by the time my mother got home.

但:It was a time when everything was wrong.

 

10. those(指人)后用who, whom不用that。

Those _______ agree to the plan please put up your hands.

Those _______ you spoke to just now were my former students.

 

11. such/the same (…) as…      

    the same…that…

This is the same pen as I lost yesterday.

This is the same pen (that) I lost yesterday.

 

12. as/which引导非限制性定语从句

as is well-known, as we all can see, as is said above, as was expected, as has been already pointed out…

The party is put off, _______ makes us very disappointed.

_______ anybody can see, an elephant is like a snake.

 

13. 代词(数词,含数量概念的名词或形容词最高级)+of+which/whom(非限制性定语从句)

There are many islands in China, the largest of which (=of which the largest) is Taiwan.

In the classroom there are 10 students, two of whom (=of whom two) are my relatives.

 

14. 表示所属关系时,whose和of whom, of which的作用相同,可通用;表示部分关系时,只能能of whom和of which,这时,“部分关系词+of whom(which)可转换为 “of whom(which)+部分关系词”。

This is the book whose cover is red.

This is the book the cover of which is red.

This is the book of which the cover is red.

There are many workers in that factory, some of whom (=of whom some) are women.

 

15. 先行词为everybody, anybody, everyone, anyone等时,引导定语从句不用that, 而用who或whom.

Everyone _______ knows English is useful.

I don’t know anyone _______ the teacher is talking with.

 

16. one of the+复数名词+定语从句

    the (only) one of the+复数名词+定语从句

 

He is one of the students who ______ (be) late.

He is the only one of the students who ________(be) late.

 

* but可用作关系代词,意义相当于who not, that not,例如:

There is no one but wishes to go. 人人都想去。

 

** that is to say或that is(也就是说;换句话说)在句中作插入语,不要误认为非限制性定语从句。

 

填一填:

Who is the man _______ is sitting there ?

Which is the book _______ you like best?

He saw a film last night, ______ everyone says is worth seeing.

John is a man ______ I believe is honest.

John is a man _______ I believe honest.

He read a story when he was a boy, _______ he still remembers clearly.

The day is sure to come _______ China realizes her four modernizations.

He stood near a window, from ______ he could see his dormitory.

 

定语从句

    近两年(2005、2006)高考中涉及的定语从句的关系词主要有who, whom, whose, that, which, as, where, when, why等,而“介词+关系代词”的题就占了10题,另外which和as引导非限制性定语从句也是一个热点。

 

【范例】

1. Last month, part of Southeast Asia was struck by floods, from _____ effects the people are still suffering. (05年天津卷)

       A. that      B. whose      C. those      D. what

2. Her sister has become a lawyer, _____ she wanted to be. (05年湖北卷)

       A. who     B. that      C. what      D. which

3. The schools themselves admit that not all children will be successful in the jobs _____ they are being trained. (05年江西卷)

      A. in that     B. in what     C. from what    D. for which

4. ---Is that the small town you often refer to?

   ---Right, just the one _____ you know I used to work for years. (05年福建卷)

        A. that      B. which      C. where      D. what

5. The Beatles, _____ many of you are old enough to remember, came from Liverpool. (06年天津卷)

       A. what      B. that       C. how      D. as

6. I saw a woman running towards me in the dark. Before I could recognize who she was, she had run back in the direction _____ she had come. (06年重庆卷)

      A. of which     B. by which     C. in which     D. from which

7. In an hour, we can travel to places _____ would have taken our ancestors days to reach. (06年上海卷)

       A. where     B. when     C. which     D. what

8. We’re just trying to reach a point _____ both sides will sit down together and talk. (06年山东卷)

       A. where      B. that      C. when     D. which

 

【分析】

1. B。先行词不管是人还是物,只要在定语从句中作定语,就应该用关系代词whose,该句也可以说:whose effect the people are still suffering from。

2. D。先行词a lawyer属于职业,相当于物,且在定语从句中充当表语,又因为是非限制性定语从句,因此用which且不能省略。

3. D。在“介词+关系代词”引导的定语从句中,介词的选择要考虑到其与动词、名词、代词、数词或整个句子的关系。根据they are being trained for the jobs确定该定语从句用for which引导。再如:①Many people who had seen the film were afraid to go to the forest when they remembered the scenes in which people were eaten by the tiger. ②We saw several natives advancing towards our party, and one of them came up to us, to whom we gave some bells and glasses.

4. C。the one指代the town,先行词表地点,且在定语从句中作状语(即you know I used to work in the town for years),因此定语从句用where(或in which)引导。

5. D。as和which都可以引导非限制性定语从句,先行词不是一个词而是整个主句,但用as时必须要有“正如”的意思,用which不需要。as引导的这种从句可以放在主句之前、之中(主语和谓语之间)或之后,而which引导的这种从句只能位于主句之后。再如:①The owner of the cinema needed to make a lot of improvements and employ more people to keep it running, which meant spending tens of thousands of pounds. ②As I explained on the phone, your request will be considered at the next meeting.

6. D。“朝……方向”介词用in,如in every direction, in all directions, in the direction of Beijing,但此处表示的是“她来自这个方向”即she had come from the direction。该句意为:黑暗中我看见一个女人朝我跑来。我还没认出她是谁,她就朝着她来的方向跑回去了。

7. C。先行词是表示时间或地点的词且先行词在从句中作状语时才用关系副词when或where(或用“介词+which”代替)引导定语从句;如先行词在从句中作主语、宾语或表语,则按先行词为物在从句中作主语、宾语或表语处理。此句places在从句中作主语,用关系代词that或者which。

8. A。先行词是point(表地点),situation, conditions, case等,且它们在定语从句中作状语时,用关系副词where或“介词+which”。注意观察下面两个带有point的句子:①There is one point we must insist on.(point在从句中作insist on的宾语,因此用关系代词which/that或者省略)②Dreamtime is often said to mean “the time before time”, or the point when all things were created.(point表时间点且在从句中作状语,因此用when)

 

Exercises:

1. What surprised me was not what he said but _____ he said it.

      A. the way     B. in the way that   C. in the way    D. the way which

2. They promised to help us, _____ we were thankful.

      A. for it      B. for which     C. which     D. for whom

3. Can you see the shelf _____ I put the key?

      A. on its top    B. on the top of that     C. on whose top  D. on the top of it

4. Mary, _____ you all know, can dance very well.

      A. she     B. as      C. about her     D. that

5. September 18, 1931 is the day _____ we’ll never forget.

      A. that      B. when     C. on which      D. on that

6. The high building _____ is a big hotel.

      A. we are looking at it        B. we are looking 

      C. at that we are looking      D. we are looking at

7. There is no one in our class _____ can work out the problem.

      A. who      B. whom      C. which     D. /

 

1. A。先行词为way, 且在定语从句中作状语时,定语从句用in which引导,在非正式场合也可以用that或不用关系词。原句可拆分为:What surprised me was the way (in which/that) he said it.(使我惊讶的是他说那话的方式)。

2. B。“因为……而感激”是be thankful for…,定语从句的先行词是整个主句。

3. C。先行词在定语从句中作定语,用关系代词whose。如果B是on the top of which也正确。

4. B。as引导非限制性定语从句,其先行词是整个主句,as有“正如”的意思。

5. A。先行词尽管是表示时间的day,但它在从句中作forget的宾语,因此用关系代词which或that,也可以省略。

6. D。先行词尽管是表示地点的building,但它在定语从句中作look at的宾语,因此用关系代词which或that, 也可以省略。look at, look after, care for等短语中的介词一般不能提到定语从句前面。A的错误在于重复了关系代词所代的词。

7. A。先行词为no one且在定语从句中作主语,因此只能用who,不能用that,这里的who不能省略。定语从句一般紧跟在先行词后,但有时中间会被谓语动词、介词短语、状语从句等隔开,造成定语从句的分隔现象,这时我们一定要根据句意确定从句类型,抓住先行词,才能选择正确的关系词。再如:I was told that there were about 50 foreign students studying Chinese in the school, most of whom were from Germany.

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