# 加载中...

• 博客等级：
• 博客积分：0
• 博客访问：308,347
• 关注人气：44
• 获赠金笔：0支
• 赠出金笔：0支
• 荣誉徽章：

## 阿基米德 (1)来自澡盆的“比重”概念

(2011-11-15 23:43:10)

### 教育

Archimedes 阿基米德

(1)    The Idea of Specific Gravity from the Bathtub

来自澡盆的“比重”概念

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Archimedes was born about 287 B.C. Syracuse, Sicily. He was the son of a Greek astronomer. Archimedes’ teacher was a noted mathematician of the day, a follower of the famed Euclid. (1) 阿基米德于公元前大约287年生于西西里的锡拉丘兹。他的父亲是一位希腊天文学家。阿基米德的老师是当时有名的数学家和著名的欧几里得的追随者。

Archimedes spent his life in philosophical and mathematical studies. To the Greeks of his day, manual labor was degrading, and they looked down upon experimentation with distaste. 阿基米德毕生从事哲学和数学研究。对于他那个时代的希腊人来说，体力劳动是丢人的，他们厌恶和看不起实验工作。

Many scholars believe, however, that Archimedes must have performed actual physical experiments (2) before he was able to formulate his mathematically exact conclusions. 然而，许多学者认为：阿基米德一定做过实实在在的物理实验，才能够做出准确的数学结论。

Archimedes did not describe the experiments, but he wrote up his conclusions as though they resulted from purely mental theorizing. From other writings, however, we find out that he had made many practical applications of his findings. 阿基米德没有描述所做的实验，但是，他详细地记述他所做的结论，好像这些结论纯粹是头脑推理的结果。然而，从其他的著作中，我们发现：他曾经大量地实际地运用自己的研究成果。

The story is that Archimedes arrived at the idea of specific gravity (3) — still called Archimedes’ Principle — while in the bathtub. King Hiero II had ordered a new crown and had supplied the crown-maker with a quantity of gold. 据说，阿基米德在澡盆里找到了比重这个概念 现在仍然叫做阿基米德原理。希罗国王二世下令做一顶新王冠，并给王冠制作人一定数量的金子。

The finished crown weighed the same as the gold, but the suspicious King thought that some silver had been mixed in with the gold, to the illegal profit of the crown-maker. 4）制作好的王冠与原来的金子一样重，但是，满腹狐疑的国王认为：王冠制作人为了非法利益，将一些银子掺进了金子。

It was already known that different materials had different weights: a cube of gold weighed more than the same size cube of silver. 人们已经知道，不同的材料具有不同的重量：一块金子比同样大小的一块银子重。

A simple solution, then, was to melt down the crown, cast it into a cube and weigh it. If it weighed less than the same size cube of gold, the crown-maker had mixed in some silver and had taken the King’s gold. 于是，最简单的办法是：将王冠熔化，铸成一个方块，称出它的重量。如果它比同样大小的一块金子轻，那么王冠制作人就是掺进银子，偷走了国王的金子。

But this “simple” solution would destroy the crown. The problem was to check the quantity of gold in the crown without destroy the crown. The King asked Archimedes to look into the matter. (5) 但是，这个“简单”办法将要毁坏王冠。问题是既要检查王冠中的金子的重量，又不毁坏王冠。国王要阿基米德调查研究这件事。

And so we come to the celebrated bath. As Archimedes settled himself in the bathtub the level of the water rose, of course. The more of his body that was under water, the higher the water rose. 于是，我们到了著名的澡盆边。当阿基米德坐进澡盆时，水位当然就上升。浸入水中的身体部分越多，水位就升得越高。

Archimedes realized that this was a fine way to measure an irregular volume. Archimedes filled a container with water and carefully suspended the suspected crown in the water. He caught the water that spilled out   the overflow must be the same volume as the crown. 阿基米德认识到：这是测量不规则体积的好办法。阿基米德给一个容器装满水，再仔细地把受检察的王冠悬在水中。他收集溢出的水，溢出的水和王冠的体积一定相同。

Now it was a simple job: obtain a volume of gold equal to the volume of the water and check its weight against the weight of the crown. 现在要干是一件简单事情了：找到体积与水的体积相等的金子，对照王冠的重量，检查它的重量。

The greedy goldsmith was found guilty and was executed. But more important, scientists and engineers have since compared the weight of a volume of material with an equal volume of water and called the result Specific Gravity. 贪婪的金匠被判决有罪，受到惩处。但更为重要的是，科学家和工程工程师们一直将一定体积的材料和同体积的水相比较，把比较的结果称之为“比重”。

The specific gravity of gold is about 20, which means that a pint of gold would weigh twenty pounds, since a pint of water weighs about one pound. A pint of silver would weigh only about ten pounds. 金子的比重大约是20，意思是：1品脱的金子重20，因为1品脱的水大约重11品脱的银子大约只有10重。

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.       Euclid

2.       …Archimedes must have performed actual physical experiments…

3.       The story is that Archimedes arrived at the idea of specific gravity…

4.       …some silver had been mixed in with the gold, to the illegal profit of the crown-maker.

profit表示“利益”时，与benefit同义。但是，profit可以指物质或精神方面的好处，尤其指金钱，所以常常翻译为“利润”。再比如：He had nothing but the profits of the mill to support him. (他只有磨房的收入养活自己。)

benefit也是可以指物质方面的或精神方面的好处。用于人时，常有“不损害他人而获益”的意思。比如：She will get benefit from the new way of doing business. (她将在新的经营方式中获益。)

5.       The King asked Archimedes to look into the matter.

中考、高考模拟题

1.       Which of the following statements is false according to the passage?

A.      Archimedes’ father was an astronomer.

B.      Archimedes’ teacher was a follower of the famed Euclid.

C.      Archimedes spent his life in philosophical and mathematical studies.

D.     Archimedes looked down upon experimentation with distaste.

2.       According to the passage the specific gravity __________.

A.      is still called Archimedes’ Principle

B.      is the universal gravity

C.      is the force that attracts other objects

D.     is a volume of water

3.       According to the passage the specific gravity of gold is ________.

A.      10

B.      15

C.      20

D.     25

4.       The underlined phrase “its weight” in the passage refers to ______________.

A.      the weight of the gold

B.      the weight of the container

C.      the weight of Archimedes

D.     the weight of the water

1. D    2. A    3. C    4. A

0