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艾萨克·牛顿(3)万有引力定律

(2011-09-28 23:31:04)
标签:

英汉对照读物

教育

分类: 英汉对照读物

 

Isaac Newton 艾萨克·牛顿

 

(3)       The Law of Universal Gravitation 万有引力定律

 

博主改写英语原文并翻译成汉语,对照发帖于此,供网友参考。

 点击图片或使用键盘← →翻页

 

Turning away from the use of lenses, Newton devised the reflecting telescope, which makes use of a bowl-shaped metal mirror to focus the light from the stars. 牛顿不用镜头,而设计制作反射式望远镜,这种望远镜利用碗状的金属镜子来聚焦来自恒星的光。

 

   Since the light does not pass through glass in this type of telescope, there is no uneven bending of the light and no color fringes. These lenses were made by combining different types of optical glasses. 因为光并不穿过这种望远镜的玻璃,所以光不会发生不均等的折射,也没有色晕。这些镜头是将不同种类的光学玻璃结合在一起制作而成的。

 

   Newton did the mechanical work on his telescope by himself. The mirror was about one inch in diameter. The observatory of the California Institute of Technology has a reflecting mirror almost seventeen feet in diameter. (1) 牛顿在研究望远镜时,亲自干那些机械活。镜子的直径大约为1英寸。加利福尼亚理工学院天文台有一台反射式望远镜,直径几乎有17英尺。

 

   Newton’s work on optics, the subject of his first published scientific paper, was greeted with a good deal of criticism as well as applause. Newton was forced to defend his theories against the ablest scientists of the day. (2) 牛顿研究光学的成果,是他发表的第一篇科学论文的主题,受到许多批评以及喝彩。牛顿被迫反击当时的最有才华的科学家们,以捍卫自己的理论。

 

   During this controversy Newton had occasion to state a cornerstone of scientific method: “The best and safest way of doing scientific work seems to be, first to enquire diligently into the properties of things, and of establishing these properties by experiment and then to proceed slowly to theories for the explanation of them.” 在这场争论中,牛顿有机会确定科学方法论的基石:“从事科学工作的最佳和最稳妥的方式似乎是,首先孜孜不倦地调查事物的特性,用实验证明这些特性,再慢慢地进行理论研究,以解释这些特性。”

 

   Newton, now in his early thirties, was known to the scientific world as a brilliant experimenter and theoretician. He had grown tired of the necessity of answering critics, (3) and he determined not to publicize any more of his discoveries. He continued, nevertheless, to work at his theories and somehow found the time to serve in Parliament as a representative of the University. 牛顿此时30出头,科学界都知道他是一位才华出众的实验家和理论家。他已经厌倦迫不得已地回应别人的批评,他决心不再将自己的发现公诸于世。然而,他继续研究他的理论,而且总会找到时间,作为大学代表,参加议会工作。

 

   In 1684 the famous astronomer Edmund Halley visited Newton in order to discuss Kepler’s theories of motions of the planets. From these discussions it became evident to Halley that Newton had worked out in detail one of the most fundamental of all laws, (4) the law of universal gravitation. 1684年,著名的天文学家埃得蒙·哈利访问牛顿,以讨论凯普勒的行星运动理论。从这些讨论中,哈利弄清楚了:牛顿已经完成了一个详细的最重要的定律,即万有引力定律。

 

   Halley finally convinced Newton that he must publish his findings. In order to save Newton every difficulty possible, Halley agreed to take care of all details and, although he was not a wealthy man, to defray the printing coasts. 哈利最终说服了牛顿,他得发表自己的研究成果。为了免除牛顿可能遇到的一切困难,哈利同意负责所有的烦琐事务,虽然他并非富人,仍愿支付全部印刷费用。

 

   The result, titled Mathematical Principles of Science consisted of three sections and was written entirely in Latin, the scientific language of the day. 出版物冠名为《科学的数学原则》,由三节组成,完全用当时的科学语言拉丁语写成。

 

   The “Principles,” a landmark in the history of the world, showed that all motions, whether on earth or in the heavens, were expressed by the same laws. 《原则》是世界史上的一个里程碑,它 指出:用同样的定律可以表述所有的运动,无论这些运动是在地球上,还是在天空中。

 

   Newton’s Laws of Motion were outlined in the “Principles.” The first law is: A body that is at rest remains at rest unless forced to change; (5) a body that is in motion will continue to move with the same speed and in the same direction unless forced to change. 《原则》勾勒出了牛顿的运动定律。第一定律:静止的物体,不强制改变,仍处于静止状态;运动着的物体,不强制改变,将继续以同样的速度、沿同样的方向运动。

 

   Newton realized that in order to get an object to move, whether it was an apple that fell out of a tree or the tides that rose in the oceans, there had to be a force present. 牛顿认识到,为了使物体运动,无论是一个苹果从树上落下,还是海洋中的潮涨,都得有一种力存在。

 

   Consider what happens when the automobile in which we are riding is suddenly stopped. We continue to move forward; thus we remain in motion until forced to stop, perhaps by banging against the seat in front of us. These ideas were observed before Newton, but he explained them mathematically. 试想一下,当我们乘坐的汽车突然停下,会发生什么样的事情。我们继续向前运动。于是,在被迫停下之前,我们一直处于运动状态,大概等撞到我们前面的座位时,才会被迫停下。在牛顿之前,就谈到了这些想法,但是,牛顿对它们做出了精确的解释。

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

注释:

1.       The observatory …has a reflecting mirror almost seventeen feet in diameter.

句子中的名词性短语almost seventeen feet in diameter作后置定语,修饰前面的mirror

2.       Newton was forced to defend his theories against the ablest scientists of the day.

句子中的defend的宾语后面接介词against,表示“保护……使免受;保卫……使免遭受”。再比如:The Consumer Council will defend the customer against unscrupulous traders. (消费者利益保护委员会将保护顾客的权益,使其免受奸商的欺骗。)

3.       He had grown tired of the necessity of answering critics…

句子中的necessity指“不得不做的事情”。

4.       …it became evident to Halley that Newton had worked out …

句子中的it是形式主语,真正的主语是后面的由that引导的从句。在这样的结构中,充当真正主语的只能是:1)从句。比如本句。2)动名词。比如:It is useless crying over the spilt milk. (覆水难收。 动名词短语作真正的主语) 3)不定式。比如:It is dangerous to play with fire. (玩火自焚。 不定式作真正的主语。)

5.       …A body that is at rest remains at rest unless forced to change…

句子中的unless forced to change是一个省略的状语从句,因为从句的主语 (body)与主句的主语 (body) 相同,并带有动词to be,所以可作这样的省略。如果补充完全这个从句,就是:unless it is forced to change

 

中考、高考模拟题

 

1.       Which of the following statements is false according to the passage?

A.      Newton devised the reflecting telescope to focus the light from the stars.

B.      There is no uneven bending of the light in Newton’s reflecting telescope.

C.      Newton did the mechanical work on his telescope by himself.

D.     Newton’s first published scientific paper was about laws of motion. 

2.       What was Newton’s cornerstone of scientific method according to the passage?

A.      The best and safest way of doing experimental work.

B.      First to investigate and then establish and finally theorize the properties of things.

C.      To explain the properties of things in detail.

D.     Diligently working on what one intends to accomplish.

3.       According to the passage The Principles _______________.

A.      consists of four sections

B.      is a landmark in the history of the world 

C.      shows that all motions are expressed by one and the same law.

D.     was written in English

1.       The underlined phrase “to enquire into” in the passage means _______.

A. to search for information about  

B. to require what one should do

C. to ask politely for some information

D. to follow closely

 

参考答案:

1. D    2. B    3. B    4. A

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