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## 詹姆斯• 克拉克 • 麦克斯韦(3) 电磁理论的奠基人

(2011-09-13 23:24:22)

### 教育

James Clerk Maxwell 詹姆斯 克拉克 麦克斯韦

(3) The Founder of the Electro-Magnetic Theory

电磁理论的奠基人

Maxwell was intrigued by Faraday’s theory of electromagnetic induction, the production of electricity from magnetism. (1) In his explanation, Faraday had used the term “lines of force” or “tubes of force” to describe the space around a magnet. 麦克斯韦对法拉第的电磁感应理论，即由磁力产生电，非常感兴趣。法拉第在解释时，使用“力线”或“力管”这个术语来描述磁体周围的空间。

Maxwell developed, in his mind, a model of the magnetic field. (2) The model consisted essentially of rotating cylinders (3) separated by small spheres like ball bearings. When one cylinder was turned the motion was transmitted through the spheres so that all cylinders would turn. From these models he was able to develop four basic ideas, which look very simple: 麦克斯韦构思了一个磁场模型。模型主要由几个旋转的圆柱体构成，圆柱体被滚珠一样的球体分开。当一个圆柱体转动时，动能通过球体传出，于是，所有的圆柱体都会转起来。他通过这些模型，得以形成四个看起来非常简单基本概念：

1)      A magnetic line of force is a closed line, that is, it forms a loop without end. 磁力线是一条封闭线，即，它形成一条没有尽头的圈。

2)

3)      An electric line of force is also a closed line; it too forms a loop and returns on itself. 电力线也是一条封闭线；它形成一个圈，返回原处。

4)

5)      A changing magnetic field creates an electric field. 变化着的磁场产生电场。

6)

7)      A changing electric field creates a magnetic field. 变化着的电场产生磁场。

Faraday had established that a changing magnetic field would produce an electric current in a conductor, but Maxwell had deduced that a changing magnetic field could produce an electric effect in space, and a change in an electric field could produce a magnetic effect. 法拉第曾经证明，变化着的磁场会在导体中产生电流，但是，麦克斯韦曾经推断：变化着的磁场能够在空间产生电效应，而电场中的变化能够产生磁效应。

Maxwell went further, (4) and showed that it would take time for these electric and magnetic effects to travel. He showed they would travel with the speed of light and would travel together. 麦克斯韦更进一步向人们指出：这些电效应和磁效应的传播需要时间。他证实：它们以光速传播，而且是一起传播。

Ten years after Maxwell’s death, Hertz proved Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory by setting up the first radio transmitter and receiver. 麦克斯韦去世10年之后，赫兹制作了第一个无线电发射器和接收器，证实了麦克斯韦的电磁理论。

We know that Maxwell showed that all electromagnetic waves follow the same basic laws, whether the waves are heat or light or radio or X rays or gamma rays. 我们知道，麦克斯韦证明：所有的电磁波都遵循相同的基本定律，无论这些波是热，或光，或无线电，或X射线，或伽马射线。

For a time Maxwell retired to his home to finish his work on electromagnetic theory. He wrote textbooks on heat, mathematics, color vision and physics. He was fond of his neighbors, played with their children, went to Cambridge occasionally to act as an examiner, and wrote poetry. 有一段时间，麦克斯韦退隐家中，以便完成他的电磁理论研究工作。他撰写有关热、数学、色觉和物理学的教科书。他与邻为善，和孩子们玩耍，偶尔到剑桥大学去当监考官，他写诗。

The last two years of Maxwell’s life were devoted to caring for his invalid wife, although he too was ailing. 麦克斯韦在生命的最后两年，虽然自己身体也不好，却一心一意地照顾卧床不起的妻子。

Aware of the fatal nature of his illness, cancer, he did not consult doctor or tell his friends of his condition for some time. 麦克斯韦在知道自己患的是不治之症癌症后，他好一阵子都没有看医生，或把他的病况告诉朋友们。

A patient, kindly, selfless man, his wit and humor were soon lost in suffering. He died on November 5, 1879, before he was forty-eight years old. 一位耐心、仁慈、无私的人，还有他的智慧和幽默，在痛苦的折磨中很快消失了。他于1879115，还没有满48岁时，与世长辞。

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1.       … Faraday’s theory of electromagnetic induction, the production of electricity from magnetism.

2.       Maxwell developed … a model of the magnetic field.

3.       The model consisted … of rotating cylinders….

4.       Maxwell went further….

1.       Which of the following statements is not mentioned in the passage?

A.      Faraday used the term “lines of force” to describe the space around a magnet.

B.      Maxwell was greatly interested in Faraday’s theory of electromagnetic induction.

C.      Maxwell developed, in his mind, a model of the magnetic field.

D.     Faraday once taught Maxwell when the latter studies in college.

2.       According to the passage the theory of electromagnetic induction is __________.

A.      the production of electricity from magnetism

B.      when one cylinder was turned the motion was transmitted through the spheres

C.      that ball bearings make cylinders rotating

D.     that a changing electric field creates a magnetic field

3.       From the passage we know that _______________.

A.      Faraday showed that a changing magnetic field could produce an electric effect in space

B.      Maxwell showed that a changing magnetic field would produce an electric current in a conductor

C.      Hertz proved Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory

D.     Hertz showed that electric and magnetic effects could travel

4.       The underlined word “invalid” used in the passage can be best replaced by ______.

A.      bedridden

B.      useless

C.      unlawful

D.     impossible

1. D    2. A    3. C    4. A

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