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(2011-09-05 22:54:35)



分类: 英汉对照读物



Volcanoes   火山





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A volcano is a mountain or hill with openings through which melted rock, gases and ashes come up from below the earth’s crust.



   Underneath the earth’s rocky crust are masses of hot, melted rock. This rock material is called magma. (1) Pressure pushes the magma upward through the cracks in the earth’s crust. If a crack leads to the earth’s surface, the magma pours out upon the surface. It is then called lava. 地球的岩石地壳的下面是大量的炽热的熔化了的岩石。这种岩石材料叫做岩浆。压力把岩浆通过地壳的裂缝向上挤压。如果裂缝通向地表,岩浆喷出,流到地面上。 于是,它就叫熔岩。


   Magma contains large quantities of gases. When the magma rises close to the earth’s surface, the gases escape. They push outward with great force, blowing a hole in the surface. (2) 岩浆含有大量的气体。岩浆上升,接近地表时,气体逃逸。它们以巨大的力量向外挤,在地表冲出一个洞。


   The out-rushing gases carry up into the air huge amounts of dust and ashes. The tons of ashes form a cone around the hole in the earth.



Lava pours out of the hole and runs down the ash cone. In this way, a volcano is built. The outpouring of lava, gas, and ashes is called eruption. 熔岩从洞中喷出,沿着火山灰锥体向下流。这样,一座火山便形成了。熔岩、气体、火山灰向外喷射,被称之为火山喷发。


   Most of the world’s volcanoes were formed several million years ago. (3) The earth’s newest volcano is located near Paricutin, Mexico. 世界上大多数的火山都是几百万年以前形成的。地球上最年轻的火山在墨西哥的帕里库廷附近。


   On February 20, 1943, a farmer saw a wisp of smoke rise from a field he was plowing. A few hours later, dense clouds of smoke were pouring out of a crack in the earth. Ashes shot out of the crack and began to form a cone as they fell to earth. Two days after the eruption began, lava started to flow out of an opening in the cone of ashes. 1943220,一个农夫看见一股烟从他正在耕种的地里升起。几小时后,浓烟从地缝中喷出。火山灰喷出地缝,落到地上,形成一个锥体。火山喷发两天后,熔岩开始从火山灰锥体的一个洞里往外流。


The volcano stopped erupting in 1952, and the ashes built a volcano 1,350 feet high. It was named Mount Paricutin. 1952年,这个火山停止喷发,火山灰构成的火山高1,350英尺。 它被命名为帕里库廷火山。


   Scientists have learned much about how volcanoes start and grow from studying this young volcano. 科学家研究这个年轻的火山,已经懂得许多关于火山形成和成长的情况。


   Most of the earth’s volcanoes are found in two main regions or volcano belts. The Pacific Ocean is surrounded by a belt of active volcanoes called the Circle of Fire. The shores of the Caribbean and Mediterranean seas also have many volcanoes. 地球上的火山大都在两个主要的区域内,或叫火山带内。太平洋周围是一个活火山带,叫“火环”。加勒比海和地中海的海岸也有许多火山。


   Not all volcanoes shoot forth smoke and ashes. (4) Some simply pour out lava. Mauna Loa in Hawaii is one of these. The Hawaiian Islands are the upper parts of volcanoes that erupted on the bottom of the Pacific Ocean. Here is the famous Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. 并非所有的火山都要喷射烟和火山灰。有的仅仅喷射熔岩。夏威夷的冒纳罗亚火山就是其中的一个。夏威夷群岛在火山的上部,这些火山在太平洋洋底喷发。这儿有著名的夏威夷火山国家公园。


   Volcanoes that have not erupted for tens of   thousands of years are called dead, or extinct volcanoes. Crater Lake in southwestern Oregon of the United States was formed in a depression that covers the top of a dead volcano. 几万年都没有喷发的火山叫死火山。美国俄勒冈西南边的火山口湖,是在一个地坑中形成的。这个地坑覆盖在一座死火山的顶部。


   Other volcanoes that have not erupted for thousands of years, but show signs that they may erupt again, are called sleeping, or dormant volcanoes. Popocatepetl is a sleeping volcano near Mexico City. 其他那些几千年没有喷发,但有迹象可能再次喷发的火山,叫静火山。波波卡特佩特火山是一座静火山,在墨西哥城附近。


   Volcanoes that have erupted many times in history are called active volcanoes. Lassen Peak, in California of the United States, is one of these. 在历史上曾经多次喷发的火山叫活火山。美国加利福尼亚的拉森峰火山就是这些活火山中的一座。


   The ancient Roman town of Pompeii once stood at the foot of Mt. Somma, in Italy. In 79, the volcano erupted and buried the town and their inhabitants. The eruption destroyed Mt. Somma, but a new volcano cone, Mr. Vesuvius, emerged. Since that time, Vesuvius erupted many times. 古罗马庞培城曾经矗立在意大利索马山麓。公元79年,火山爆发,埋没了庞培城和它的居民。这次火山喷发摧毁了索马山,但是,一座新火山维苏威火山出现了。从那时起,维苏威火山多次喷发,


   Although volcanoes are highly destructive and dangerous, they do help the earth in some ways. They allow some of the tremendous pressure building up inside the earth to be gradually released. The ashes given off by volcanoes eventually break down into rich soil, and volcanic steam is now being used in some parts of the world to generate electricity. 虽然火山具有很大的破坏性和危险性,但是,它们的确以某些方式有助于地球。它们让积聚在地球内部的某些巨大压力慢慢地得到释放。火山喷发出的火山灰最终分裂成肥沃的土壤,世界的一些地区现在正在用火山蒸汽发电。


In 1980 a volcanic eruption demolished  70 percent of Mount Saint Helens’ ice cover and thus destroyed ice fields. During long sleeping intervals of volcanoes, glaciers gained the upper hand cutting deeply into volcanic cones and eventually reducing them to rubble.  1980年,一场火山喷发破坏了覆盖圣海伦山的70%的冰,因此摧毁了冰原。在火山漫长的休眠间歇期间,冰川占据上风,深深地切入火山锥内部,最终将其断为碎片。


 Volcanic fire and glacial ice were in perfect balance, and steam caves were formed at Mount Rainier National Park in the United States. 火山的火焰和冰川的冰处于绝对的平衡,于是,两个壮观的蒸汽洞穴出现在美国的瑞纳尔国家公园。



1.       This rock material is called magma.

句子中的magma作主语补足语。在主动语态中,这个主语补足语就是宾语补足语:We call this rock material magma.(我们称这种岩石材料为岩浆。 宾语material,宾语补足语magma)。再比如:He was made their leader. (= They made him their leader.) (他们选他当头。 主语补足语their leader)

2.       They push outward with great force, blowing a hole in the surface.

句子中的现在分词短语blowing a hole in the surface作状语,表示伴随状况。它的动作与谓语动词push outward同时发生。再比如:She sat there doing nothing. (她坐在那儿,无所事事。)

3.       Most of the world’s volcanoes were formed several million years ago.

句子中的谓语动词form是及物动词,表示“使……变成……形状”。它的宾语后面接介词of from,表示“用……构成”。可以用于主动语态或被动语态。再比如:She formed the dough into squares. (她把生面团捏成四方块。 主动语态) / The village was formed of semicircle huts. (这个村庄由半圆形的茅舍构成。 被动语态)

4.       Not all volcanoes shoot forth smoke and ashes.

句子中有一个典型的部分否定句型,即: not (否定词) + all, both, every, always, quite, much, many等含全体意义的词或数词。再比如:Not all butter that cow yields. (奶牛所产的未必全是黄油。) / Not every day is a day in May. (并非天天都是艳阳天。) / The plan is not quite effective and practical. (这个计划并非切实可行。)




1.       According to the article what is lava?

A.      It is the magma which has poured out of the crack in the earth.

B.      It is a mountain with openings on the earth’s surface.

C.      It is made up of hot, melted rock.

D.     It contains large quantities of gases and ashes.

2.       Which of the following statements is not mentioned in the article?

A.      Melted rock, gases and ashes pour out of the crack in the earth’s crust.

B.      Large quantities of gases are found in magma.

C.      Magma is pushed upward through the cracks in the earth’s crust by pressure.

D.     Even when the magma rises near the earth’s surface, no gas will escape.

3.       According to the article the belt of active volcanoes was nicknamed ________.

A.      the Pacific Ocean

B.      the Circle of Fire 

C.      Hawaii Volcanoes National Park

D.     Crater Lake

4.       The underlined word “demolished” in the article can be best replaced by ________.

A.      destroyed

B.      swallowed

C.      taken away

D.     obtained



1. A    2. D    3. B    4. A


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