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河流

(2011-09-01 21:56:48)
标签:

英汉对照读物

教育

分类: 英汉对照读物

                                  River 河流

 

 

博主改写英语原文并翻译成汉语,对照发帖于此,供网友参考。

  点击图片或使用键盘← →翻页

 

Most rivers start as streams of water in the mountains. (1) The small streams flow downhill and join other streams to form a river that goes on to the sea or a lake.

   大多数的河流的源头都是群山中的水流。小溪往山下流,与其他的小溪汇合,形成河流,继续向前,流向大海或湖泊。

 

Melting snow and rain make the river larger. A stream that flows into a larger river or a larger stream is called tributary. For example, the Missouri River, Arkansas River and Ohio River are the largest tributaries of the Mississippi River. (2) 融雪和雨水使河流变大。流入大江大河的河流叫支流。比如,密苏里河、阿肯色河,和俄亥俄河是密西西比河的最大的支流。

 

   A drainage basin is the area where these tributaries collect rainwater. A river with all its tributaries is called a river system. 流域是支流蓄水的区域。一条河流连同它的全部支流一起,叫做水系。

 

A river can be called young or old. A young river gathers water into a swift-running current. The water leaps down waterfalls and rapids on its way. The current breaks particles of soil and rock from the banks and carries them downstream.

   我们可以说一条河流年轻或年老。一条年轻的河流集水于湍流之中。一路上,水从瀑布和湍滩倾泻而下。流水冲掉两岸的土壤和岩石微粒,卷着顺流而下。

 

The particles “sandpaper” the bed, (3) or bottom, of the river and cut it deeper. This cutting action is called erosion.

   这些微粒“擦磨”河床或河底,将它磨损得更深。这种冲刷行为叫做侵蚀。

 

Such erosion may cut a gorge or canyon. The Grand Canyon of the Colorado River is the largest river canyon in the world. 如此的侵蚀可能磨损出峡,或峡谷。科罗拉多河大峡谷是世界上最大的河流峡谷。

 

   As the river reaches “middle age,” it has worn its valley down to a more gradual slope. The river has widened. The current moves more slowly. There is less erosion. The river forms broad loops, called meanders.

   随着河流进入“中年”,它已经将山谷磨损成缓坡。河流变宽了。水流更加缓慢。侵蚀减少。河流形成宽阔的河弯,称之为河曲。

 

When the river reaches “old age,” its current moves even more slowly. Particles of soil are deposited on the riverbed itself, making the river shallower. The river forms new meanders that curve along the valley floor. 河流进入“老年”后,它的水流甚至更加缓慢。土壤微粒沉积在自己的河床上,使河流变浅。河流形成新的河曲,在谷底逶迤流淌。

 

   The river’s mouth is the place where a river goes into the ocean. Most rivers become very wide at their mouths, forming deltas from soil deposited there. 河流的出口是河流进入海洋的地方。大多数的河流在出口处变得非常宽阔,土壤在那儿沉积,形成三角洲。

 

The people who first inhabited North America, like people everywhere, usually settled along rivers. The river provided them with drinking, cooking, and washing water. (4) The people could catch fish. The river provided a natural highway — all the people had to do was to build a boat or barge.

   最早居住在北美洲的人们,像任何地方的人一样,通常沿河定居。河流给他们提供饮用水、做饭用水和洗涤用水。人们可以捉鱼。河流提供一条天然通道 人们所要做的一切就是建造一条船。

 

Later, man quickly discovered that river valleys provided fertile soil as well.

   后来,人类很快发现:河谷还提供肥沃的土壤。

 

Today, farmers still cultivate river valleys. But men have learned to use river water before it drains into the sea. Huge dams halt the flow of the water, which can turn turbines and generate electricity for people. 现在,农民们仍然在河谷耕耘。但是,人们已经学会利用河水,然后才让它流进大海。大坝截断水流,让水流转动涡轮发电,造福人类。

 

Reservoirs collect river water and pipe it to thirsty cities and parched fields. Rivers that once carried our ancestors’ canoes now carry huge ships. 水库储蓄河水,然后,被送到缺水的城市和干渴的田野。我们祖先的独木舟曾经航行过的河流,现在浮载着我们的巨轮。

    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

注释:

1.       Most rivers start as streams of water in the mountains.

句子中的riverstream表示“水流”时,与brook同意。但是,river表示“江,河流”,泛指一般的江河。再比如:These rivers are tributary to the Ganges. (这几条河流是恒河的支流。)

stream表示“水流,河流,溪”,泛指一切大小河流。有时可以专指小河与小溪,是这三个单词中词义最广泛的词。比如:A small stream ran down among the rocks. (一条小溪在岩石间流过。) / We go on further south until we find ourselves in that mighty stream known as the Yangtze. (我们继续向南走,一直走到那条被称为长江的大河边。)

brook表示“溪流,小河”, 尤其指发源于山泉的小河。有时,用于诗歌中。比如:This is but a narrow brook. (这只不过是条狭窄的小河。)

2.       …the Missouri River, Arkansas River and Ohio River are the largest tributaries of the Mississippi River.

注意,河流名称前面有定冠词,与它们相对应的美国州名的前面没有任何冠词。请看:

the Missouri Rive r— 密苏里河        Missouri — 密苏里州

the Arkansas River —  阿肯色河      Arkansas — 阿肯色州

the Ohio River —  俄亥俄河         Ohio — 俄亥俄州

the Mississippi River — 密西西比河   Mississippi — 密西西比州

3.       The particles “sandpaper” the bed….

句子中的“sandpaper”带有引号,表示是暂时具有这个意思。“sandpaper” 原指“沙纸”,这儿用作动词,表示“像用沙纸那样地擦”。名词转化为动词使用,我们再看两个例句:He quickly penciled the time on the ticket. (他迅速地用铅笔在票上写下了时间。) / If so, we shall be badly fooled. (如果这样,我们就会上大当。)

4.       The river provided them with drinking, cooking, and washing water.

句子中的谓语动词provide作及物动词,表示“为某人提供某物”时,可用下面几种句型:

1)      provide somebody with something。比如:Our hens provide us with plenty of eggs. (我们的母鸡给我们下了许多蛋。)

2)      provide something for somebody 比如:The canteen provides meals for us. (食堂为我们供应饭菜。)

3)      provide something to somebody。比如:We provided tools to these workers. (我们为这些工人提供工具。)

4)      provide somebody something。比如:We provided them board and lodging. (我们给他们提供食宿。)

 

中考、高考模拟题

 

1.       It can be learned from the article that a tributary is _____________.

A.      a stream that flows into a larger river 

B.      a river flows very quickly over waterfalls

C.      a river that can generate electricity

D.     a streams that flow into the sea or a lake

2.       According to the article the Missouri River, the Arkansas River, the Ohio River and the Mississippi River are in _______.

A.      Canada

B.      South American

C.      The United States 

D.     The United Kingdom

3.       Which of the following statements are false according to the article?

A.      Most rivers start as streams of water in the mountains.

B.      Melting snow and rain make the river larger.

C.      A river with all its tributaries is called a river system.

D.     A drainage basin is a large lake that collects rainwater.

4.       The underlined pronoun “it” used in the article refers to _______.

A.      river water 

B.      boat or barge

C.      canoe or ship

D.     sea or lake

 

参考答案:

1. A    2. C    3. D    4. A

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