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湖泊

(2011-08-29 23:48:35)
标签:

英汉对照读物

教育

分类: 英汉对照读物

 

                                 Lake  湖泊

 

 

博主改写英语原文并翻译成汉语,对照发帖于此,供网友参考。

 

 

 点击图片或使用键盘← →翻页

 

Have you ever watched puddles form in low places anywhere when it rains? The rainwater collects in these places.  你看到没有,下雨时,不管哪儿的低洼地方都会有水坑形成?雨水在这些地方积蓄起来。

 

Lakes are formed in a similar way. (1) Water collects in large depressions on the surface of the earth. The depressions fill either with rainwater (2) or with the water that flows into them from rivers, streams, or underground springs. 湖泊以类似的方式形成。水积蓄在地表的巨大的凹地中。凹地充满雨水,或者来自江、河的水,或地下的泉水。

 

Most of the world’s lakes lie in regions where huge glaciers moved across the land during the Ice Age, about 10,000 years ago. 世界上大多数的湖泊都位于这样一些地区:大约1万年前的冰川期,巨大的冰川在这些地区的大地上流过。

 

The glaciers carved hollows in the land as they traveled. These hollows filled with water as the glaciers melted, and lakes formed. If we fly over Minnesota of the United States, we can see many lakes formed in this way. 冰川流动时,在大地上切割出凹地。冰川融化,这些凹地便充满水,形成湖泊。如果我们从美国的密尼苏达州上空飞过,就能看到许多这样形成的湖泊。

 

Lakes are formed in other ways, too. Crater Lake in southwestern Oregon of the United States lies in the crater of an extinct volcano. Crater Lake is not connected to any rivers or streams. Melting snow keeps it full. 也有以其他方式形成的湖泊。美国俄勒冈州西南部的火山口湖,在一座死火山口上。火山口湖不与任何江河相连接。融化的雪使湖水盈盈。

 

Lakes are also formed when the earth’s crust shifts and cracks. Water fills the crack. Lake Baikal in Russia began in this way. It is the world’s deepest lake. 地壳移动并出现裂缝时,也会形成湖泊。水灌进地缝。俄罗斯的贝加尔湖是这样开始形成的。它是世界上最深的湖泊。

 

Another kind of lake is the sinkhole lake, which is formed in limestone. Limestone is a kind of soft rock that dissolves easily. Rainwater slowly wears a depression in the rock, and the depression fills with water. 另一类湖泊是灰岩坑湖,在石灰岩中形成。石灰岩是非常容易溶解的软岩石。雨水慢慢地在岩石中冲出一个坑,坑中充满水。

 

Some lakes are called “seas,” although they are not connected to the oceans. The Caspian Sea in Russia, and the Dead Sea between Israel and Jordan are saltwater lakes. 有一些湖泊叫“海”,虽然它们并不与海洋相连。俄罗斯的里海和位于以色列和约旦之间的死海,是咸水湖。

 

Saltwater lakes are fed by rivers and streams, but they have no outlets. Water can leave these lakes only by evaporation. The Sea of Galilee, in Israel, is a freshwater lake. The Jordan River passes through it. 江河流进咸水湖,但是,它们没有出口。水只有通过蒸发,才能离开这些湖泊。以色列的加利利海,是淡水湖。约旦河流经该湖。

 

Man can make artificial lakes (3) by building dams across rivers. The river water backs up behind the dam, and a lake is formed. 人类筑坝拦河,可以修建人工湖。河水被拦在大坝后面,形成湖泊。

 

A new lake, called Lake Powell, was created in Arizona of the United States in 1963. It formed behind Glen Canyon Dam, which blocks the Colorado River. Both natural and man-made lakes are useful to man. Canals can be built to bring water from lakes to irrigate farmlands. 1963年,在美国的亚利桑那州,修建了一个叫鲍维尔湖的新湖。格伦峡谷大坝拦截科罗拉多河,形成这个湖。自然形成的与人修建的湖泊,对人类都很有用处。可以修筑运河,引水灌溉农田。

 

Many lakes are important for their minerals and fish or as a means of transportation. Lakes can also used as reservoirs. Lakes provide fun for people — fishing, boating, swimming, and water-skiing. 许多湖泊因为有丰富的矿物质和鱼,或者作为一种交通工具,而变得十分重要。湖泊还可用做水库。湖泊给人们带来欢乐 钓鱼、划船、游泳和滑水。

 

In ancient times many people began to build their houses over water, especially on lakes. They did this to escape their enemies — wild animals or other people. Lake dwellers seem to have existed as long as 1.5 million years ago, when the Stone Age began. Two kinds of lake dwellings were built. 古时候,许多人开始在水上,特别是在湖上修建房屋。他们这样做,是为了逃避敌人 野兽或其他的人。湖上居民似乎早在150万年以前,石器时代开始时,就存在了。修建了两种湖上木排屋。

 

People made mounds of stone, brush, or mud, in water. They drove short pilings (heavy pieces of wood) into the mounds and built houses on the pilings. On stormier lakes, they made stronger bases for the pilings by placing square log frames on the lake bottom. 人们用石头线、树枝,或泥土在水中修筑线脚。他们将短木桩打进线脚,然后在木桩上修房。在风浪较大的湖上,他们在湖底放置方形木料框,给木桩奠定更加坚实的基础。

 

They would drive long poles into the lake bottom within these frames, and then build their houses on these long poles. The lake dwellers had to climb ladders to get into their houses. They would pull the ladders up after them, so that no enemy could follow. 他们在这些框内,向湖底打进长木桩,然后在长木桩上修房。湖上居民必须登梯才能进入他们的屋子。他们用完梯子后,便把梯子拉上去,敌人便没有办法跟上来。

 

By living on water, the lake dwellers were able to use more of the good land around a lake for farming. A person could even go fishing without leaving his home! 湖上居民生活在水上,能够更多地耕种湖泊周围的肥沃土地。甚至可以不离家门捕鱼!

 

Even today, some groups of people — such as those in the Philippine Islands and along the Amazon Rover in South America — still live in houses built over the waters of lakes. 甚至现在,有一些人群 比如在菲律宾群岛和南美洲的亚马孙河沿岸 仍然生活在湖面上的房屋里。

 

In the future, new lakes will form, and the lakes that exist today will disappear. Some will be filled in (4) little by little with bits of sand or earth carried by rivers and streams. Others may slowly dry up because of a change in climate or because the streams that feed them dry up. 将来,新的湖泊会形成,今天存在的湖泊会消失。江河所夹带的泥沙会渐渐地填满一些湖泊。其他的湖泊可能因为气候的变化,或者因为流进这些湖泊的河流干枯,而慢慢地干枯。

 

But man will strive to keep the present lakes and create more lakes for his own sake. 但是,人类为了自身的利益,将努力保存现有的湖泊,并修建更多的湖。

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

注释:

1.       Lakes are formed in a similar way.

句子中的form是及物动词,表示“用……构成;使变成……形状”。可以使用被动语态形式。再比如:She formed the dough into square. (她把生面团捏成四方块。 主动语态) /The village was formed of semicircle huts. (这个村庄是由半圆形的茅舍构成的。 被动语态)

form也可作不及物动词,比如本文的第一句:…puddles form in low places ….(水坑在低洼处形成)。尽管作不及物动词,但仍然含有被动意义,表示“形成”, 可指具体的东西,也可指抽象的东西。再比如:A plan began to form in his mind. (他的头脑中开始形成一个计划。)

2.       The depressions fill either with rainwater or with water that….

句子中的谓语动词fill作不及物动词,后接介词with,表示“充满了……”。 再比如:The air begins to fill with the aromas of coffee. (空气中开始弥漫着咖啡的芳香。) 后面如果没有接介词with,则表示“(渐渐地)满起来”,常常带有修饰语。比如:The theater slowly filled. (剧院里逐渐坐满了人。)

fill常作及物动词,如果宾语表示容器,后面接介词with,表示“用…………装满”。比如:Please fill this cup with sugar. (请把这个杯子装满糖。) 有时,fill后面可以接双宾语。比如:He filled me a glass of beer. (他给我倒了一杯啤酒。)

fill的过去分词filled,后面接介词with,表示“充满着……”,强调状态, 可以指具体的东西,也可指抽象的事情。比如:He seemed suddenly filled with energy. (他仿佛忽然浑身是劲。)

3.       Man can make artificial lakes….

句子中的Man,不与任何冠词连用,表示“人类”。再比如:Man will conquer nature. (人定胜天。) 有时,man也指一切男子,跟女子 (woman) 对比。比如:Man is said to be stronger than woman. (据说,男人比女人坚强。) 注意,尽管这里的man指全人类或一切男子,在语法上仍然被看作单数,所以它的代词要用he, him, his,而不是 they, them, their;动词也要用单数形式。

4.       Some will be filled in….

句子中的习惯用语fill in表示甜品“填平,填满”。再比如:The ruts must be filled in so that traffic can pass. (必须填平车轮压出的辙印,以便车辆通行。)  fill in除了这个意思外,还有其他的意思:填写、提供情况、顶替、消磨掉(多余的时间)。

 

                                 中考、高考模拟题

 

1.       All of the following statements are true except that ______________.

A.      Rainwater will collect in low places.

B.      The depressions on the surface of the earth may fill with water.

C.      Most of the world’s lakes are formed because of glaciers.

D.     The Ice Age was a time about 20,000 years ago. 

2.       According to the article an extinct volcano is _____________.

A.      a volcano that no longer erupts

B.      a volcano that erupts now and then

C.      a crater or mouth of a volcano

D.     a lake on the crater of an volcano

3.       According to the article which lake is the deepest lake in the world?

A.      The Caspian Sea.

B.      The Dead Sea.

C.      The Sea of Galilee

D.     Lake Baikal 

4.       What does the underlined pronoun “they” refer to according to the article?

A.      Freshwater lakes.

B.      Saltwater lakes.

C.      Glaciers.

D.     Rainwater

 

参考答案:

1. D    2. A    3. D    4. B

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