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核连锁反应奠基人-- 恩里科·弗米(4)

(2011-08-14 00:07:07)
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英汉对照读物

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分类: 英汉对照读物

Enrico Fermi 核连锁反应奠基人-- 恩里科·弗米

 

                        4A Man to Develop the First Atomic Bomb

研制第一颗原子弹的人

 

 

博主改写英语原文并翻译成汉语,对照发帖于此,供网友参考。

 

  点击图片或使用键盘← →翻页

Niels Bohr  spoke of protons in the nucleus and electrons around it. (1) 尼尔斯·的玻曾说到:在原子核和原子核周围的电子里,有质子。

 

James Chadwick performed a series of experiments, (2) and in 1932 showed that yet another particle, the neutron, was bound up inside the nucleus of the atom. 詹姆斯·查德威克做了一系列的实验;1932年,他指出:在原子核里面,还有一颗粒子,即中子。

 

The neutron is a heavy particle, as atomic particles go. It weighs about as much as a proton and about 2000 times as much as the electron. 就原子粒子而言,中子是很重的粒子。它的重量与质子大体相等,大约是电子重量的2000倍。

 

Unlike either the electron which has a negative charge or the proton which has a positive charge, the neutron has no charge at all. 中子既不象带负电荷的电子,也不象带正电荷的质子,它根本就不带任何电荷。

 

Charged particles can be controlled readily by magnets or by electric fields, but a neutron cannot be detected or controlled in this manner. 磁体或电磁场可以轻易地控制带电粒子,但是,却不能用这种方法测出或控制中子。

 

The chain reaction with the splitting of the atom is about as follows: (3) First a source of neutrons splits a uranium atom. There is energy given off, but in this case that is not what keeps the chain going. 原子裂变引起连锁反应的过程大致如下:首先,一个中子源分裂铀原子。有能量释放出来,但是,在这种情况下,不是能量使连锁反应不断地进行下去。

 

The important thing is that when the uranium atom is split it sends out more neutrons. These neutrons in turn split (4) more atoms which give out more neutrons, which split more atoms and so on, until all the uranium is split. 重要的是:当铀原子被分裂时,它释放出更多的中子。这些中子又分裂更多的原子,原子释放出更多的中子;中子分裂更多的原子,如此不断地进行下去,直到所有的铀被分裂为止。

 

When the uranium atoms split, they give off the enormous amounts of energy that make the explosion so terrible. 当铀原子分裂时,它们释放出巨大的能量,引起如此令人恐怖的爆炸。

 

The problem was to find out how, if it was possible at all, to produce a chain reaction. 问题是要弄清楚:如果连锁反应却有可能,怎样才能制造出连锁反应。

 

Fermi suggested that if the uranium was mixed with graphite (the “lead” in a pencil), the graphite would slow down the neutrons. So they would not shoot past the uranium atoms but would hit them. 弗米提出:如果在铀里混入石墨(即铅笔中的“铅”),石墨便会减缓中子的运动速度。于是,它们不会从铀原子旁边飞过,而会击中铀原子。

 

It was known that a slow moving neutron has a much greater chance of scoring a hit because when it gets near the nucleus, the neutron will be attracted by a kind of gravitational force. 我们已经知道:缓慢运动着的中子的命中率要大得多,因为,当中子靠近原子核时,它会被一种引力所吸引。

 

High-speed neutron doesn’t hit a nucleus very often; it usually flies right past, just as a golf ball hit too hard rolls right over the cup. 高速中子常常击不中原子核,犹如打高尔夫球用力太猛,球便会从球洞上方滚开。

 

   Fermi, with the help of many other scientific workers, succeeded in constructing an atomic pile, a pile of graphite and lumps of uranium oxide. 弗米在其他许多科学工作者的帮助下,成功地修建了一个原子反应堆:一个由石墨和大量的二氧化铀构成的堆。

 

About six tons of metal were used. Strips of cadmium, another metal, were inserted in the pile. Cadmium absorbs neutrons thus preventing too rapid a chain reaction. 大约使用了6吨金属。另外一种镉金属条也被插进反应堆。镉元素吸收中子,于是,避免连锁反应进行得太快。

 

The pile was first operated on December 2, 1942. It was on that occasion that the head of the nuclear fission project at the University of Chicago told the Director of the National Defense Research Commission that “The Italian navigator arrived”: the atomic age was a reality. 1942122,反应堆首次运转。正是在此时刻,芝加哥大学核放射项目负责人告诉国防研究委员会主任:“意大利航海家到了”:原子时代已经成为现实。

     

   Fermi was awarded a $25,000 prize by the United States Atomic Energy Commission in November, 1954, in recognition of his contributions toward the development of the atomic bomb. 195411月,美国原子能委员会奖励 弗米25000美元,表彰他对研制原子弹所作的贡献。

 

Twelve days later he died of cancer, a disease that may one day be wiped out by scientists using atomic products pioneered by the work of Enrico Fermi12天后,他死于癌症。有朝一日,科学家可能使用根据恩里科·弗米的成果所开发的原子产品,将这种疾病根除。

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

注释:

1.   Niels Bohr: 尼尔斯·玻 (1885-1962),丹麦物理学家,量子物理学的先驱,因为原子

结构的研究成果,获1922年诺贝尔物理学奖,1957年获第一次美国和平利用原子能奖。

丹麦人常说,他们最引以为豪的是:他们的航运业、奶制品、安徒生,还有他们的玻尔。

2.  James Chadwick: 詹姆斯·查德威克 (1891-1974), 英国物理学家,1932年发现中子,获1935诺贝尔物理学奖。

1.       The chain reaction with the splitting of the atom is about as follows: …

句子中的as follows是习惯用语,as 是联系代词,follows是动词。不论时间,不论所指的事物是复数还是单数,一律用as follows。再比如:The two manifestos are as follows. (两个宣言如下。)

2.       These neutrons in turn split more atoms …

句子中的in turn表示“轮流”。再比如:They bought their tickets in turn. (他们挨个儿一个接一个地买票。) 注意,不要与短语by turns相混淆,by turn的意思是“交替”;“时而……时而……”。比如:They sang by turns. (他们交替唱歌。¾  时而这里唱,时而那里唱。) / She went hot and cold by turns. (她阵发热,一阵发冷。)

 

中考、高考模拟题

 

1.       Which of the following statements is false according to the passage?

A.      Bohr thought that protons moved around electrons.

B.      Chadwick showed in 1932 that the neutron was inside the nucleus of the atom.

C.      The neutron is a heavy particle compared with atomic particles.

D.     The electron has a negative charge.

2.       According to the passage the neutron was so named because __________.

A.      it has a negative charge

B.      it has a positive charge

C.      it has no charge at all 

D.     it does not like electrons

3.       What can control charged particles according to the passge?

A.      Protons or neutrons.

B.      Magnets or electric field. 

C.      Nucleus or atoms.

D.      Neutrons or magnets.

4.       The underlined phrase “was a reality” in the passage can be best replaced by ______.

A.      was gone

B.      was fulfilled

C.      came

D.     was in sight

 

参考答案:

1. A    2. C    3. B    4. C

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