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(2011-07-06 21:20:28)



分类: 英汉对照读物


Flood    洪水




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Rivers are useful and beautiful parts of nature. But once in a while, a river becomes so full of water (1) that it rises over its banks, causing a flood. 河流是大自然美丽而有用的部分。但是,有时,河里水太满,溢出河岸,造成洪灾。


  Then river becomes destructive and frightening, ruining houses, other buildings, roads, and crops, and sometimes killing animals and people. 这时,河流变成毁灭性的河流,令人恐怖,摧毁房舍和其他建筑物、道路和庄稼,有时,还夺走动物和人们的生命。


Rivers usually flood in the spring. Spring rains add to water produced by melting snow. The rain and the melting snow together may produce more water than the river can hold at one time. (2) The water overflows the banks of the river and can cause much destruction. 江河泛滥通常发生在春季。春雨使雪消融产生的水陡增。雨和消融的雪一起产生的水,河流一下子容纳不了。水漫溢出河岸,可能造成很大的破坏。


   Heavy rainstorms can also cause floods. Hurricanes and typhoons that move inland (3) from the ocean may dump so much rain on the land that rivers cannot carry the water away in time, so they flood. 巨大的暴风雨也可能引起洪灾。飓风和台风从海洋向内陆运动,可能往地上降下滂沱大雨,河流不能及时将水带走,所以它们泛滥成灾。


  A heavy rainstorm that lasts only a short time — an hour or two — is called a cloudburst. The rainwater runs off the land so quickly that it floods creeks and rivers. The flood lasts only a little while, as the huge quantity of water runs downstream. This kind of flood is called a flash flood because the river swells to flood size quickly and then just as quickly returns to its usual size. 只延续很短一段时间 一个或两个小时 的巨大的暴风雨,叫大暴雨。雨水迅速离开陆地,使小河大河河水泛滥。涨洪水的时间只有一会儿,因为大量的水向下游流去。这种洪水叫骤发洪水,因为河水上涨,很快变成洪水,接着又同样快地退回到平常的水位。


   The crest of a flood is its highest point, or peak. Flash floods are dangerous because people downstream have no warning of the coming flood. 洪峰是洪水的最高点或顶峰。骤发洪水很危险,因为下游的人们没有得到洪水将至的警告。


  Not all floods are caused by rivers. (4) Ocean floods are less common than river floods, but they still happen fairly often. When the tide is high and a strong wind is blowing from the ocean toward the land, large masses of water are pushed inland, flooding shore areas. 并非所有的洪水都是河流引起的。海洋洪水没有河流洪水那么常见,但仍然比较经常地发生。海浪滔天,大风从海洋吹向陆地,大片的水被推向陆地,淹没沿海地带。


A river can be stopped from flooding by building one or more dams across it. (5) The dams hold back flood water, storing it and releasing it downstream in small amount after the heavy rains are over. 在河流上修建一两座大坝,可以阻止河水泛滥。大坝挡住洪水,将它储蓄起来,在暴雨之后,在少少地放到下游去。


Floods may also be prevented by planting grass and trees on bare land. The plants use up some water and their roots slow the runoff of rainwater to streams and rivers. Levees, dikes, and seawalls — all strong, high walls — may be built along riverbanks or along ocean shorelines to hold back floodwater. 在荒山上种植草和树木,也能防止洪灾。植物消耗掉一些水,它们的根使雨水流入江河的速度减慢。堤、坝和防波堤 都是牢实的高墙 可以沿河岸,或沿海岸修建,以阻挡洪水。


One of the world’s most famous floods occurs each year in Egypt. Every August the Nile River floods the area in upper Egypt that surrounds the river’s mouth. 每年发生在埃及的洪水,是世界上最有名的洪水之一。每年8月,尼罗河洪水泛滥,淹没位于尼罗河出海口周围的北部埃及地区。


   These floods have been very useful because they irrigate the Nile Delta and deposit a rich layer of topsoil used for growing crops. The first Aswan Dam was built early in the last century to control the floodwaters, which are stored in a reservoir and used for irrigation. 这些洪水一直非常有用,因为它们灌溉着尼罗河三角洲,沉积下厚厚的一层表土,可以用来种庄稼。上世纪初,修筑了第一个阿斯旺大坝,以控制洪水,洪水储蓄在水库里,供灌溉用。



1.       But once in a while, a river becomes so full of water….

句子中的习惯用语once in a while,也写作once in a way,表示“偶尔,有时”。再比如:Once in while he goes with us to the movies on Saturday night. (偶尔在星期六晚上,他同我们一道去看电影。) / I don’t drink wine as a rule, but I don’t mind a glass once in a way. (我通常不喝酒,不过偶尔喝一杯也可以。)

2.       The rain … may produce more water than the river can hold at one time.

       句子中的比较级形容词more(更多的)修饰名词water。连词than引导一个状语从句,表示比较,修饰前面的more。再比如:He is more lazy than (he is) stupid. (与其说他蠢,还不如说他懒。)

3.       Hurricanes and typhoons that move inland….

        句子中的inland是副词,表示“向内陆”。再比如:She traveled inland from New York to Chicago.  (她从纽约向内陆方向旅行到芝加哥)

        inland也可作名词和形容词使用,分别表示“内陆,内地”和“内陆的,内地的”。比如:The river flows from inland to the ocean. (这条河从内陆流向大海。  作名词) / Sichuan is an inland province of China. (四川是中国的一个内陆省。  作形容词词)

4.       Not all floods are caused by rivers.

       句子中含有部分否定。这是一种典型的部分否定形式:否定词notall, both, every, always, quite, much, many等含有全体意义的词和数词的前面,但它和谓语构成否定式谓语,作部分否定,再比如:

1) Not all butter that cow yields. 奶牛所产的未必全是黄油。

4) Not every day is a day in May. 不是天天都是艳阳天。

5) Not both of the books are helpful. 这两本书不是都有用。

6) Not many of us will go there tomorrow. 我们中间不是许多人都要去那儿。

7) He has a few books, but not ten. 他有几本书,但不是十本。

8) Not each of us will have a tool. 并非我们每个人都将有一件工具。

5.       A river can be stopped from flooding by building one or more dams across it.

        句子中的谓语动词stop是及物动词,后面接宾语 + 介词from,表示“阻止…………”。本句用的是被动语态形式。再比如:The guards stopped him from escaping. (主动语态)= He was stopped from escaping by the guards. (被动因态)(卫兵不让他逃跑。)

        stop后面也可接复合宾语:宾语 + 宾语补足语。比如:The guards stopped him escaping. (卫兵不让他逃跑。  him 宾语,escaping宾语补足语)




1.       When does the river become destructive according to the article?

A.      When it has gone dry in winter.

B.      When its water is so full and overflows its banks.

C.      When it reaches its mouth into the ocean.

D.     When people build dams across it.

2.       All of the following statements are true except that _____________.

A.      rivers are useful and beautiful parts of nature

B.      rivers usually flood in the spring

C.      heavy rainstorms can dump a lot of rain on the land

D.     any heavy rainstorms can be called a cloudburst 

3.       According to the article what is the crest of a flood?

A.      The lowest point of the flood.

B.      The peak of the flood.

C.      The strongest waves during the flood.

D.     The flash floods

4.       The underlined word “bare” used in the article means __________.

A.      without clothes

B.      without grass and trees

C.      without animals

D.     empty



1. B    2. D    3. B    4. B


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