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洞穴

(2011-06-07 14:25:34)
标签:

英汉对照读物

教育

分类: 英汉对照读物

 

Cave  洞穴

 

  点击图片或使用键盘← →翻页

 

Caves are hollow spaces in the earth or in the rocky sides of cliffs and hills. They are found all over the world. 洞穴是地里,或悬崖和山的岩石坡面上的空洞地方。洞穴遍布全世界。

 

A cave may have one chamber or many chambers, which are connected with each other,  like an apartment. A very large cave is called cavern. A true cave, no matter how large or how small, is made by nature. 一个洞穴可能有一个室,或许多个室,这些室相互连接,像一个套间那样。很大的洞穴英语叫cavern。一个真正的洞穴,不管有多大或多小,都是天造地设。

 

Wind caves are found in mountainsides or cliffs where strong winds blow frequently. Sand and dirt blow about with such force that they act like sandpaper, grinding away the soft spots of the rocks.  (1) A hollow hole is slowly formed, and it grows bigger and bigger. 在经常刮强风的山坡或悬崖上,能见到风洞穴。沙和土被猛烈地刮得四处乱飞,它们起到砂纸的作用,把岩石的松软部分慢慢磨掉。一个空洞慢慢形成,洞变得越来越大。

 

Wave caves, sometimes called sea caves, are made by ocean waves beating against soft places in seaside cliffs. Lion Cave on the Oregon coast is a wave cave, in which sea lions raise their young. Another sea cave is the Blue Grotto on the island of Capri. (2) When light hits the water, it makes the cave look blue. In the old days, pirates often hid their loot in wave caves. 波洞穴有时叫海洞穴,是海浪拍打海边悬崖的松软部分形成的。俄勒冈海岸边的狮子洞窟就是一个波洞穴。海狮在洞窟中抚养小海狮。另外一个海洞穴是卡普里岛上的蓝色洞穴。当阳光照射到海水时,使洞穴呈蓝色。以前,海盗经常把赃物藏在海洞穴里。

 

Lava caves are sometimes built when lava pours out of a volcano. When the outside of the lava cools, it becomes hard. But sometimes the inside is still fiery hot, and the lava continues to flow beneath the hardened crust, thus forming a tunnel. Hundreds of lava caves on the volcanic islands of Hawaii have taken shape in this way. 熔岩从火山喷出时,有时会形成熔岩洞穴。熔岩外部冷却变硬。但是,有时,熔岩内部仍然火热,熔岩继续在变硬了的地壳下面流动,于是,形成隧道。夏威夷火山群岛上的几百个熔岩洞穴,就是这样形成的。

 

Limestone caves are the most common kind of cave in the world. They are hollowed out of limestone by acidic water. Limestone is a soft rock that lies in thick layers. It easily cracks and wears away. (3) 石灰石洞穴是世界上最普通的洞穴。它们是酸性水腐蚀石灰石后出现空洞而形成的。石灰石是一种岩层很厚的软岩石。它容易裂缝和磨损。

 

The acid that dissolves the rock comes from rainwater, which picks up carbon dioxide from the air and from the soil. This makes rainwater into carbonic acid. The acid nibbles away at the rock until cracks begin to appear. More rain falls and trickles down, making the cracks bigger. The huge limestone caves known as Carlsbad Caverns (4) in New Mexico of the United States took millions of years to form. 溶解岩石的酸来自雨水。雨水从空气和土壤中得到二氧化碳。这便使雨水变成酸碳。这种酸蚕食岩石,直到裂缝开始出现。更多的雨降下,涓涓细流,使裂缝变大。美国新墨西哥州的叫做卡尔斯巴德洞穴的巨大石灰石洞穴,经过几百万年才形成。

 

When water seeps through from the earth’s surface into a cave, it drips from the ceiling. Each drop of water contains a tiny bit of dissolved lime or other mineral matter. As it drips, the water evaporates, and the dissolved matter is left on the ceiling. The next drop fall from the same spot and gradually form a stone “icicle,” called a stalactite, which hangs from the cave’s ceiling. 水透过地表进入洞穴时,它从洞顶向下滴。每一滴水都含有微量的溶解了的石灰或其他矿物质。水滴下时,便挥发掉,溶解的物质残留在洞顶上。另一滴水从同一地方滴下,渐渐地形成一个石头“冰柱”,叫做钟乳石,悬挂在洞穴顶上。

 

Sometimes water drips directly to the floor, so the mineral matter builds upward, like an upside-down icicle. This is called a stalagmite. 有时,水直接朝地下滴,于是,矿物质向上堆积,像倒挂的冰柱。这叫做石笋。

 

Sometimes stalactites and stalagmites grow so that they meet and form a column. Many caves are filled with strangely shaped rock formations that were built in this way. 有时,石钟乳和石笋不断长大,它们相会而形成石柱。许多洞穴中长满了这样堆积而成的奇形怪状的石头。

 

The air inside most caves is pure and pleasant, and temperatures remain about the same most of the year. Caves are often quiet, except for the soft noises of dripping water or trickling streams. (5) Some have wonderful echoes. 在大多数的洞穴中,空气都干净而令人感到舒适;一年中的大多数时候,温度基本不变。除了轻轻的滴水声或潺潺的流水声而外,洞穴里常常很安静。某些洞穴有奇妙的回声。

 

Daylight does not usually reach beyond the entrance, or mouth, of the cave, so the cave is completely dark and gloomy deep inside. Some famous caves are lit with electric lights, so tourists can visit them. 日光一般照不进洞穴门或洞穴口,所以,洞穴深处一片昏暗漆黑。有些著名的洞窟,用电灯照明,旅游者可以进洞参观。

 

Many animals use caves part of time. (6) They find shelter inside. They use caves for a nap or for raising families. Millions of bats roost in caves. 许多动物,有一部分时间使用洞穴。它们在里面栖身。它们利用洞穴小憩,或抚育后代。数以百万计的蝙蝠栖息在洞穴里。

 

Some creatures live and die without ever leaving the total darkness of caves. Certain little salamanders have lost their coloring so they are nearly white, or pale pink. Most of them are blind. Cave beetles and cave crickets are almost completely blind. These creatures    who have lost their eyesight because they live in darkness often have developed their other senses, such as hearing, smell, and touch. Cave crickets have antennae four times as long as their bodies. 有的动物从生到死都在洞穴中,从未离开过那一片黑暗的洞穴。某些小蝾螈已经失去它们原有的颜色,它们几乎是白色,或浅粉红色。它们大多数都是瞎子。洞甲虫和洞蟋蟀几乎什么也看不见。这些家伙因为生活在黑暗中,已经丧失了视力,其他感觉却常常很发达,比如听觉、嗅觉和触觉。洞蟋蟀的触须,有它们身体的四倍那么长。

 

Few plants can live in caves, because there is not enough light. Green moss and ferns grow around the mouths of caves, but only fungi and molds grow inside. Commercial mushroom growers sometimes use dark caves as mushroom farms. 很少有什么植物能够在洞穴中生长,因为里面没有足够的阳光。绿苔藓和蕨类植物生长在洞口周围,但是,只有真菌类植物和霉菌在洞里面生长。商品蘑菇种植者,有时利用黑暗的洞穴作蘑菇种植基地。

 

People lived in caves in prehistoric times. Scientists have learned much about early man by digging in cave floors and studying the artwork on walls and ceilings. 史前时期,人们居住在洞穴里。科学家挖掘洞穴地面,研究墙上和洞顶的艺术品,对早期人类已经知之甚多。

 

People in some part of the world live in caves even today. They are called troglodytes. Many of the gypsies of Spain live in caves, and so do thousands of Asian people. 甚至现在,在世界某些地方,人们仍然住在洞穴里。他们叫穴居人。西班牙的许多吉普赛人住在洞穴里,数以千计的亚洲人也住在洞穴里。

 

Scientists have found convincing evidence that more than 1,500,000 years ago, these caves became the first temporary homes for human beings. The caveman era, known as the Old Stone Age, lasted in some sections of Europe until about 20,000 years ago. 科学家已经找到令人信服的证据,150多万年前,这些洞穴成了人类的临时栖身之所。穴居人时代,叫做旧石器时代,在欧洲某些地方,一直延续到大约2万年前。

 

Caves were natural shelters that were cooler in summer and warmer in winter than outdoor camping places, and they were easily to defend. 洞穴是天然的居所,与外面露营的地方相比,冬暖夏凉,而且容易守卫。

 

The very important art of making a fire and chopping stone to create weapons and tools was discovered by cave dwellers. Cavemen about 27,000 years ago had perfected ways to make magnificent cave paintings that showed their way of life and the animals they hunted. 穴居人发现了生火和用石头制造武器与工具这个非常重要的本领。大约27千年前,穴居人的宏伟洞穴画的制作方法,已经尽善尽美;这些画反映他们的生活方式和他们所猎获的动物。

 

The domestication of sheep, dogs, donkeys, and cows, and the development of farming lured some men out of cave homes and into wood and stone homes about 8000 B.C. Other people lived in caves until modern times. Some people still do. 大约在公元前8000年,羊、狗、驴和牛被驯化,农事得到发展,使一些人不禁走出洞穴家门,移居到木石建造的家中。其他的人居住在洞穴中,直到近代。有的人仍然住在洞穴里。

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NOTES

1.       Sand and dirt blow about…

句子中的习惯用语blow about表示“被风吹得到处都是;被刮得四处乱飞”。再比如:The leaves are blowing about in the wind. (树叶被风吹得比比皆是。) / The gale was blowing broken glass about in the city streets. (强风刮得玻璃碎片在市内街道四处乱飞。)

2.       the island of Capri

卡普里岛,在意大利南部。

3.       It easily cracks and wears away.

句子中的wear away表示“(使)磨损”,主动的形式,表达被动的内容。再比如:The letters of this gravestone have worn away with time. (随着时间的流逝,碑文已经磨损了。)

4.       Carlsbad Caverns

卡尔斯巴德洞穴。Carlsbad,卡尔斯巴德市,在美国新墨西哥州东南部,位于卡尔斯巴德洞穴国家公园(Carlsbad Caverns National Park)的北边。

5.       Caves are often quiet, except for the soft noises of dripping water….

        句子中的except for是复合介词,表示“除了……”。它强调的是一个相反的原因或细节,因而部分地修正了句子的主要意思。再比如:Her article is good except for a few mistakes here and there. (她的文章很好,除了个别地方还有些错误。)

        注意,介词except也表示“除外……”。但是,它强调从整体中减去一部分,而为所说的道理或叙述的事实不能适用于那一部分。比如:All except her boy friend wanted to go. (除了她的男朋友外,大家都要去。)

        excepting只用于短语not excepting without excepting中。比如:All of us, not excepting our teachers, should learn from each other. (我们大家应该相互学习,教师也不例外。)

6.       Many animals use caves part of time.

        句子中的part of time表示“部分时间”。注意part of强调与整体的不可分割性,可大可小,可多可少,差不多在任何场合都可以使用。再比如:The island is part of our territory. (这个海岛是我们领土的一部分。)

        a part of 只强调与整体的相对性。比如:These new buildings are another part of the campus. (这些新建筑是校园的另一部分。)

 

中考、高考模拟题

 

1.       According to the article wind caves _____________.

A.      are formed by storms in summer and autumn

B.      are found in mountainsides or cliffs where gales blow frequently 

C.      are created by sand and dirt of the oceans

D.     are created by lava of some volcanoes

2.       According to the article wave caves ______________.

A.      are also called sea caves made by ocean waves 

B.      are places where farmers hid their treasures

C.      are found on the mountain slopes or forests

D.     are created by sand and dirt which acted like sandpaper

3.       According to the article lava caves _________________.

A.      are created by sand and dirt which grind away the soft rocks

B.      are made by ocean waves beating against soft rocks

C.      are formed by lava coming out of volcanoes 

D.     are found on slopes of mountains or cliffs near the seashores

4.       According to the article limestone caves ____________.

A.      are hollowed out of limestone by acidic water 

B.      are found in mountainsides or cliffs where

C.      are made by ocean waves beating against soft places in seaside cliffs

D.     are built when lava pours out of a volcano

5.       What forms when water containing dissolved lime drips directly to the cave floor?

A.      Stalagmite. 

B.      Stalactite

C.      Column

D.     Icicle

6.       The underlined phrase “dissolved lime” in the article means _______.

A.      lime in gas form

B.      lime in liquid form

C.      lime in solid form

D.     lime vapor

 

参考答案:

1. B    2. A     3. C    4. A    5. A    6. B

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