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空气和气压

(2011-06-02 01:03:00)
标签:

英汉对照读物

教育

分类: 英汉对照读物

           

 

Air and Air Pressure  空气和气压

 

  点击图片或使用键盘← →翻页

 

Air is all around us. We cannot see it, or taste it. But we can feel the wind blow. We can see the wind move waves on the water, clouds in the sky, and branches of trees. Wind is blowing air. (1) 空气在我们周围。我们没法看见它,或品尝它。但是,我们可以感到风在吹。我们能够看到风吹动水上的波浪,或天上的云块,和树枝。风在吹动空气。

 

   Without air we could not breathe. There could no living plants or animals. Because sound travels through air, without air there would be silence. The movement of invisible air can support a large, heavy airplane. (2) 没有空气,我们就没法呼吸。就不可能有活着的植物和动物。因为声音在空气中传播,没有空气,就会一片寂静。看不见的空气的移动,能够支持庞大沉重的飞机的飞行。

 

Air makes up a precious blanket of atmosphere wrapped around the earth. (3) Beyond this blanket lies airless space. Men must carry their own air supplies (4) to be able to live and work in space. 空气构成毯子般的宝贵的大气层,包裹着地球。在这个毯子的外面,是没有空气的空间。人类必须带上自己的空气,才能在空间生活和工作。

 

Air is a mixture of gases and water vapor. The most important gases in the air are nitrogen and oxygen. About 78 percent of the air is made up of nitrogen, and about 21 percent of oxygen. The remaining one percent is mostly argon, plus very tiny amount of some other gases. Almost all living things use the oxygen in air. Fire cannot burn without oxygen. 空气是多种气体和水汽的混合体。空气中最重要的气体是氮气和氧气。大约78/100的空气由氮气构成,大约21/100由氧气构成。剩下的1/100主要是氩气,再加微量的其他一些气体。几乎所有的生物都使用空气中的氧气。没有氧气,火不可能燃烧。

 

When air expands, it becomes lighter. A small electric heater can heat an entire room. The heater warms the air next to it. The warmed air becomes lighter and moves upward. Cool air moves into its place. The new air gets warm and also rises. Then it cools and moves down. The air keeps moving in circles, and the whole room is soon heated. 空气膨胀时变轻。一个小电热器能够把整个房间变热。电热器把它附近的空气变暖和。暖和的空气变轻,向上移动。冷空气流进它的位置。这刚到的空气变暖和,也向上升。然后,它变冷,向下流动。空气不断循环移动,很快把整个房间变热。

 

Air is not very heavy. A cubic foot of air at sea level, and at 32 degrees, weighs only one ounce. (5) So much air is in the atmosphere above and around us that it presses on us from all directions with a pressure, or weight. This pressure is almost 1.5 pounds per square inch at sea level. 空气不是很重。1立方英尺的空气,在海拔高度,温度32度时,只有1盎司重。在大气层中,在我们的上方和周围,有如此多的空气,以至于它从四面八方向我们施加一种压力或重力。这种压力在海拔高度,每平方英寸几乎有 1.5

 

The air pressure on our bodies amounts to thousands of pounds. We do not feel this great force because the fluid and air in our bodies are pushing out with an equal pressure. 我们身体承受的气压达到几千英磅。我们并没有感到这个巨大的力量,因为我们体内的液体和空气,用同样的压力向外推。

 

The air above just one acre of ground weighs over 40,000 tons. The weight of air is only half as much four miles above the earth. 1英亩土地的上方的空气,便有4万多吨重。高出地面4英里的上空,空气的重量就只有1半了。

 

At 15,000 feet above the earth, a pilot must wear an oxygen mask unless his plane has equipment to keep cabin pressure the same as ground level pressure. The mask is attached to a cylinder that feeds oxygen to the pilot. 离地面15,000英尺的上空,飞行员必须戴氧气罩,除非他的飞机有保持机舱气压和地面气压相同的设备。氧气罩连接在给飞行员提供氧气的氧气瓶上。

 

Most airplanes owned by airlines and businesses have equipment to keep the pressure inside the cabin much like that of ground level. 航空公司和商业公司所拥有的大多数的飞机,都有保持机舱内部气压和地面气压非常接近的设备。

 

An instrument called a barometer measures atmospheric pressure. Knowledge of air is very useful in predicting the weather. High air pressure usually means fair weather. Low pressure often means stormy weather is coming. 一种叫做气压计的仪器,可以测量大气压。有关空气的知识,在预报天气中,非常有用。高气压通常意味着好天气。低气压常常意味着暴风雨来临。

 

Air pressure can be put to work. When air is compressed in a small space, it rushes out through any opening with great force. 气压可以用来做工。当空气被压缩在一个很小的空间里时,它会以巨大的力量,从任何一个孔中冲出来。

 

A tool called a pneumatic hammer, or drill, uses the force of compressed air to drive the hammer deep into concrete. Road workers use pneumatic hammers to break up pavement. 一种叫做气锤,或气动钻的工具,利用压缩空气的力量,将钻头深深地钻进混凝土。筑路工人用气动钻钻碎路面。

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NOTES

1.       Wind is blowing air.

句子中的blowing是现在分词,与is一起,构成现在进行时态。表示“风在吹动空气”,对前面的一些现象(水上的波浪、天上的云块、树上的枝条为什么会动)做出解释。

2.       The movement of invisible air can support a large, heavy airplane.

在这个句子中,翻译谓语动词support(支持、支撑)时,需要加字,以便完整而清楚地表达出句子的意思。所以,将support a large, heavy airplane翻译为:支持庞大而沉重的飞机的飞行

3.       Air makes up a precious blanket of atmosphere wrapped around the earth.

句子中的过去分词短语wrapped around the earth作定语,修饰前面的blanket。习惯用语wrap around也写作wrap round,表示“把……裹起来或包起来”。再比如:The mother wrapped a blanket around her child. (母亲用一床毛毯把孩子包起来。)

4.       Men must carry their own air supplies….

句子中的Men指“全人类”,再比如:Men have made history. (人类创造了历史。) 通常情况下,man 的复数形式men都是表示“男人”。比如:Helen does not seem to be much interested in men. (海伦似乎对男人不太感兴趣。)

    注意,有时,men被用来跟man对比:men强调一个一个的男人,man强调全人类或一切男人。比如:Napoleon is said to have contempt for man in general and men in particular. (据说,拿破仑藐视人类,特别藐视男人。)

5.       A cubic foot of air …weighs only one ounce….

句子中的ounce表示“盎司”,是英美制重量单位,等于1/16磅,约合28.35克。

 

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