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黑熊

(2011-05-10 09:32:32)
标签:

英汉对照读物

教育

分类: 英汉对照读物

Black Bears黑熊

 

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Perhaps no other animals have so excited the human imagination (1) as bears. References to bears are found in ancient and modern literature, folk songs, legends, mythology, children stories, and cartoons. 也许,没有任何其他动物能像熊那样激发人类的想象。在古代和现代的文献、民歌、传说、神话、儿童故事和动画中,都有有关熊的资料。

 

Bears are among the first animals that children learn to recognize. Bears have traditionally been portrayed as villains. A problem for black bears is that literature about bears often does not separate black bears from grizzly bears熊是孩子们最早学习认识的动物之一。熊一直被描写成坏蛋。有关黑熊的一个问题是:有关黑熊的文献常常没有将黑熊与灰熊区分开。

 

A fat body curled into a ball for a long winter’s nap. A pair of playful cubs climbing up a tree. (2) A gleeful thief stealing honey from a beehive. An angry mother fiercely defending her young. Thee are some of the images that may come to mind when we think of the large furry mammals called bears. 肥胖的身体卷成一个球,以便进行漫长的冬日小睡。一对调皮的小熊往树上爬。扬扬得意小偷从蜂窝中偷走蜂蜜。愤怒的妈妈疯狂地捍卫它的小孩。当我们想到一种叫做熊的毛茸茸的大哺乳动物时,这些就是我们脑海里可能出现的一些形象。

 

Black bears like large forests with many different kinds of fruits and nuts.  Small sunny openings within the forest provide many kinds of food for the bears.  Lowlands and wetlands provide tender and juicy vegetation.  Streams and woodland pools provide water for drinking and cooling.  Mothers with cubs like large trees (over 20 inches in diameter) with furrowed bark  for bedding sites.  These trees are safest for small cubs to climb. 黑熊喜欢拥有多种水果和坚果的大森林。森林中那些阳光明媚的小块开阔地为熊提供多种食物。低洼地和湿地提供鲜嫩而且多汁的植物。小溪和林中水潭提供饮用水和供解暑用。带小熊的母熊喜欢树皮有洞的大树(直径超过20英寸),作栖身之地。小熊爬这些树,最安全。

 

The black bear is not so fierce as most people think. They are basically peaceful, good-natured creatures. It is a fun to watch them walk. Most mammals walk on their toes. But the black bear walks slowly along with its feet flat on the ground. This gait makes it seem clumsy. But it can be good runners. Most of them are also good swimmers and climbers. A black bear even can stand up straight and take a few steps on its hind legs. 黑熊并不是像大多数人所想象的那么凶狠。它们基本是安静善良的动物。观看它们走路很有趣。大多数哺乳动物用脚趾走路。但是,黑熊用脚掌在地上缓慢地走路。这种步态使它似乎很笨拙。但是,它可能是优秀的跑步运动员。它们大多数还是游泳和攀缘高手。黑熊甚至能够直立,用后腿走几步路。

 

A hearty appetite is a well-known trait of the black bears.(3) They enjoy feasting on small creatures such as frogs, mice, fish, and grubs. The black bear belongs to the animal called carnivore. But they also very fond of plant roots, berries, and nuts. Honey, of course, is a special favorite of many bears. 食量大是黑熊的一个众所周知的特点。它们喜欢吃小动物,诸如蛙、鼠、鱼和幼虫。黑熊属于食肉动物。但是,它们也喜欢吃植物的根、浆果和坚果。当然,蜂蜜是许多熊的特别美餐。

 

The long winter nap is another famous bear habit. But they do not sleep soundly the whole time, as true hibernating animals do. A loud sound can easily awaken them. Even the scent of a warm day can arouse them because their sense of smell is very sharp. 漫长的冬日小睡是另一个有名的熊的生活习惯。但是,整个时间里,它们都睡得不踏实,不像真正的冬眠动物那样。一个大的声音可能轻易地将它们吵醒。甚至温暖白天的气息都能弄醒它们,因为它们的嗅觉特别灵敏。

 

Black bears are now considered highly efficient hibernators.  They sleep for months without eating, drinking, urinating, or defecating.  现在,人们认为黑熊是睡眠效力最高的冬眠动物。它们睡几个月,不吃不喝,不小便,不拉大便。

 

The black bear is approximately 4 to 7 feet from nose to tail, and two to three feet high at the shoulders. It has small eyes, rounded ears, a long snout, a large body, a short tail, and shaggy hair. 黑熊从鼻子到尾巴大约有47英尺长,在双肩处测量有23英尺高。它的眼睛小,耳朵圆,鼻子嘴巴部分长,身体庞大,尾巴短,皮毛粗浓。

 

The black bear differs from grizzly bears in being smaller with a smaller shoulder hump, smaller claws and longer ears. 黑熊与灰熊不同,个儿小一些,肩突小一些,脚爪小一些,耳朵长一些。

 

We prefer calling male and female bears simply males and females, but many people call them boars and sows, like pigs.  Although pigs and black bears are both omnivores, they are not related. 我们宁愿将公熊和母熊简单地叫做males females,但是许多人称它们为boars sows,像猪一样。虽然猪和黑熊都是杂食动物,但是,它们相互没有亲缘关系。

 

The American black bear is found only in North America.  The population is estimated at 750,000. They live in forests as far south as Florida and northern Mexico and as far north as Alaska and Canada. People are becoming more tolerant of black bears as we learn more about them. 只有北美洲有美洲黑熊。估计有750,000.只。它们生活在森林中,南至佛罗里达和墨西哥北部,北至阿拉斯加和加拿大。当人们更多地了解黑熊后,变得来更能忍受它们了。

 

Wild male black bears of breeding age usually weigh between 125 and 500 pounds, depending upon age, season, and food.  Very well-fed bears can be heavier. Wild females usually weigh between 90 and 300 pounds. Black bears in captivity may exceed these records. 生育年纪的公的野黑熊通常重125500,取决于它们的年龄、季节和食物。吃得好的熊可能要重一些。野的母黑熊通常重90300 圈养的黑熊可能超过这些重量。

 

The new-born cubs weigh 1/2 to 1 pound.

By their first fall, cubs may weigh as little as 15 pounds or more than 165 pounds, depending on food supply. Cubs usually stay with their mother for 17 months, rarely 29 months.  One to six days before the mothers are ready to mate in late May or June, they force their yearlings to stop traveling with them. 刚出生的小熊体重半磅至1 到第一个秋天,小熊可能只有15重,或者重达150多磅,取决于食物的供应。小熊通常在熊妈妈身边呆17个月,很少呆到29个月。熊妈妈在5月或6月下旬准备交配前16天,便强迫刚满周岁的小熊停止与它们一起旅行。

 

The black bear has large brain compared to body size. It is one of the more intelligent mammals. Its navigation ability superior to humans. The black bear has excellent long-term memory.  It can generalize to the simple  concept level.  就个儿而言,黑熊脑髓大。它是比较聪明的哺乳动物之一。它的方向感比人类强。黑熊的长记忆特别好。它能够进行概括,达到简单的概念的水准。

 

 Black bears can live 21-33 years or more if they are not killed. 如果黑熊不被杀害,能够活2133年。

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Notes

1.       … no other animals have so excited the human imagination…

句中的nonot的强调形式,相当于not a not any。因此,在冠词、指示代词、物主代词和any, much, enough等词前面一般不用no而用not。再比如:I have no friends. = I haven’t any friends.(我没有任何朋友。)注意,有时no着重否定基本性质、特点等;not则否定外表、身份等。比如:I am no gardener.(我并不是一个好园丁。--- 根本没有园丁的基本素质) / I am not a gardener.(我不是园丁。--- 可能是个诸如木工之类的其他人)。

2.       A pair of playful cubs climbing up a tree.

这个句子和前面的一个句子及后面的两个句子,都是省掉部分谓语的省略句。这个句子句省掉了areA pair of playful cubs are climbing up a tree. 句中的up是介词,表示“沿着向上”。再比如:Their boat traveled up the river.(他们的船逆流而上。)

3.       A hearty appetite is a well-known trait of the black bears.

句中的well-knownfamous是同义词,有时可以通用。但是,famous表示“著名的”,常有“远近皆知道”的意思,一般用来指好的人或事物,不要滥用这个词。比如说“他是一个有名的作家。”如果他不是国际知名的或已有定论的作家,就不宜用famous。而应该用well-known。因为well-known的语气不如famous那么强,多用于普通的人或事物。比如:The shop is well-known for its fried noodles.(这店的炒面有名。--- 不宜用famous)。

 

 

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