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毛发趣谈

(2010-10-25 22:37:00)
标签:

英汉对照读物

教育

分类: 英汉对照读物

                                Hair

                   毛发趣谈

 

    读读这篇优美流畅浅显的科普散文,你就会知道:你的头发为什么不柔软光亮?为什么会变白?头发的寿命有多长?眉毛的寿命又是多长?一天要掉多少根头发?有的人为什么会秃顶?头发为什么能竖立起来?。。。。。。英语汉语对照发帖,供大家学习参考。

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   Human beings and all other mammals are the only animals that have hair. These thin shafts that grow outward from the skin consist of dead cells, similar to those in the fingernails1. These dead cells contain no nerves, thus causing the cutting of the hair or nails to be “painless.” But the hair is rooted in a layer of the skin called the epidermis, which contains many nerve endings. This is why it is painful when your hair is pulled.

   The root of each hair is located in a tiny sac called the hair follicle. Tiny blood vessels, fat glands, and tiny muscles are connected to each follicle. The blood vessels provide oxygen and nourishment to the hair root. As new hair cells are produced, the living cells move farther and farther away from the follicle, their source of nourishment. By the time the hair extends from the skin, the cells are dead.

   The fat glands produce oil. The oil seeps down the hair shaft. If too little oil is produced, the hair becomes dry and brittle, breaking easily. If too much oil is produced, the hair becomes oily and sticky. When these glands are working properly, the oil keeps the hair soft and shiny.

   The shaft contains a pigment that gives it color. This same pigment in the eyes and skin causes eye color and skin color. As a person grows older, less and less pigment is produced in the hair. Finally, no pigment is produced and the hair is white. Your hair color is determined by the “information” contained in your genes and is inherited.

   Human beings have hair on all parts of the body, except the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet. The hair on the head (scalp, beard, eyebrows) is the only hair that continues to grow.

   An eyebrow hair grows for three to five months. Then it falls out, and a new hair grows in its place. A scalp hair grows about one-half inch each month, for two to six years. Then it falls out and is replaced. About 100 hairs fall out each day, and new hairs begin to grow in their place. As a person grows older, some of the hairs are not replaced, and the hair is thinner. Sometimes the hairs are not replaced at all, resulting in a lack of hair, or baldness.

   Baldness is usually an inherited trait. It can also caused by severe shock or extremely high fever. But sometimes, as in other diseases of the hair and scalp, baldness is caused by improper care and functioning of the body. Proper hair growth depends on a well-balanced diet as much as growth in any other part of the body.  

   Hair can also be damaged by harsh chemicals in bleaches, dyes, straighteners, and curling agents. Hair must also be kept clean to prevent any infestation of insects, such as mites and lice.

   Hair on the bodies of mammals serve various purposes. Animal hair serves as a protection from scrapes, cold, and enemies. Some animals grow an undercoat of hair that they shed in warm weather. The hair of many animals often is the color of tree bark or snow, helping them to hide from their enemies. When some animals are frightened, the muscles attached to the hair follicles contract causing their hair to “stand on end.” This makes them look larger to their enemies.

   Animals can have many types of hair. The thick, soft hair that covers beavers, foxes, bears, and dogs is called fur. The tightly curled hair on sheep is called wool. Pigs have stiff, straight hair called bristles. Animal hair, such as fur and wool, is often used by humans to keep warm.

   Some scientists believe that the primitive ancestors of man also had thick hair 2 all over their bodies to protect them, but today human hair is mostly for decoration. Kinds of human hair may vary from coarse and black to fine and pale yellow. Your hair is curly or straight, coarse, fine, brown, red, or yellow---totally dependent on the traits you have inherited.

   Although human hair is too weak ever to “stand on end,” the muscles near the hair follicles can cause this feeling. When a human being is frightened or cold, the contraction of these muscles near the hair follicles can cause “goose bumps” to appear on the skin. This is what a person means when he says, “My hair stood on end!”

   Man has been concerned with his hair and its styles from the earliest recorded times to the present day. Hairdressing has been practiced among all types of people, from the most primitive to the most civilized.

   Hair styles have changed throughout history in every country in the world. The arrangement of the hair once indicated a person’s role in society. A leader or warrior might wear his hair in one style, and a priest might wear it in another. In some societies a woman’s hair style indicates whether or not she is married.

   During the 1800s, hair styles changed very little, but since 1900 there have been many changes in the hair styles of both men and women. Styles are often “started” by well-known people. During World War I, a popular dancer named Irene Castle started to wear her hair short. Soon thousands of women cut, or bobbed, their hair in order to look like her. Many people with naturally straight hair had “permanent waves”. When straight hair was in style, both men and women with naturally curly hair often used other chemicals to straighten it.

   Men’s hair styles have changed in several ways since World War II. Closely trimmed hair became popular with men during the 1950s. Since 1960s, as the style of men’s clothing became more colorful and casual, hair styles have also became casual.

   Hair styles have always been a way of adding to one’s beauty. All attractive styles start with clean, healthy hair.

人类和其他所有的哺乳动物,是唯一长有毛发的动物。这些从皮肤向外生长的细小毛干,由死细胞组成,类似指甲里的死细胞。这些死细胞没有神经,因此,剪指甲或剪头发,都没有“痛苦。” 但是,毛发植根于一层叫做表皮的皮肤层中。表皮有许多神经末梢。这就是拔你的毛发时,你会感到疼痛的原因。

 

 

 

每根毛发的根,都长在一个叫做毛囊的微小的囊里。毛细血管、脂肪腺和微小肌肉都与毛囊相连。毛细血管向毛根提供氧气和营养。随着新的毛发细胞不断地生长,活细胞脱离毛囊,它们的营养泉源,越来越远。当毛发长出皮肤时,细胞就死亡了。

 

 

  

脂肪腺产生油脂。油脂沿毛干渗透。如果产生的油脂太少,毛发变得干燥易粹,容易断裂。如果产生的油脂太多,毛发变得油腻粘糊。当这些腺体工作正常时,油脂使毛发保持柔软而有光泽。

 

  

毛干含有一种色素,色素使毛发具有颜色。眼睛和皮肤里的这种色素,产生眼睛和皮肤的颜色。随着一个人的年龄的增长,毛发中产生的色素越来越少。终至不产生色素,毛发因而变白。你的基因所包含的“信息”决定你的毛发的颜色,所以,毛发的颜色是遗传的。

 

  

人类除了掌心和脚板外,全身都长有毛。头上的毛发(头皮发、胡须、眉毛)是唯一不断生长的毛发。

 

 

眉毛生长期为三到四个月。然后脱落,长出新毛,取而代之。头皮发每个月长半英寸,生长期为两到六年。然后脱落,被新发取而代之。每天大约掉100根头发,新发开始生长,取而代之。随着一个人年龄的增长,有的头发就没有新发取代,于是,头发变得稀疏起来。有时,完全没有新发取代,便造成缺发,或称秃顶。

 

  

秃顶通常是一个遗传特征。它也可能由极度的恐惧或高烧引起。但是,有的时候,像患其他头发和头皮病的时候,护理不当和身体功能紊乱,也会引起秃顶。头发的正常生长,取决于食物搭配合理的饮食;这和身体其他任何部分的生长,完全一样。

 

 

漂白剂、染发剂、直发剂和卷发剂中的有害化学物质,也能损伤头发。必须保持头发的清洁,以防止诸如螨虫和虱子等昆虫的侵害。

 

  

哺乳动物身上的毛具有多种功能。动物的毛可以使其不被擦刮受伤、防冷冻,阻止敌人的攻击。某些动物长有下层绒毛;天热时,它们就脱毛。许多动物的毛,常常具有树皮或雪的颜色,有助于它们避开敌人。某些动物受惊时,附着在毛囊上的肌肉便收缩,使毛“竖立起来”。这使它们在敌人的眼里,看起来要大一些。

  

 

动物有许多种毛。长在河狸、狐狸、熊和狗身上的浓密柔软的毛,叫做皮毛。绵羊身上的紧密蜷曲的毛,叫做绒毛。猪的毛又硬又直,叫做棕毛。动物的毛,诸如皮毛和绒毛,常常被人类用来保暖。

 

  

某些科学家认为:人类的原始祖先也是浑身长着毛,以保护自己,但是,现在的人类毛发大都只有装饰作用。人类毛发的种类,从粗而黑到细而淡黄,种类各异。你的头发是蜷曲的,或者是直的、粗糙的、细的、褐色、红色,或黄色---完全取决于你所继承的特征。

 

 

虽然人类的毛发太柔软,决不可能“竖立起来”,但是,毛囊附近的肌肉却能引起这种感觉。当一个人感到恐惧或寒冷的时候,毛囊附近的这些肌肉于是收缩,便可能引起“鸡皮疙瘩”,出现在皮肤上。这就是一个人说“我的头发竖立起来了”的真实意思。

 

 

从有史记载的最早的时代到现在,人类一直注重自己的头发和头式。所有类别的人,从最原始的人到最文明的人,都要理发。

  

在世界上的每个国家里,发式在整个历史中都在变化。头发的样式曾经能够显示一个人在社会中所扮演的角色。领袖或武士梳一种发式,而牧师梳另一种发式。在某些社会里,女人的发式能显示她结婚与否。

 

 

19世纪期间,发式变化很小,但是,从1900年开始,无论男人和女人的发式,都发生了许多变化。发式的始作俑者常常是名人。第一次世界大战期间,一位名叫艾琳·卡斯尔的受人追捧的舞蹈家,开始蓄短发。很快,成千上万的妇女都剪短了她们的头发,以便看起来像她。许多人本来一头直发,却烫出了“永久波浪”。当直发流行时,头发自然蜷曲的男人和女人们,常常用其他化学物质将头发弄直。

 

  

从第二次世界大战起,男人的发式经历了几种方式的变化。20世纪50年代,男人们时新剪光头。从20世纪60年代起,就像男人的衣服样式变得更加多彩和休闲一样,他们的发式也变得随便起来。

   

 

 发式总是一种给人增添光彩的方式。一切具有吸引力的发式,都始于干净旺盛的头发。

Notes:

1.  These thin shafts … consist of dead cells, similar to those in the fingernails.

句中的similar是形容词,后面接介词to,表示“与……相似”;接介词in,表示“在……方面与……类似”。比如:These two office buildings are similar in appearance. (这两栋办公楼外表相似。)/ This office building is similar to that one.(这栋办公楼和那栋相象。)注意:不可接介词with来表达这个意思,下面这个句子是错误的:His house is similar with mine in appearance.

2.  …the primitive ancestors of man also had thick hair….

句中的man前面没有冠词,在这里表示“人类”,而不是“男人”。其他表示“人类”的英语单词还有:mankind(强调类别,有别与其他种类的动物), human beings(强调个体, 多指一个一个有血有肉的人),humanity(强调人类所具有的共性或美德), Earthlings(强调与地球的关)。                         

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