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用白领犯罪消除街头犯罪

(2010-10-19 10:58:01)
标签:

英汉对照读物

教育

分类: 英汉对照读物

                   White-Collar Crime Over Street Crime

                 用白领犯罪消除街头犯罪

 

本文作者正经八百、煞有介事地介绍白领犯罪的种种好处,却能使读者痛感在严惩街头犯罪的同时,不少白领罪犯们逍遥法外:挪用上百万美元福利金的歹徒为人敬仰、卷入证卷诈骗案的公司蛀虫被视为中流砥柱、收受贿赂或卖官鬻爵而被捕的政客被警察尊称为“先生”。。。。。。。将此文翻译成汉语,英汉对照,供大家学习参考。

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   Howard Anderson of Cambridge (1), Massachusetts, has just come up with the ultimate solution to violent crime. The answer is “nonviolent crime.” The problem as Howard sees it is that society expects people who commit street crimes to completely reform and after their punishment commit no crimes at all.

   “This is impossible,” he said, “and can’t work. The statistics show that the majority of criminals go back to committing street crimes again and again because our present prisoner reform does not work.”

   Anderson’s plan is this. Instead of prisons teaching inmates so-called honest trades, a program should be initiated to teach them white-collar crimes, which pay so much better 2 and don’t seem to get anyone in the United States too upset.

   The idea would be for the Harvard Business School, the Wharton School of Business at the University of Pennsylvania, the Yale Law School, and other famous institutions of higher learning to set up courses in state and federal prisons where criminals could be taught the skills of committing white-collar crimes.

   The curriculum would include accounting, banking, stock market fraud, bribery, kickbacks, and embezzlement. The teachers would explain the advantages of white-collar crime over street crimes. The average take for a street crime in the United States is $19.75. For the work and risk involved it hardly pays at all.

   There are other disadvantages.

   When a person gets caught committing a street crime (3), he usually winds up with some court-appointed lawyer who would not care if the defendant gets twenty years or life.

   A criminal who commits a street crime is treated with contempt by the police and society in general. In fact, the smaller the take, the less respect the criminal engenders from the judge and the jury 4and, therefore, the heavier the sentence.

   But white-collar criminals have the opposite effect on everyone. A man who has embezzled a million dollars from widows and orphans is one to be looked up to and respected.

   An officer of a large corporation who is involved in stock fraud is considered a pillar of his community and can get hundreds of people to testify to his good character.

   A president of a bank who steals his depositors’ money is usually forgiven by everyone before the trial.

   A politician who has been arrested for accepting bribes or selling judgeships is always addressed as “sir” by the police.

   The people in jails could be persuaded that the same amount of time it takes to mug an old lady in the park could be spent arranging for a municipal contract to be given to a corrupt builder or a bribe-paying road contractor.

   To convince them, the course would include lectures by judges who could describe the lightness of sentences meted out to white-collar criminals. Bus tours could be arranged to “open-air” prisons where white-collar criminals are sent for punishment.

   There would be lectures by ex-white-collar cons on how to seek the best legal advice after they are caught.

   The beauty of Anderson’s plan is that it does not ask a criminal to give up his trade. All it does is teach the convict socially acceptable methods of committing crimes that do not annoy the public.

   When the average street crime convict discovers how much money there is in white-collar crime and how little risk there is in getting punished, we can expect a dramatic drop in street crime, which is the only type that seems to shake anyone up in this country.

   I am completely moved by Anderson’s plan but still wonder:

   Is the white-collar crime the best answer to street crime?

马萨诸塞州剑桥市的霍华德·安德生刚想出一个可以一劳永逸地解决暴力犯罪问题的办法。这个办法就是“非暴力犯罪”。在霍华德看来,问题在于:社会期望有街头犯罪前科的人能幡然悔悟,刑满释放后,决不再犯罪。

 

“这是异想天开,”他说道,“而且,行不通。统计数字表明:因为我们现有的罪犯改造工作没有成效,所以大多数罪犯,故态复萌,一而再,再而三地街头犯罪。”

 

安德生的计划如下:不是让监狱教囚犯一些所谓的正当的营生手段,而是实施一个项目,教他们进行白领犯罪;这会有利得多,而且,似乎不会使美国人感到太大的不安。

 

 

 

这个主意将是:让哈佛商学院、宾夕伐尼亚大学的华顿商学院、耶鲁大学法学院和其他名牌高等学府,在州和联邦监狱中开设课程,以便狱中囚犯可以学会白领犯罪技巧。

 

 

 

全部课程将包括:会计学、银行业务、证卷交易诈骗术、贿赂学、回扣学和挪用侵吞术。教师将阐明白领犯罪比街头犯罪所拥有的好处。美国的一次街头犯罪平均到手的钱是19.75美元。就犯罪和所冒的风险而言,这点钱几乎是得不偿失。

 

 

还有其他的不利之处。

当一个人街头犯罪被当场捉住时,他的下场往往是,法庭给他指派一名律师,而这名律师不会关心,被告是否会被判20年徒刑或是终生监禁。

 

警察和一般社会公众都会歧视街头犯罪者。事实上,抢劫的数目越小,越为法官和陪审团所看不起,因而,判刑越重。

 

  

但是,白领犯罪者给大家的印象则相反。一个挪用孤儿寡母上百万美元的人,却是一个为人敬仰的人。

 

一家大公司的官员卷入了证卷诈骗案,却被视为他那社团的中流砥柱,能够得到数以百计的人,为他的优良品格出庭作证。

 

 

一家银行的行长私吞储户的存款,还没有审讯,通常便得到大家的谅解。

 

收受贿赂或卖官鬻爵而被捕的政客, 总是被警察称之为“先生”。

 

可以使铁窗中人相信:使用在公园中对一个老妇人行凶抢劫所需的时间,便可能用来将一份市政合同给与一个腐败的建筑商或一个行贿的筑路承包商。

 

  

为了使他们信服,所开课程应该包括法官的讲座。法官们可以描述对白领囚犯的从轻判刑。可以安排乘坐公共汽车去参观白领囚犯服刑的“露天”监狱。

 

 

 

还应有刑满释放的白领囚犯所作的讲座,讲授他们在被捕后怎样寻求最佳法律咨询。

安德生的计划妙就妙在:它不要求罪犯放弃他的行道。它的全部行动就是教给服刑囚犯一些社会能接受的、不会打扰公众的犯罪之道。

  

当一般的街头犯罪囚犯发现,白领犯罪到手的钱多么多,被惩罚的风险多么少时,我们便可以期望街头犯罪会急剧下降;而街头犯罪似乎是能够震撼这个国家中的任何人的惟一的犯罪类型。

 

 

 

我完全为安德生的计划所打动,但仍然心有疑问:

白领犯罪是消除街头犯罪的最佳办法吗?

 

Notes:

1.       Cambridge: 剑桥,美国马萨诸塞州东部城市,哈佛大学所在地。

2.       …a program should be initiated to teach them white-collar crimes, which pay so much better …

句中的关系代词which引导一个非限定性定语从句,修饰white-collar crimes,而不是修饰a program,这一点从定语从句的谓语动词pay是复数形式可以看出。注意:这里的pay是不及物动词,表示“有利;合算”。当它的主语是非人称it时,后面常接不定式,比如:It doesn’t pay to waste time.(浪费时间太不合算。)

3.       When a person gets caught committing a street crime…

句中的现在分词短语committing a street crime作主语补足语。如果将这个句子改为主动语态,则是:Someone catches the person committing a street crime. 现在分词短语committing a street crime便作宾语补足语了。

4.       …the less respect the criminal engenders from the judge and the jury …

句中的谓语动词engender表示“产生;使发生”,侧重突然或直接产生,常用与抽象事物。再比如:A sudden spontaneous illumination engendered in the course of writing poem.(在写诗的过程中,突然产生一种自发的启示。)/ Angry words engender strife.(说起话容易引起争吵。)

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