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交通运输工具知多少

(2010-09-05 22:23:07)
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英汉对照读物

教育

分类: 英汉对照读物

                        Transportation

                       交通运输工具

 

   以下文章是博主改写并翻译后,以英汉对照形式发表于此:

 

   For thousands of years, man has moved from one place to another. He traveled on foot, on the backs of animals, or in various mechanical vehicles. He has transported himself and his goods over land, one the water, through the air, under the ground, under the water, and even into outer space. Whether carrying something on foot to a neighboring village or rocketing to the moon, man uses transportation.

    几千年来,人们常常异地迁徙。他们安步当车,骑役兽而行,或使用各种机械交通工具。他们从陆路、水路、空中、地下、水下,运输他们自己和他们的货物,甚至运输到外层空间去。无论徒步将东西带到邻村,还是乘坐火箭到月亮去,人们都在使用运输工具。

 

1. Uses of Transportation

   People have traveled and used transportation for a wide variety of reasons. The earliest and most basic reason was for survival. Primitive man hunted for his food. When food ran out in a certain area, he picked up his belongings and moved to a location where food was plentiful. Survival also meant moving to escape dangers, such as enemy attacks, floods, and fires.

1.运输工具的用途

    人们因各种各样的原因,旅行并使用运输工具。最早的、也是最根本的原因是为了生存。原始人狩猎觅食。当一个地区的食物被吃光后,他们便收拾好个人物品,迁徙到食物丰富的地方去。生存还意味着逃离危险,比如敌人的攻击、洪水和火灾。

 

People use transportation in order to trade and do business with one another. Thousands of years ago in the Middle East, long trade and caravan routes were already being used by men to carry goods over great distances. Today, man still transports goods and produce to places where they will be sold.

    人们使用运输工具,以相互进行贸易和做生意。几千年以前,在中东地区,人们已经在使用漫长的贸易车路,长途运输货物。今天,人们仍在将货物和农产品运输到可以出售的地方去。

 

Transportation has always been the main tool of exploration. Marco Polo traveled by ship and overland by caravan from Italy to China in the 1200s A.D. Columbus and later explorers sailed across the Atlantic to investigate the New World. Modern-day explorers set out in spacecraft to explore the moon and the universe.

    运输工具一直是主要的探险工具。公元13世纪,马可·波罗乘船,再乘车从陆路,由意大利到中国。哥伦布和继他之后的探险家们,漂洋过海,横渡大西洋,到新大陆探险。现在的探险家们,乘坐宇宙飞船,去探索月球和宇宙。

 

Man used transportation for purposes of communication. In ancient times, there was no way to talk to an individual except by being in his presence. This might involve going on a long journey or sending a communication by messenger. Postal systems later developed as a means of transporting messages. But the traditional actual carrying of messages may finally be eliminated in such communications devices as the telephone, telegraph, radio, television and email.

    人们使用运输工具,旨在进行交流。古代,除了面对面外,便没有办法与人交流。与人交流很可能需要长途跋涉,或派使者送信。后来的邮政系统,作为传递信息的一种手段,得到了发展。但是,使用诸如电话、电报、无线电、电视和电子邮件的通讯手段,也许最终会消除传统的传书带信。

 

Today, one of the greatest uses of transportation is for pleasure. More people than ever before are traveling just to see new things and gain new experiences.

    现在,运输工具的最大用途之一便是供外出游玩。从未有这么多的人在旅行,就是为了要看看新鲜事物,获得新的体验。

 

2. Kinds of Transportation

   Various kinds of transportation have developed with man’s need to travel longer distances in shorter lengths of time. A person living in India 8,000 years ago didn’t need to travel to England in a few hours. His whole life was taken up with farming and the problems of survival. He had no time and no reason to travel halfway around the globe as many people regularly do today.

2.运输工具的种类

    人们需要短时间内作长途旅行,便研制出了各种各样的交通工具。8000年前,生活在印度的人,不需要在几小时内到达英国。他的一生都花在耕耘收获和解决温饱问题上了。他没有时间,也没有理由去环绕半个地球旅行,而现在许多人却经常这样旅行。

 

Walking. Man’s built-in means of transportation is his own two feet. When you walk to school or to a friend’s house, you are transporting yourself. Walking was the first transportation. A person who walks from place to place must carry his belongings with him. Man has used his hands, shoulder slings, backpacks, and even his head to transport things. Then man discovered that he could move more weight if he dragged it rather than carried it.

    安步当车。人们自身的交通工具就是他们的双脚。你步行去上学或访友,你就是在运输你自己。安步当车是第一运输工具。一个人从一个地方走到另一个地方,必须随身携带他的个人物品。人们使用双手、肩带、背包,甚至脑袋,运输东西。后来,人们发现:如果他拖拉,而不是携带,便能运输更多东西。

 

Beasts of Burden. As people began to domesticate animals, they trained them to pull the litters and sledges. Animals used as beasts of burden are stronger than men and can pull heavier loads over longer distances. Dogs were probably first used, then oxen. Throughout the world, animals such as the water buffalo, elephant, camel, donkey, mule, reindeer, and yak are still used to transport people and goods.

    役兽运输。当人们开始驯服动物时,他们训练它们拖担架和拉雪橇。役兽动物比人更强壮,能长途拖拉,负荷更重。最早被使用的是狗,接着,是牛。通观全球,诸如水牛、大象、骆驼、驴子、骡子、驯鹿和牦牛之类的动物,至今仍用来运人运物

 

The wheel. Logs used as roller were probably forerunners of the wheel. Man discovered that a very heavy load could be transported by rolling it over a series of logs. As the load was rolled along, the last logs were pulled out and placed at the front of the load. This process was repeated over and over until the load reached its destination.

    轮子运输。作滚轮用的原木大概是轮子的前身。人们发现,将很重的东西在一连串的原木上滚动,便能把它运走。滚动东西时,不断地将最后一根原木拖出来,放到所运东西的前面。不断重复这个程序,直到将东西运到目的地。

 

    True wheels were first used about 5,000 years ago in the Middle East. Ancient Middle East chariots had four wheels and could move quite fast. Improvements in the wheel led to all kinds of vehicles―cars, wagons, coaches, gigs, traps, cabriolets, bicycles, and automobiles.

    轮子运输大约于5000年前,最早在中东使用。古代的中东战车有四个轮子,能快速奔跑。不断地改进轮子,所有的交通工具便因此而出现—轿车、篷车、四轮大马车、轻便两轮马车、(单马拉的)双轮轻便马车、四轮双座马车、自行车和汽车。

 

As wheeled transportation became more and more common, more and better roads were needed. The ancient Romans constructed the first lengthy network of roads paved with stone. The Inca of South America also built a complex and well-constructed road system.

    轮子运输变得愈益普通,便需要更多更好的道路。古罗马人用石头修建了第一个漫长的道路系统。南美洲的印加人也修筑了一个布局复杂、施工精良的道路系统。

 

  Roman roads fell into disrepair and disuse during the Middle Age when the primary means of long-distance transportation were walking, horseback riding, or ox riding. Heavy farm carts were used, but mostly for hauling things over short distances. In the 1500s and 1600s, with the development of faster coaches and gigs, new road systems were established. The development of the automobile has brought road construction to the quality it has reached today.

    中世纪期间,主要的长途运输工具是:步行、骑马,或骑牛,因此,罗马的道路失修而被废弃。也使用沉重的农用大车,但是,大多为短途拉货。16世纪和17世纪时,随着跑得更快的四轮和两轮马车的出现,新的道路系统建立起来了。汽车的出现已经使道路建设的质量,达到了前所未有的水平。

 

Rails. In 1825, a British engineer named George Stephenson(1) designed the first steam-powered locomotive. Railroad developed rapidly. The first U.S. transcontinental railroad was completed in 1869. Rail transportation was the first great advance in land transportation since the development of the wheel. Man could travel at much greater speeds and could haul many tons of goods over great distances. The industrial Revolution, which began in the early 1800s, was given a tremendous boost by the new railroads. Manufacturers could quickly transport their products to distant places.

   铁路运输。1825年,英国工程师乔治· 斯蒂芬森设计出了第一辆蒸汽机车头。铁路得到迅速发展。第一条横跨美国大陆的铁路于1869年建成。自轮子出现以来,铁路运输是陆路运输中的第一个长足进步。人们能够以快得多的速度进行旅行,能够长途拖运许多吨的货物。新出现的铁路大大地促进了于19世纪初开始的工业革命。制造商们可以快捷地将他们的产品运往远方。

 

On the Water. Water transportation developed much faster than land transportation. People have been using canoes and rafts since earliest times. The water was used not only for irrigation of the land, but also a means of transportation to distant places. Boats and ships were built for use in commerce, warfare, and exploration.With improvements in shipbuilding and with invention of the directional compass, seamen could travel out into the open ocean, out of sight of land. By 1600s, man could transport himself and his goods almost anywhere in the world by ship.

  水路运输。水路运输比陆路运输发展得更快。从古代开始,人们一直在使用独木舟和筏子水不仅用来灌溉土地,而且是一种长途运输工具。人们建造船只用来经商、作战和探险。随着造船水平的提高和方向罗盘的发明,海员可以航行到看不见大陆的公海上去。到17世纪时,人们几乎可以用船将自己和自己的货物运到世界上任何地方。

 

In the Air. In 1903, Orville and Wilbur Wright (2)made the first successful powered airplane flight. Even though air travel is man’s newest form of transportation, it enable man to travel longer distances at greater speeds than he ever dreamed possible. From propellers to jet propulsion to rocketry, men are now walking in outer space and exploring the surface of the moon and the Mars.

航空运输。1903年,奥维尔·莱特和威尔伯·莱特成功地作了第一次飞机飞行。虽然空中旅行是人们的最新运输方式,但是,它使人们能够以自己梦想不到的速度进行长途旅行。从螺旋桨到喷气推进、到火箭,人们现在可以在外层空间漫步,在月球表面和到火星探险。

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Notes:   

(1)       George Stephenson:乔治·斯蒂芬森(1803年-1848年)是英国工程师、发明家,先后发明了新型蒸汽机车头和蒸汽鼓风法,并修筑了第一条载运旅客的铁路。

Orville and Wilbur Wright:奥维尔·莱特(1871年-1948年)和威尔伯·莱特(1867年-1912年)兄弟是美国飞机发明家、航空先驱者,成功地试飞第一架可操纵的动力飞机,开辟了飞行器重于空气的飞行时代。                            

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