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树木、人类、生态

(2010-08-22 23:55:55)
标签:

英汉对照读物

星座

分类: 英汉对照读物

                                Trees, Man and Ecology

                        树木、人类、生态

 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

树木、人类、生态

    The largest living thing on Earth (1) is a tree---a California sequoia called “General Sherman,” 272 feet tall with a trunk 32 feet thick. The oldest living thing is also a tree---a scrubby bristle-cone pine ,4,900 years old, growing on the cold, bare side of a Nevada mountain.

地球上最大的生物是树:一株名叫“谢曼将军”的美国加利福尼亚的红杉树,树高272英尺,树干粗达32英尺。最古老的生物也是树:一株低矮的狐尾松树,4,900岁,生长在美国内华达州的寒冷荒凉的山坡上。

 

A tree is a tall, woody plant that usually has one main stem, or trunk. Trees can be divided into two groups by the shapes of their leaves: the needle-leaf trees and broad-leaf trees.

树是一种高大的木本植物,通常有一根主干,或树干。根据树叶的形状,树可分为两类:针叶树和阔叶树。

 

  The needle-leaf trees include pines, spruces, firs, hemlocks, and cedars. Most needle-leaf trees are evergreen. Their leaves stay green all year round and don’t fall off in the winter

   针叶树包括松树、柏树、冷杉树、铁杉树和雪松树。大多数针叶树都是长青树。它们的叶子四季长青,冬天也不落掉。

 

The broad-leaf trees are members of flowering plants, including the oaks, elms, maples, birches, and beeches. They bear fruits and flowers, though the flowers of some trees are too small to see and the fruit may not look much like fruit. Their leaves may usually fall off in the winter and grow back in the spring.

    阔叶树属于显花植物,包括橡树、榆树、枫树、枞树和桦树。它们要开花结果,虽然有的花很小,看不见;果实看起来可能不太像果实。它们通常冬天可能落叶,春天又长出新叶。

 

A tree grows from a seed. The seeds normally drop from trees in winter. A seed may be carried for some distance by the wind, a bird, or animal. With luck, it falls on fertile ground.

 树由种子而长成。种子通常在冬天从树上落下。风、鸟或动物可能将种子带到它处。如果有幸,种子会落在肥沃的土地上。

 

The seed lies dormant through the winter. In the warmth and wetness of spring it begins to sprout. The root emerges first, poking through the seed coat and digging down into the soil. Then the first shoot appears, pushing up into the air and sun.

整个冬天,种子呈休眠状态。在温暖潮湿的春天,种子开始发芽。首先长出根,它穿出种子外壳,扎进土壤。然后,长出第一根嫩芽,它破土而出,沐浴在空气和阳光中。

 

The taproot grows straight down to anchor the tree and reach for deep water. Other roots grow outward in search of surface water. At the same time, the shoot develops into the stem, branches, and leaves. The roots and the leaves must grow at about the same rate. The leaves, through a chemical process called photosynthesis, make food so the tree can live and grow. The roots provide the water needed to make the food. The flow of food and water between the roots and leaves is accomplished by layers of cells formed by the cambium.

主根垂直向下生长,以固定树身,并吸取深处的水分。其他的根向外生长,搜寻表面的水分。与此同时,嫩芽长成树干和枝叶。根和叶的生长速度必须大体相同。树叶通过光合作用这个化学过程制造食物,于是,树能得以存活和生长。根提供制造食物所需的水分。由形成层构成的细胞层,负责在根和叶之间运输食物和水分。

 

Today millions of acres of trees are grown for lumber. Houses and furniture are built of wood. The paper in this magazine is a product of trees. We eat the fruits and nuts from trees. Birds and wildlife need trees for food and shelter. The changing beauty of trees delights us. Trees flower in spring. Their summer green provides welcome shade. Autumn brings glorious colors to trees, and in winter their bare branches are like lace against the sky.

目前,数百万英亩的树是为取木材而种植的。房舍和家具是用木头做的。这本杂志所用的纸是树木产品。我们吃取自树木的水果和坚果。鸟类和野生动物需要树木,作为觅食和栖身之地。树木的不断变化的美使我们陶醉。春天,树木花绽枝头。它们那夏日的绿色,给我们浓荫,令人怡然。秋天使树木万紫千红,美不胜收。冬天,光秃秃的枝桠,纵横交错,映衬蓝天。

 

 

   Ecology is the relationship among plants, animals including man, and the rest of the environment. Trees are an irreplaceable part of the Earth’s ecology. The oxygen we breathe is produced by plants through photosynthesis. Trees are the largest plants, so they make the most oxygen. When trees are cut down and more roads are built, fewer and fewer trees are left to make oxygen. More roads carry more cars, buses, and trucks. The exhaust from these vehicles pollute the air. Many varieties of trees cannot live in heavily polluted air. They sicken and die. Trees also absorb sound and control noise pollution. Trees keep moisture in the ground by holding the soil in place to protect erosion.

生态是指某个环境中的植物、包括人类在内的动物,以及其他一切东西之间的关系。树木是地球生态中一个不可取代的部分。我们所呼吸的氧气是植物通过光合作用所产生的。树木是最大的植物,所以,大部分的氧气由它们制造。树木被砍伐,道路越修越多,剩下来制造氧气的树木越来越少。越来越多的轿车、公共汽车和货车在越来越多的道路上奔驰。这些交通运输工具所排除的废气污染空气。众多的各种各样的树木无法在严重污染的空气中生存。它们生病而死亡。树木还可吸收声音,因此能控制声音污染。树木固定土壤,防止侵蚀,从而保持地里的水分。

 

   Trees have long been useful to men. Early men used wood to make tools and build fires. Later, they cut trees to build shelters. They probably never thought about protecting trees because the supply seemed to be endless. But they were wrong. There are now deserts where there were once thick forests.

长期以来,树木有益于人类。早期的人们使用木头制造工具和生火。后来,他们砍伐树木修建居所。他们从来没有想到要保护树木,因为树木似乎取之不尽。但是,他们错了。在那些曾经是茂密森林的地方,现在出现了沙漠。

 

We cannot just take from trees. We must do something to protect them.

我们不能只从树木那儿索取。我们必须有所作为,保护树木。

Notes

(1)    on Earth: 句中的Earth是惟一的东西,一般应在前面加定冠词the。但是Earth已经大写,故省去定冠词the。

(2)    The seed lies dormant …: 句中的谓语动词lies是不及物动词,在此处作半联系动词,后面接表语dormant。

(3)    …where there were once thick forests. 句中的where为关系副词,引导一个定语从句,修饰先行词forests。其意义可以理解为:where = in which = in these thick forests。

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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