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井与泉

(2010-08-22 23:48:59)
标签:

英汉对照读物

教育

分类: 英汉对照读物

                            Wells And Springs   

                        井与泉

 

       阅读科技散文,涉猎科技知识,学习地道英语,真可谓“一箭双雕” !

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                  井与泉

Three-fourths of the Earth’s surface is covered with water. This water is in constant motion. Water from the oceans evaporates to form water vapor in the air. The water vapor collects to form clouds(1). The wind blows the clouds around. Some of the clouds dump their water on the land. Some of this water soaks into the land, and remains somewhere in the Earth. We can get this water from a well or spring.

3/4的地球表面为水所覆盖。这些水一直处于运动状态之中。水从海洋蒸发到空中,形成水蒸气。水蒸气聚集而形成云。风将云刮来刮去。一些云将水倾泻到大地上。其中的一些水渗透进地里,停留在地里的某个地方。我们可能从井或泉中取得这些水。

 

A hole dug for the purpose of finding water(2) is a well. In some places, water flows freely from a small opening in the earth. This natural flow of water is called a spring.

为寻找水而打的洞叫井。在某些地方,水从地上的小洞中大量流出。这种天然的水流叫泉。

 

The water that flows from wells and springs comes from the ground water held beneath the Earth’s surface. Rainwater soaks into the ground and sinks until it hits rock. If the rock is cracked, the water will continue to sink until it reaches a level where the rock is unbroken.(3) If the rock is porous----has many small holes in it, like sandstone----water will sink through these holes until it reaches a layer of rock that is not porous. The non-porous layer holds the water in an area called the saturated zone. The upper level of water in the saturated zone is called the water table. In order to provide water, a well must be dug down to the water table.

从井与泉中流出的水,来自地表下面的地下水。雨水浸入地里,一直往下渗透,直到遇到岩石。如果岩石破裂,水便继续渗透,直到岩石没有破裂的那个层面。如果岩石是渗水的----岩石中有许多小孔,比如沙石----水将渗透过这些小孔,直到由不渗透水的岩石构成的那个层面。不渗透层将水蓄积在一个叫做“饱和层”的地方。饱和层里的上水平线叫做地下水位。为了得到水,挖掘井时,必须向下一直到挖到地下水位。

 

The distance from the Earth’s surface down to the water table depends not only on how deep the non-porous layer of rock is, but also on the height of the water table. After heavy rains or after snow melts in the spring, there will be more ground water, and the water table will be higher. In dry periods, the water table will be lower, or it will disappear altogether, because no water is soaking into the ground. When the water table gets too low, the well runs dry.

从地表到地下水位的距离,不仅取决于不渗透岩石层的厚度,还取决于地下水位的高度。大雨之后,或春雪消融之后,地下水会增多,地下水位会升高。干旱时节,地下水位会降低,或者全然消失,因为没有水往地里渗透。当地下水位变得太低时,井便干枯。

 

In some places, a layer of porous rock is sandwiched between two layers of non-porous rock. If these layers of rock follow the shape of a hill, then there are two water tables. One is on top of the upper non-porous layer, the other is between the two non-porous layers.  If you dig a well through the upper layer and into the sandwiched porous layer, water will flow out of the top of the well. If the rainwater enters the porous layer near the top of a high hill, and if the well is dug at the bottom of the hill, the water may shoot from the well high into the air. The weight of the water flowing downhill produces the pressure that makes the water shoot out. This kind of well is an artesian well.

在某些地方,一个渗透岩石层被两个不渗透岩石层夹在其间。如果这些岩石层的走向与山形相同,那么,就会有两个地下水位。一个在上面那个不渗透层的顶部,另一个在两个不渗透层之间。如果你打井时,穿过上层,进入被夹在其间的渗透层,水便会从井的上部流出。如果雨水进入高山山顶附近的渗透层,而且,如果井打在山脚下,水也许会从井中喷出,射到高空里。向山下流的水的重量产生压力;该压力使水喷出。这种井叫自流井。

 

A hot spring is usually formed when water is heated by rocks deep in the earth. (4) If the water becomes hot enough, it boils and forms steam, and the water can shoot into the air. This is called a geyser. One such geyser is Old Faithful, in Yellowstone National Park.

地下深处的岩石将水变热,通常就会形成温泉。如果水变得相当热,就会沸腾,产生蒸气,而且水可能喷到空中。这叫做“喷泉”。在黄石国家公园里,“老忠实”就是这样的喷泉。

 

A river cutting a valley may cut through a water table and the non-porous rock beneath it. Rainwater flows down to the non-porous layer of rock, and then it flows sideways to where the river cuts through the rock layers. The water then flows out of the side of the valley to form a spring. Springs may dry up during periods of little rain.

 穿过山谷的河流,可能穿过一个地下水位及其下边的不渗透岩石。雨水向下流,流到不渗透岩石层,接着,向旁边流到河流穿过岩石层的那个地方。然后,水从山谷坡上流出,形成泉。在雨水很少的时候,泉可能干枯。

 

Wells can be drilled, or dug, depending on the soil and rock and the height of the water table. The bottom of the well, below the water table, is lined with porous material so the water can seep through. The upper part of the well is lined with non-porous material to keep out soil and surface water that might be contaminated.

可以钻井或打井,视土壤、岩石和地下水位的高度而定。因为井底在地下水位下面,所以,在井底铺上渗透材料,以便水能渗透。在井的上部铺上不渗透材料,以保持土壤和可能被污染的表面水。

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注释:

(1)    …collects to form clouds.

句中的谓语动词collects是不及物动词,所以,不定式短语to form clouds不是它的宾语,而是目的状语。

(2)    A hole dug for the purpose of finding water….

这个比较长的短语作全句的主语。过去分词短语dug for the purpose of finding water作定语,修饰 A hole。注意:finding water是动名词短语,作介词of的宾语。

(3)…a level where the rock is unbroken.

句中的关系副词where的意思相当于at which, 其作用有二:引导一个定语从句,修饰 a level;在定语从句中作地点状语,修饰谓语is unbroken。

(4)…rocks deep in the earth.

句中的形容词短语(deep + in the earth)作后置定语,修饰前面的 rocks。形容词短语作定语时,大多放在被修饰名词的后面,叫做后置定语。

                                                   

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