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人类什么时候开始穿衣服?

(2010-08-11 10:57:33)
标签:

英汉对照读物

教育

分类: 英汉对照读物

                    When Did Man Start Wearing Clothes?

                        人类什么时候开始穿衣服?

 

  阅读科技散文,涉猎科技知识,学习地道英语,真是“一箭双雕”!

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Fine feathers make fine birds. 漂亮的羽毛打扮出漂亮的鸟。

 

Clothes make the man. 人靠衣裳马靠鞍。

 

Of course, we know these proverbs. And we also know the importance of the clothes we are wearing. A man may look dull, common, or even ridiculous in ill-chosen clothes. A woman may feel transformed by a beautiful dress, and then feels energetic and successful, and then feels good about herself.

我们当然知道这些谚语。而且我们还知道我们所穿的衣服的重要性。一个男人,衣着不当,看起来就可能痴呆、平庸、甚至荒唐可笑。一个女人,穿上一件漂亮的衣服,就可能会感到自己变了一个样,于是感到精力充沛和事业有成,于是自我感觉良好。

 

   But do you know when man started wearing clothes (1)? Perhaps in some long-ago cave, a man noticed the softness and warmth of the fur of the wild sheep he had killed and skinned for dinner (2). He might have put it around his shoulders and realized that it made him feel comfortable in his damp, chilly cave. Meanwhile, Eskimos and other peoples of cold northern regions were discovering that the skins of wolves, bears, reindeer and other animals could keep people warm even during the coldest weather.

  但是,你知道人类是在什么时候开始穿衣服的吗?也许,很久以前,在某个洞穴里,有人杀了野羊,剥下皮,吃了肉,最后,发现羊皮柔软而暖和。他很可能将羊皮搭在他的双肩上;在他那潮湿寒冷的洞穴里,他于是感到非常舒服。同时,爱斯基摩人和其他北部地区的民族发现:即使在最寒冷的天气里,狼、熊、训鹿和其他动物的皮,也能使人保持温暖。

 

Sometime after that came the idea of connecting two skins (3) together. A piece of animal sinew could have been left in the cave  after an animal was skinned. Someone playing with the sinew put it through a hole in one skin and then through a hole in another skin. Two skins were connected together! Later on someone found that putting the sinew through a hole was made easier by using a bone to guide the sinew. This was the beginning of sewing. Once animal skins could be sewn together, a man could cover himself well.

在此以后的某个时候,有人想出了将两张皮连在一起的主意。动物被剥皮后,一根动物的筋可能留在洞穴里。玩动物筋的人,将筋穿过一张皮的洞,再穿过另一张皮上的一个洞。两张皮被连在一起了!后来,有人发现,用一根骨头引动物筋,穿洞便容易多了。这是缝纫的开始。当能够将动物皮缝在一起时,人们就可以舒适地蔽体了。

 

Many people lived in parts of the world where it was never cold. They discovered it was good to cover themselves for other reasons: to keep the hot sun from burning their skin and to guard against stinging insects and poisonous plants. Someone discovered how to weave coarse palm leaves together to make a kind of body covering. Other people, especially those who lived on sunny islands in the southern Pacific Ocean, learned to make cloth by mashing bark, in much the same way as paper is made.

许多人居住在世界上从不寒冬的地方。他们发现,为了其他种种原因,以衣蔽体,是很好的:不让烈日晒伤皮肤、防止昆虫叮咬、免受有毒植物伤害。有人发现了将粗糙的棕榈叶织成一种蔽体材料的方法。另外的人,特别是居住在南太平洋中的阳光明媚的岛上的人们,学会了将树皮压粹,用来造布,其方法很像造纸。

 

  Then someone, perhaps, a child sitting on an African riverbank, began twisting some kind of  a cotton plant fiber between his fingers. Maybe he found that he could twist a long thread that way. Someone else found that many of these thread could be woven together to produce cloth. And in China, somebody discovered that the cozy, soft cocoon in which the silkworm changes into an adult moth, can be twisted into a thread. Someone else wove the soft and delicate material called silk from the thread (4).

接着,有人,也许是一个坐在非洲河岸边上的小孩,开始在手指间缠绕某种棉纤维。也许,他发现,他这样便能搓出一根长线来。另外的人发现,可以将许多这样的线织在一起,成为布。而在中国,有人发现:化蚕为成蛾的蚕茧柔软而舒适,可以搓成线。另外的人用这线织成的柔软精美的材料,叫丝。

 

Man found that he could make the cloth different colors, too. He made earth colors from clay and other soils. He used dye made from the bark of trees and from the juice of berries for other colors.

人类发现:他们还能将布染成不同的颜色。他们用粘土或其他土壤,制成泥巴色颜料。他们使用树皮和浆果汁制作的其他颜色的染料。

 

The Egyptians, who lived in the hot lands along the upper Nile River, liked loose clothes made of cotton. Across the Mediterranean Sea, the Greeks wove wool from the sheep they raised on the mountain sides. As Rome became a powerful civilization, the Romans began to wear a long garment wrapped around the body and thrown over the left shoulder. This was called a toga, and a Roman male wore it proudly as a sign of being a Roman citizen.

居住在尼罗河上游的炎热土地上的埃及人,喜欢宽松的棉制衣服。在地中海彼岸,希腊人在山坡上饲养绵羊,取羊毛织成毛料。当罗马成了一个强大的文明国家后,罗马人开始穿一种长袍;他们将长袍裹身,再搭在左肩上。这种袍叫托加袍;男性罗马人穿上它,感到骄傲,这是罗马公民的标记。

 

The Romans saw a new kind of clothing when invaders came from the East. They were wrapped cloth around each leg to protect their skin from rubbing and to keep from sliding off their sweaty horses. So trousers were invented. After a long time, European men began wearing trousers, too.

当入侵者从东方来到时,罗马人看到了一种新衣着。这是裹在双腿上的包裹布,可以保护皮肤不被擦伤,骑者也不会从汗流浃背的马上掉下来。于是,发明出裤子。很久一段时间以后,欧洲男人也开始穿裤子。

   Europeans were very excited when silk cloth was brought from China. This soft, beautifully colored cloth was very valuable. Kings and queens prized their silk clothing. Europeans wanted the silks of the Orient so much that countries fought wars over trading with the East. Columbus dreamed of finding China and its silks as he set off on his voyage in 1492.

当丝绸从中国传入欧洲时,欧洲人激动异常。这种柔软舒适、颜色亮丽的衣料非常昂贵。国王和王后十分珍惜他们的丝绸衣服。欧洲人渴求东方的丝绸,以至国家之间兵戎相见,以求得与东方的贸易。哥伦布1492年开始远航时,梦想找到中国和中国的丝绸。

 

A great change came in clothing in the later 1800s when chemists invented rayon. Soon other man-made fabrics were developed. These synthetic fabrics often wear longer, dry faster, and hold color longer than cotton, silk, linen, or wool. Synthetic clothes are lightweight, more comfortable to wear, and easier to carry while traveling.

19世纪后期,化学家发明了人造丝,因此在衣着方面,发生了巨大的变化。很快,研制出了其他的人造纤维。这些合成纤维,与棉、丝、麻、毛相比较,通常经穿、易干、不易脱色。合成面料制作的衣服轻便、穿着更舒服、旅游时更便于携带。

 

   More different kinds of clothes are made today than ever before. Not only do people pick different clothes for summer and for winter (5). The selection of colors and materials is larger than ever. And special kinds of clothes are made, too, for different occasions. People in the world have more and more free time than ever before. People do not wear their best clothing to go sight-seeing or walking in the woods. Sports clothes, comfortable casual clothing that wears well and is usually not expensive, is manufactured (6)just for people to wear for recreation.  

 

现在制作的不同种类的衣服,比以前任何时候都多。人们不仅因夏天的炎热和冬天的寒冷,而选择不同的衣服。在色彩和面料选择方面,也比以前多得多。还为不同的场合,制作出特殊种类的衣服。全世界的人们,与以前相比,空闲时间越来越多。人们不会衣冠楚楚地去观光,或到树林中散步。运动装是穿着舒适、价格便宜的休闲衣服,仅供娱乐的人们穿。

 

Modern clothing also helps people look their best. The bright colors and attractive styles may even make you feel cheerful when you wake up feeling depressed or sad.

    现代化的衣着还有助与人们仪表最得体。当你从梦中醒来,感到抑郁或悲哀时,鲜艳的颜色和魅人的样式甚至可能会使你感到欢愉。

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NOTES:

(1)    …know when man started wearing clothes?

句中的when man started wearing clothes是由关系副词when引导的名词性从句,作谓语动词know 的宾语。在这个宾语从句中, wearing clothes 是动名词短语,作谓语动词started 的宾语。

(2)…the wild sheep he had killed and skinned for dinner.

   句中的he had killed and skinned for dinner是定语从句,用来修饰先行词the wild sheep。但是,引导定

   语从句的关系代词which被省掉了。当这个关系代词作定语从句的谓语动词或介词的宾语时,往往可

   以省掉。

(3)     Sometime after that came the idea of connecting two skins together.

这个句子是倒状句,主语是the idea of connecting two skins together。谓语动词是came 。Sometime after that是时间状语,放在句首,表示强调。

(4)     Someone else wove the soft and delicate material called silk from the thread

句中的介词短语from the thread 是状语,表示材料,修饰谓语动词wove 。过去分词短语called silk 作定语,修饰material 。如果将这个短语改成定语从句,则是:…material which is called silk. 这个句子是被动语态,silk是主语补足语。

(5)     Not only do people pick different clothes for summer and for winter.

因为Not only放在句首,本句故用部分倒装语序,将 do 放于主语people 的前面,谓语主动词pick 仍置于主语之后。

(6)     Sports clothes, comfortable casual clothing that wears well and is usually not expensive, is manufactured …

句中的comfortable casual clothing(舒适的休闲装)是主语 Sports clothes (运动装)的同位语。由

关系代词that 引导的定语从句修饰先行词comfortable casual clothing ,并在从句中作主语,它有两

个谓语:(a) wears well (穿着舒服);(b) is usually not expensive (通常价格不贵)。

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