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林慈信:早期教会信仰真伪辨——上帝,圣父,圣子﹕我们的信仰

(2012-02-17 06:31:17)
标签:

教育

分类: 改革宗(归正)神学

早期教会信仰真伪辨 THE FAITH OF THE EARLY CHURCH

 

上帝,圣父,圣子:我们的信仰

GOD, THE FATHER, AND THE SON: WHAT WE BELIEVE

 

 

1.上帝:一位格,三位格

GOD: ONE, PERSON, PERSONAL, THREE PERSONS

 

只有一位真神。宇宙并没有两位神(创造主 + 至高至善神:诺斯底主义)。

There is only one God.  There aren’t two gods (creator-demiurge, plus the highest God: Gnosticism). 

上帝是位格。上帝不只是祂的属性的总和。

God is a person.  God is not just a bunch of attributes.

上帝是有位格的。祂在永恒里计划要创造人,与人建立(约的)关系。

God is personal.  He planned (decreed) to create man and to establish a relationship (covenant) with man.  

上帝是既有位格的,也是无限的。

God is both personal and infinite. 

上帝是不可测度的,可是可以知道,可以认识的借着启示。

God is incomprehensible, but knowable, through revelation.

上帝是三个位格。 

God is 3 persons.

上帝同时是一个位格(一本质,一神格),也是三个位格。

God is both one person (one substance, one godhead), and three persons. 

 

 

2.圣子:上帝的儿子,上帝的「道」

GOD THE SON (LOGOS) 

 

我们称圣父为「上帝」。我们也称三位一体的上帝为「上帝」。

By “God” we mean the Father; by “God” we also mean the 3 persons. 

圣子是神,不仅仅是一个神。圣子与圣父同质。

The Son is God, not a god.  The Son is of the same substance as the Father.

不错,圣子启示圣父。可是圣子是圣子。祂是祂自己,不仅仅是父的形象,不仅仅是父的启示。圣子自己是位格,祂是位格。

While the Son reveals (mediates) the Father, the Son is the Son.  He is himself, not just a revelation (image) of the Father.  

圣子不仅仅是神的理性。圣子是有自己的位格的。

The Son is not just “divine Reason.”  The Son is personal.

圣子是神,不仅仅是多神论中间的一个神。更不是另外一个神,不是低等的神。

The Son is God (ho theos), not just a god (theos): definitely not “a second god.” 

圣子与圣父同有全部的神性。圣子从来不是一个次等的神。

The Son is equal with the Father in divinity.  The Son is not a lower god.  

圣子是子(不是女儿,母亲,父亲)。圣子有祂自己的存在模式。祂是以「子」的身份在永恒里存在的。

The Son is the Son (not daughter, mother, father…): He has his own “mode of subsistence”. 

 

 

3.父生子:「独生」是必须(必然)的,不是偶然的,不是上帝的「旨意」

THE FATHER BEGETS THE SON: GENERATION IS NECESSARY,

NOT FREE, SOVEREIGN DECREE

 

圣父在永恒里从来就是圣子的父。

The Father is always, in eternity, the Father of the Son.

圣子在永恒里从来就是圣父的子。

The Son is always, in eternity, the Son of the Father.

从来没有一时刻,圣子不存在。

There never was a moment when the Son did not exist.

圣父在永恒里生子,不是父的自由、主权行动;不是上帝计划的一部份。

The eternal generation of the Son (the Father begets the Son) is not a free sovereign act of the Father; it isn’t part of God’s plan.

圣父在永恒里生子,是三位一体上帝存在的方式。父与子是同永的。

The eternal generation of the Son is the very way in which god the Trinity exists. 

圣父在永恒里生子,是必须(必然)的,不是自由的、主权的。

The eternal generation of the Son is necessary, not free/contingent.

圣父在永恒里生子,不是神性的放射。

Eternal generation is not emanation.

圣父在永恒里生子,不是父上帝本质(神性)的分割。

Eternal generation is not division of a part of the Father.

父生子,不等于说,子比父有更少的上帝的本质;子比父有更少的上帝的属性。 

Eternal generation does not make the Son have less divine substance, or less attributes, than the Father.

 

 

4.圣子:位格

SON: A PERSON

 

圣子是一个位格:有上帝的所有的属性。

The Son is a person – with (God’s) attributes.

父的一切属性,子都有,圣灵都有。

Every attribute which the Father has, the Son has, the Spirit has also. 

圣子是一个位格:有祂的思想、感情、意志、计划、关系。

The Son is a person – with his mind, will, emotions, plan, relationship.

圣子是一个位格: 道成肉身并没有使圣子成为第二个,另一个「道」(子)。

The Son is one person; incarnation doesn’t make him a 2nd logos.

 

5.道成肉身

THE INCARNATION

 

圣子道成肉身;圣父并没有道成肉身。

The Son became incarnate; the Father didn’t become incarnate.

道成肉身的圣子是:100% 神,100%人。

The incarnate Son is 100% divine, and 100% human.

圣子道成肉身的时候,不是不再是神,不是不再是三位一体的第二位。

The Son does not stop being 100% God, the 2nd person of the Trinity, after the Incarnation. 

道成肉身的圣子是 100% 人:身体与灵魂。圣子所穿上的,是一个人性,不是一个人,不是一个位格。

The incarnate Son’s human nature is 100% human: body and soul.

道成肉身,

道成肉身的圣子的人性是 100% 人:可是完全没有罪性。

The incarnate Son’s human nature is 100% human, but not sinful whatsoever.

三位一体的第二位取了100%人性:祂并不是只取了人的身体。

The 2nd person of the Trinity took on this 100% human nature; he didn’t just take on the body alone.

三位一体的第二位取了 100%人性,包括人的灵魂:这不是发生在永恒里,乃是发生在道成肉身的时候。

The 2nd person of the Trinity took on this 100% human nature, including the soul; this happened at the Incarnation, not in eternity.

道成肉身的结果是:一个位格,神人二性一位格,一位耶稣基督。

The result of the incarnation is one person, one divine-human person, Jesus Christ. 

耶稣基督的神性与人性并不是混合,而是完全的融合、结合、联合 (united)

In Jesus Christ the divine and human nature are not just co-mingled, but united in a perfect union. 

这位100% 上帝、 100%人的耶稣基督从死里复活,升天,今天在天上。这位道成肉身的耶稣基督有一天要在历史结束的时候以神人二性一位格回来。

It is this 100% God and 100% man, Jesus Christ, who rose from the dead, ascended into heaven, and is in heaven today.  This incarnate Jesus Christ will return one day at the end of history: two natures (100% God, 100% man), one person – Jesus Christ. 


早期教会教义真伪辨:

尼西亚会议 (325 AD) 前的上帝论,基督论

TRUTH AND ERRORS IN THE EARLY CHURCH:
THE DOCTRINE OF GOD AND THE DOCTRINE OF CHRIST
BEFORE THE COUNCIL OF NICEA (325 A.D.)

 

 

F = False    T = True

 

诺斯底主义:上帝,人,与宇宙的真相

GNOSTICISM: GOD, MAN, AND THE UNIVERSE

  1. 误:(诺斯底主义的世界观):宇宙不只一个神。最高的神是「纯神性」(纯存有)。祂的神性放射(像太阳光放射)给不同的灵体;神与灵体造成「丰满」。

F (worldview of Gnosticism): There are many gods.  The highest good is pure divinity (pure Being).  His divine nature is emanated (like sun rays from the sun) from him to other spiritual beings. He + all other spiritual beings = pleroma. 

正(爱任纽,特土良):宇宙只有一位神。祂的神性不与任何其他活物分享:不与天使或人分享。不过,上帝造人是按照自己的形象造的:有些上帝的属性是可以传递的。人是有限的;在有限的范围里,起初人是圣洁的,公义的,智慧的等。这些可传递的属性都因为亚当犯罪堕落的缘故,受了污染。总的来说,上帝的属性是不放射的。

T (Irenaeus, Tertullian): There is only one God.  His divine nature is not shared with anyone, not angels, not humans.  Man, however, is created in God’s image – certain attributes are “communicable”, in the sense that man, on our finite level, was holy, righteous, wise, powerful, etc.; all these were marred by sin after Adam’s sin.  But God’s nature is not emanated to us.  

  1. 误:人里有神性,因此人性与神性只是量的不同,不是质的不同。

F:  There is (a spark of) divine nature in man.  Therefore man’s nature and God’s nature are different only in degree, not in essence. 

正:创造主与被创造者之间有着绝对无限的区别。人性就不是神性。

T: There is an absolute, infinite distinction between the Creator and the creature!  Human nature simply IS NOT divine nature. 

  1. 误(诺斯底派的教会仪式):若要得救必须领受秘密仪式。

F (Gnosticism church rites): Salvation requires secret ceremonies.  

正:要得救必须信靠基督,认罪悔改。洗礼是公开的仪式,教会作见证人。

T: Salvation requires faith and repentance.  Baptism is not secret, but a public testimony in the company of the whole church. 

  1. 误(诺斯底主义,一些宗教,部份基督徒):物质是邪恶的。

F (Gnosticism, some religions, some Christians):  Matter is evil.

正:物质被造的时候是好的。物质是好的;上帝要我们享受祂所赐给我们的恩赐(如:食物),以祂规定的方法来享用(要节制)。我们若认为物质是邪恶的话,要就是禁欲主义,不然就是无律法主义(放纵)。唯有正确的了解、使用、顺服上帝的律法,才能避免律法主义与非律法主义。

T:  Matter was created good.  Matter is good; we are to enjoy the good gifts God has given us (e.g. food), in the way God wants us to enjoy them (in moderation).  If we regard matter as evil, we either become ascetic or lawless.  Only if we properly understand, use and submit to the law of God, can we avoid legalism and lawlessness (antinomianism).    

  1. 误(诺斯底主义):有两个上帝;至善的神(无底的深渊),和创造主(旧约的神),后者是有激情,是次神。           

F (Gnosticism): There are two gods: the highest good God (a bottomless abyss), and the Demiurge = Creator = God of the Old Testament.  The latter is a lesser god who has passions. 

正:只有一位神,祂是创造主,也是至善的救赎主。

T:  There is only one God – He is the Creator and the all-holy Redeemer. 

 

 

基督(基督教)与哲学

CHRIST (CHRISTIANITY) AND PHILOSOPHY

 

  1. 误:为了向知识分子传福音,就以哲学配合真理,甚至以哲学解释真理,取代真理。(革利免,奥利金。)

F: Christians want to share the gospel with intellectuals; out of this motive, they often take philosophy and tag it onto the truth.  They use philosophy as a bridge.  They end up interpreting truth according to philosophy, or even substitute the truth with philosophy.  (Clement of Alexandria, Origen.)

正:哲学需要被真理批判,然后真理来改造哲学,救赎哲学。

T: Philosophy needs to be critiqued by the truth.  Then the truth (from Scripture) transforms, re-shapes philosophy, and in this way truth redeems philosophy. 

  1. 误:《圣经》与理性都是认识真理的泉源,途径。(革利免,奥利金。)

F: Reason and Scripture are both paths to understanding truth.  Reason and Scripture are two sources of truth.  (Clement of Alexandria, Origen.)

正:唯有上帝是真理的泉源。认识真理,必须靠上帝的启示,包括普遍启示与特殊(圣经)启示。人的理性已经堕落,需要启示来改造,光照,才能正确地理解真理。

T: God only is the source of truth.  To understand truth, man needs God’s revelation, including general revelation and special revelation (=Scripture).  Man’s reason is fallen, man needs God to re-make his reason, enlighten his reason.    

  1. 误:一些神学家坚守「信仰的准则」(《圣经》的权威),却受世俗哲学深深影响(奥利金,20世纪众多中、西「福音派」神学家)。

F: Some theologians submit to “the rule of faith” (the authority of the Bible), yet they are deeply influenced by secular philosophy (Origen, numerous so-called “evangelical” theologians in the 20th century, both western and Chinese).  

正:坚持《圣经》的权威,就要从《圣经》的立场来批判哲学。

T: When a Christian confesses that he/she submits to the authority of the Bible, then secular philosophy must be critiqued.

  1. 误:「道」将理性之光赐予人类,「道」的光帮助外邦人认识真理,为他们来到福音面前作踏脚石。(奥利金。)

F: The Logos imparts to men the light of reason.  The light of the Logos serves as a stepping stone for Gentiles to come to the fuller light of the gospel.  (Origen.) 

正:「道」将理性赐人类,可是人类误用了理性,理性堕落了。现在的哲学并不是人原有理性的正确使用的结果,乃是误用的结果。因此人的理性需要上帝光照,理性需要悔改,来到上帝面前服在真理之下。理性须被上帝被改造(罗122:心意更新而变化)。

T: The Logos (Christ) indeed gave reason/mind to man at creation.  But man has misused his reason.  Reason has fallen.  Philosophy today is not the use of man’s original reason, but the misuse of it.  Therefore man’s reason needs a fresh illumination by God.  Man’s reason needs to repent, needs to come to God and submit under him, and be transformed by him (Rom. 12:2). 

  1. 误:神学家研究了哲学,如:新柏拉图主义(奥利金);然后写系统神学,把世俗的哲学思想写进基督教的系统神学。(如:今天中西众多神学家。)

F: Christians study philosophy (e.g. Origen studied neo-Platonism), then they write their systematic theology.  As they do so, they write ideas from secular philosophy into their theology. 

正:研究哲学是为了护教,为了批判哲学。写系统神学时要黑白分明,批判世上的小学。

T: We study philosophy for the purpose of apologetic, so that we can critique philosophy.  When we write systematic theology, we must distinguish between truth and error, and critique secular philosophies. 

  1. 误:基督(上帝的儿子)= 「罗格斯」(道)= 希腊哲学的「道」。

(这个「道的教义」从殉道者游斯丁的时代开始。)

F: Christ (the Son of God) = the Logos = the “Logos” of Greek philosophy.

 (This “Logos doctrine” began with the period of  Justin Martyr.)

正:基督 = 自我见证的主,祂就是真理本身。祂不是一个人想出来的观念,如:「绝对真理」,希腊哲学的「道」,或中国《道德经》的「道」。

T:  Christ is the self-attesting Lord who is truth.  He is not a man-made concept like “absolute truth,” the Greek “Logos,” or the Chinese Taoist “Tao.” 

  1. 误:基督 / 上帝的儿子 = 神圣的「道」=「神圣的理性」= 非位格的属性、能力。正如人有理性和灵,上帝也有理性(道,子)和灵(圣灵)。

F:  Christ/the Son of God = the Divine Logos = “divine reason” = an impersonal attribute and power.  Just as man has a mind and spirit, so God has his reason (Logos) and his spirit (Holy Spirit). 

正:基督,上帝的儿子 = 上帝,拥有所有圣父的属性,所有圣灵的属性。上帝的属性包括:祂是主,永恒,无限,不变;智慧,权能,圣洁,公义,良善(爱,忍耐,恩典),真理。

T:  Christ/the Son = God, who has all the attributes of the Father and of the Spirit. 

Attributes of God include: Lordship; God is eternal, infinite, unchangeable; wise, powerful/sovereign, holy, just/righteous, good/gracious/loving, truth. 

我们的上帝,就是《圣经》所宣讲的上帝,是无限的,又是有位格的。异教、非基督教的上帝,要就是无限但非位格的(如:希腊哲学的「形式 / 理念」,「道」),不然就是有限但有位格的(如希腊神话中的神祇,中国民间宗教的神:关公,观音,黄大仙等)。

Our God, the God of the Bible is both infinite and personal.  Pagan/non-Christian gods are either infinite but impersonal (e.g. Greek “form,” “idea,” “Logos”), or finite and personal (the gods and goddess of Greek mythology and Chinese folk religion, e.g. Guan Gong, Guan Yin. Wong Tai Sin, etc.). 

  1. 误:基督(上帝的「道」)= 一切人间真理、智慧的来源, 因此:所有真理都是上帝的真理。哲学,心理学,文学的成果都是上帝的启示。

F:  Christ/the Logos of God = source of all enlightenment, source of all truth in men.  Therefore: All truth is God’s truth.  All philosophy, psychology, literature, etc. = God’s revelation. 

正:基督(上帝的「道」)= 所有真理的来源。上帝创造人的时候赐人智慧,真理,圣洁与公义(创126-28,弗424)。可是人犯罪,从他原有的智慧,公义,圣洁堕落了。因此,现在人所追求的,若没有上帝的帮助,必然是愚拙(林前118-31),是世上的小学(西28)。人所能达到的哲学,心理学,艺术,文学都不是上帝的启示,不可能是上帝的启示,而是堕落的罪人对上帝普遍群启示的回应。基督并不为罪人的哲学与文化中对真理的扭曲和错误观念负责!

T: Christ/Logos = source of all truth.  Man was endowed with wisdom, truth, holiness and righteousness (Gen. 1:26-28, Eph. 4:24) when he was created; but man fell from his original wisdom, righteousness and holiness.  Therefore what man seeks, without God’s help, is ultimately foolishness (I Cor. 1:18-31).  Thus what man arrived at, in philosophy, psychology, art, literature, etc. is NOT God’s revelation.  It CANNOT possibly be God’s revelation.  Rather, these are  sinful, fallen man’s responses to God’s general revelation.  Christ is not responsible for the errors and twisted “truths” in fallen sinners’ philosophy and culture!

 

 

上帝的不可知性与可知性

THE INCOMPREHENSIBILITY OF GOD AND THE KNOWABILITY OF GOD

 

  1. 误:上帝 = 完全不可知,无底的深渊。上帝是「全然的他者」。只有基督(「道)启示上帝。」(古今中外各样的非理性主义。)

F:  God = all unknowable, unfathomable; God is the “Wholly Other.”  Only Christ/Logos reveals God (All kinds of irrationalism, ancient to modern).   

正:上帝是不可知的,若祂不亲自启示自己给我们认识的话。可是,上帝是可知的,因为祂计划了自我启示,也具体地透过(一)受造之物(大自然),(二)人地良心,(三)《圣经》自我启示了。因此上帝是可知的。人需要圣灵的光照才能认识《圣经》的真理。

T:  God is unknowable to us if he didn’t reveal himself to us.  But God decided to, and did, reveal himself through (a) nature, (b) our hearts, and (c) Scripture.  Therefore God is knowable through revelation.  The illumination of the Holy Spirit is needed to understand God’s revelation in Scripture.      

 

 

上帝的不变与动性

GOD IS UNCHANGEABLE, GOD IS DYNAMIC  

  1. 误:上帝完全是动性的。(奥利金,当代的进程神学。)

F: God is always (eternally) in action. (Origen, today’s process theology.)

正:上帝是不变的。可是他计划了创造,掌管宇宙历史,救赎,审判,因此他不断执行他的计划,从这角度来说,「我父作工至今。」可是上帝的动力,作为并没有使祂的本性,计划,与应许改变。

T: God does not change.  However God in eternity planned to (a) create the world, (b) rule over history/the universe, (c) save sinners, and (d) judge the world.  And he continues to implement his eternal plan.  Thus “My Father has worked till now.”   But God is not active in a sense that He changes his being, plan, or promises. 

 

 

人的问题

MAN’S PREDICAMENT

 

  1. 误:人性里的善恶,不是天赋的本性。是永恒里灵体的堕落因此有物质,有人的肉体。

F: Good and evil in man are not divine endowments.  Since some spiritual beings sinned and fell in eternity, therefore matter exists (was created), therefore man’s body exists. 

正:人被造的时候是善的(包括身体,灵魂)。邪恶是因为人犯罪才存在在人间(罗512)。

Man was created good (body and soul).  Evil exists in man’s world because of man’s sin.  (Romans 5:12)

  1. 误:人的问题,人为什么需要救恩 = 因为人是有限的,生命短暂。

F:  Man’s problem, man’s need for salvation = because man is finite, life is short. 正:人的问题,人为什么需要救恩 = 人背叛了上帝。人的问题是宗教性的,属灵的(与上帝的关系,背叛了上帝); 和道德性的(心的污秽,行为的不义)。「不虔,不义」(罗118-21)。

T: Man’s problem, man’s need for salvation = because man has rebelled against God.  Man’s problem is spiritual (his relationship with God, rebellion against God) and moral (his heart is polluted, and his conduct is unrighteous).  Man is “godless, unrighteous” (Rom. 1:18-21).

  1. 误:原罪借着繁殖传到全人类。(传统天主教教义)

F: Original sin was transmitted to all mankind through procreation (traditional Roman Catholic teaching). 

正:因为上帝对待亚当为人类的头,人类的代表,因此上帝把亚当的罪归算给全人类。结果,繁殖的后果是每一个生出来的婴孩都有上帝所归算的罪。

T: God treated Adam as the head and representative of all mankind.  Therefore God “charged” (reckoned, imputed) Adam’s sin/guilt on all mankind.  The result is: all babies born into this world have the imputed sin of Adam. 

 

 

基督是上帝

CHRIST IS GOD

 

  1. 误:有两个「道」。

F: There are two Logos’es.  (Origen.) 

正:「道」,基督是一位。

            T: There is only one Logos, only one Christ. 

  1. 误:有两个「道」:上帝里面的能力,和道成肉身的道(亚利乌)。

FThere are two Logos’es: (1) the “divine reason” or energy which is immanent in God (inside the Godhead); and (2) the incarnate Logos (Arius).

正:三位一体里的第二位(圣子)是一个位格;道成肉身并不改变这事实。

T:  The 2nd person of the Trinity is one person; the incarnation doesn’t alter this fact. 

  1. 误:基督(上帝的「道」,上帝的儿子)= 从属父上帝,本质上低于父(奥利金)。

F: Christ/the Logos/the Son of God = subordinate to the Father in being.  (Origen)

正:基督(上帝的儿子)= 与父上帝同等,同是上帝,同有尊荣,同是永恒,拥有所有上帝的属性。但是,在永恒救赎计划中,子甘愿顺服父.,因此,在救赎计划中,子从属父。

本质上的 (ontological) 三位一体:父,子,灵同等;父是上帝,子是上帝,灵是上帝。

救赎计划上 (Economy) 的三位一体:子,灵顺服父。

T: Christ/the Son of God = equal with the Father in deity, glory, eternity, and in all their attributes. 

However in the plan of salvation, which the Father, Son and Spirit planned together in eternity, the Son decided to obey/submit to the Father.  Thus in the plan of salvation the Son is subordinate to the Father.

Ontological Trinity: the 3 persons are equally God.  The Father is God, the Son is God, the Spirit is God.   

Economic Trinity: in the plan of salvation, the Son and Spirit submit to the Father. 

  1. 误:父生子不是必须的行动(necessary act),而是自由的行动 (free act)(奥利金)。

F: The Son’s eternal generation (the Father begetting the Son) is not a necessary act, but a free and sovereign act of the Father.  (Origen)

正:父生子是三位一体在永恒里必须的存在模式;是必须的,不是自由(主权)的决定、计划、行动。

T: The Father begetting the Son (eternal generation) is the very mode of existence and relationship of the 3 persons of the Trinity; it is necessary, not a free, sovereign plan/decision/act. 

  1. 错误:圣子是能变的(亚利乌)。

F: The Son is mutable (changeable) (Arius).

正:圣子与圣父,圣灵一样,是不变的神。

T: The Son, like the Father and the Spirit, is God.  He is unchangeable.

  1. 误:「道」与耶稣(人)的灵魂在永恒里结合(奥利金)。

F: The Logos and the human soul of Jesus = united in eternity  (Origen).

正:「道」(耶稣基督的神性,三位一体的第二位)与耶稣基督的整个人性(身体,灵魂)在道成肉身的时联合:圣灵感孕马利亚的时候。

T:  The Logos/divine nature of Christ (the second person of the Trinity) united with the entire human nature of Christ (soul and body) at the Incarnation – when the Holy Spirit came upon the Virgin Mary. 

  1. 误:基督的神性与人性混合,祂是混合品,两性并没有融合。

F: The divine nature and human nature of Christ was composite.  There is no union, no fusion between the two natures.

正:基督的神性与人性是完全地联合 (union)

T: The divine and human nature of Christ united in perfect union.

 

 

基督是位格;子是父在永恒里生的

CHRIST IS PERSON; THE SON IS ETERNALLY BEGOTTEN OF FATHER

 

  1. 误:基督与父同质,可是祂不是位格。只有一个位格,就是父。祂只是神圣的理性、能力(特土良,动力神格唯一说:撒摩撒他之保罗)。

F: Christ is of the same substance as the Father, but he is not a person. God is only one person, i.e., the Father.  He is divine power or divine reason (Tertullian, Dynamic Monarchianism: Paul of Samosata).  

正:基督与父上帝同质。祂是位格,正如父是位格。(不要把「位格」当作属性来看待!)子的生存形态与父不同(特土良)。

T: Christ is of the same substance as the Father.  But he is a person just like the Father is a person. But the Son has a mode of existence which is different from the Father’s (Tertullian).  (But don’t treat “person,” “personhood” as attributes.)   

  1. 误:「道」是神里的理性,到创造等时候才有位格。

F: Logos is impersonal divine reason; only becomes personal at creation. 

正:「道」(子)在永恒里就是位格。

T: Logos (Son) is person in eternity, from eternity. 

  1. 误:子与父同质,可是只有父有全部的本质(特土良)。

F: The Son and the Father have the same substance, but only God the Father has all the substance (Tertullian). 

正:子与父同质,子与父同有所有上帝的本性。

T: The Son and the Father are of the same substance.  Each has full divine nature (complete divine substance). 

  1. 误:父创造子(亚利乌)。子是父从无有创造出来的(亚利乌派,在尼西亚会议)。

F: The Son is created (Arius).  The Father created the Son. The Father created the Son out of nothing (Arians, at Council of Nicea).

正:子与父同创造宇宙。父生子,不是创造子。

T: The Son is Co-Creator with the father of the universe.  The Father begets the Son, the Father did not create the Son.

  1. 误:父生子,是永恒里的作为(奥利金)。子有开始存在的时刻;有一段时间子并不存在(特土良)。

F: The Father begets the Son as an eternal act (Origen).  The Son has a beginning; there was a time when the Son/Logos was not (Tertullian). 

正:父在永恒里生子;子没有开始存在的时刻。所有上帝所「计划」,所作的「作为」,都是三位一体一起作的「计划」与「作为」。

T: The Father begets the Son in eternity; the Son has no beginning.  Every “plan” and “act” of God, is the plan/act of the three persons in the Trinity together.

从来没有一刻,子不是(不存在)的。

There was never a moment when the Son was not.

 

 

人的被创造;基督的人性

CREATION OF MAN; CHRIST’S HUMAN NATURE

 

  1. 错误:人是在永恒里被创造的。

F: Man was created in eternity (eternal creation). 

正:人是在七日的第六日被创造的;人是在时间的开始时被造的。

F: Man was created on the 6th day of 7 days; man was created at the beginning of time. 

  1. 错误:基督不真正是人。基督吃东西,并不是祂真正需要食物,而是要藉此使人不能否认祂的人性(革利免)。

F: Christ is not really a man.  Jesus ate food, not because he needed food, but simply to guard against a denial of his humanity (Clement of Alexandria.)

正:人不能否认基督的人性,因为祂真正的是人。

T: We cannot deny the humanity of Christ, because Jesus Christ was/is fully human. 

  1. 误:「道」所充满的灵魂取了一个身体,这个身体被「道」穿入而神化 (divinized)(奥利金,动力神格唯一说的:撒摩撒他之保罗,后来基督新教中反对三位一体的教派)。

F: The soul, which was filled with the Logos, assumed a body.  This body, penetrated by the Logos, is divinized (becomes divine) by the Logos (Origen, Dynamic Monarchianism: Paul of Samosata, Socinians, Unitarians).  

正:「道」(三位一体的第二位)取了人性(灵魂与身体)。结果不是人性被神化,乃是:道成肉身的耶稣基督是一个位格,一位耶稣基督:祂是100%神,又是100%人。

T:  The Logos (The 2nd person of the Trinity) took on human nature (both body and soul).  The result is not that the human nature of Jesus Christ becomes divine.  Rather, Jesus Christ incarnate is ONE person, ONE Jesus Christ: he is 100% God, 100% man. 

  1. 误:耶稣被父认(收养)为儿子,因此被人尊敬为上帝的儿子(亚利乌)。

F: Jesus is recognized/adopted by the Father as Son, therefore men esteem him as God’s Son (Arius).

正:子在永恒里就是父的独生子。因道成肉身的基督成就了救赎大工,父上帝荣耀祂,高举祂,承认/宣称祂为爱子。可是这宣称并不是基督成为上帝儿子的原因,而是圣子完成救赎大工的奖赏。

T: The Son was the only-begotten Son of the Father in eternity.  When the incarnate Christ finished his work of redemption, the Father chose to glorify him, exalt him, and “adopt”/declare him to be Son of God.  This declaration is not the reason why Jesus Christ is God’s Son; rather it is the reward for the Son’s completion of the work of redemption. 

  1. 误:耶稣(人)取了「功德」,如:圣洁,对上帝的意识 (士来马赫)等。因此他成为上帝的儿子,被称为上帝的儿子。

F: The man Jesus took on “meritoriousness” such as: holiness, consciousness of God (Friedrich Schleiermacher), etc.  Therefore he became the Son of God. 

正:上帝的儿子从来在永恒里就是上帝的儿子,与父同等。祂在道成肉身(圣灵感孕马利亚)的时候穿上了人性。

T: The Son of God was always God in eternity, and equal with the Father.  He took on human nature at the Incarnation, when the Holy Spirit came upon Virgin Mary.

 

 

 

道成肉身、神人二性的基督是救赎主

CHRIST, THE INCARNATE GOD-MAN, IS THE REDEEMER
 

  1. 正:基督若是上帝,那么他来到世间,就是上帝来到世间。

T: If Christ is God, and only if He is God, in the full sense of the word, without qualification, God has entered humanity.  (Reinhold Seeberg.)  

  1. 误:基督只是教师,榜样,赐律法者。

F: Christ is only a teacher, an example, the lawgiver.

正:基督来更为罪舍命。祂是救主。

T: Christ came mainly to die for sins as a substitute.  He is the Redeemer.    

  1. 错误:基督借着付赎价 (ransom) 给魔鬼来拯救我们:基督欺骗了魔鬼。

F: Christ rescued us by paying the ransom to the Devil.  Christ deceived the devil. 

正:基督的舍命,满足了父上帝的公义和公义的要求,因此平息了父的忿怒( = 挽回祭的意义)。

T: Christ’s death satisfied the justice and just requirements of God the Father, thus removed his wrath.  (= propitiation) 

  1. 误:基督的神性,在耶稣被挂在十字架的时候,已经离开耶稣(人)。

F: Christ’s divine nature left the human Jesus when the man Jesus hung on the cross. 

正:神人二性的耶稣基督在十字架上舍命。这是莫大的奥秘。

T: Jesus Christ, the God-man, died on the cross (this is a profound mystery).   

  1. 误:救赎就是神人合一:人能神化(爱任纽)。

F: Salvation involves the union of man and God. Man is deified (Irenaeus).   

正:救赎是上帝与人和好。人不成为上帝!

而只有神自己:只有一位自己就是上帝的救主,才能使我们与上帝联合(啊阿他拿修)。

T: Salvation is God reconciling himself with man.  Man doesn’t become God! 

And, only one who is himself God can unite us with God (Athanasius). 

  1. 误:基督的神性与人性混合,因此基督升天的时候,就等于成为无所不在 (unibiquitous)。(奥利金,马丁路德。)

F: The Divine and the Human in Christ was so co-mingled, that by his glorification, he became virtually ubiquitous.  (Origen, Martin Luther.)

正:基督的神性与人性完全的联合。基督的神性从来就是无所不在的。祂升天的时候,是以神人二性一基督的身份升天的。今天,道成肉身的神人基督在天上。

T: Christ’s divine nature was perfectly  united with his human nature at the Incarnation.  Christ’s divine nature includes omnipresence; the 2nd person of the Trinity was always omnipresent.  When Christ ascended into heaven, he ascended as 100% God and 100% man.  The God-man, Incarnate Christ is in heaven today. 

  1. 误:耶稣基督的人性,在升天的时候消失了。

F: The human nature of Jesus Christ disappeared when he ascended into heaven.

正:今天在天上的是神人二性的耶稣基督。

T: Today Jesus Christ, in both his divine nature and human nature, is in heaven.

 

 

三位一体

THE TRINITY

  1. 误:三位一体的三位,好像戏剧里的演员,角色,甚至像面具。(形体上的神格唯一说,即:撒伯流主义;参:周联华,《信徒神学》。)

F: The three persons of the Godhead are like three actors/roles in a drama, or one actor wearing three masks.   (Modalism, or Modalistic Monarchianism, i.e., Sabellius; cf.: Rev. Chow Lien-hwa.)

正:三位一体的三位,每一位都是位格,有别与其他两位;每位都是上帝。

T: There are three distinct persons in the Trinity, but there is only one God.

  1. 误:圣父道成肉身,被钉在十字架上。(圣父受苦说。)

F: The Father became Incarnate, hung on the cross.  (Patripassianism.)

正:圣子道成肉身。

T: The Son became Incarnate. 

  1. 误:上帝是三位一体,「一体」或「同质」就像泥土,金,银,木头一样。

F: God is three persons in one substance: substance is like clay, gold, silver, wood.

正:三个位格的「位格」,和一体的「体 / 质」,这两个观念都是广泛的。我们可以说:上帝是三个位格,同时是一个位格。不过很少人这样说,只有范泰尔 (Cornelius Van Til, 20世纪最伟大的护教家) 这样说。

T: “Person” (persona, hypostatis) and “substance” (ousia) mean “something” – God is “three of something” and “one of something.”  We can say God is three persons and one person.  Very few people say it this way, only Cornelius Van Til, the greatest apologist in the 20th century, says it this way.

 

 

《威敏斯特信仰告白》      第三章           论上帝与三位一体

Westminster Confession of Faith     Chapter 3       On God and the Trinity

 

三、上帝是独一的上帝,但祂里面有三个位格,同属一个本质,权能相同,同样永恒,这三个位格就是:父、子、圣灵(三位一体的)上帝 (o)。父不属于、不受生于、也不出于任何其他来源;子在永恒里为父所生 (p);圣灵在永恒里由父和子而出 (q)

 

3.  In the unity of the Godhead there are three persons, of one substance, power, and

eternity: God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Spirit (o). The Father is of none, neither begotten nor proceeding; the e Son is eternally begotten of the Father (p) ; the Holy Spirit eternally proceeds from the Father and the Son (q) . 

 

 

第八章           论中保基督              Chapter 8       On Christ the Mediator

 

二、上帝的儿子,三位一体中的第二位,正是永恒的上帝, 与父同质、同等;当日期满足的时候,就取了人性 (k),并人性一切基本的性质、共通的软弱,只是无罪 (l)﹔借着圣灵的大能,在童贞女马利亚的腹中成孕,有她的本质(m)。所以在耶稣里面是两个完整的、无缺的,且相异的性质(就是神性与人性),不可分地结合于一位格里,没有转化、合成、混合 (n)。这个位格是真正的上帝,也是真正的人,却是一位基督,神人之间的惟一的中保 (o)

 

2.  The Son of God, the second person in the Trinity, being truly and eternally God,

of one substance and equal with the Father, did, when the fullness of time had come, take upon Him man’s nature (k), with all its essential properties and common frailties, yet without sin (l).  He was conceived by the power of the Holy Spirit in the womb of the virgin Mary and of her substance (m).  In this way two whole natures, the divine and the human, perfect and distinct, were inseparably joined together in one person without being changed, mixed, or confused (n).  This person is truly God and truly man, yet one Christ, the only mediator between God and man (Romans 1:3-4).

 

 

 

 

The Nicene Creed

I believe in one God, the Father Almighty, Maker of heaven and earth, and of all things visible and invisible.

And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the only-begotten Son of God, begotten of the Father before all worlds; God of God, Light of Light, very God of very God; begotten, not made, being of one substance with the Father, by whom all things were made.

Who, for us men for our salvation, came down from heaven, and was incarnate by the Holy Spirit of the virgin Mary, and was made man; and was crucified also for us under Pontius Pilate; He suffered and was buried; and the third day He rose again, according to the Scriptures; and ascended into heaven, and sits on the right hand of the Father; and He shall come again, with glory, to judge the quick and the dead; whose kingdom shall have no end.

And I believe in the Holy Ghost, the Lord and Giver of Life; who proceeds from the Father and the Son; who with the Father and the Son together is worshipped and glorified; who spoke by the prophets.

And I believe one holy catholic and apostolic Church. I acknowledge one baptism for the remission of sins; and I look for the resurrection of the dead, and the life of the world to come. Amen.

 

 

The Definition of the Council of Chalcedon (451 AD)

 

Therefore, following the holy fathers, we all with one accord teach men to acknowledge one and the same Son, our Lord Jesus Christ, at once complete in Godhead and complete in manhood, truly God and truly man, consisting also of a reasonable soul and body; of one substance with the Father as regards his Godhead, and at the same time of one substance with us as regards his manhood; like us in all respects, apart from sin; as regards his Godhead, begotten of the Father before the ages, but yet as regards his manhood begotten, for us men and for our salvation, of Mary the Virgin, the God-bearer; one and the same Christ, Son, Lord, Only-begotten, recognized in two natures, without confusion, without change, without division, without separation; the distinction of natures being in no way annulled by the union, but rather the characteristics of each nature being preserved and coming together to form one person and subsistence, not as parted or separated into two persons, but one and the same Son and Only-begotten God the Word, Lord Jesus Christ; even as the prophets from earliest times spoke of him, and our Lord Jesus Christ himself taught us, and the creed of the fathers has handed down to us.

早期教会信仰真伪辨 THE FAITH OF THE EARLY CHURCH

人论,罪论,恩典论

DOCTRINE OF MAN, SIN AND GRACE

 

 

奥利金与希腊教父

 

1.    误:「永恒创造论」:人是先存的(奥利金)。

正:「历史的创造」:人是在时间的起初(第六天)被创造的。

2.    误:最初的创造所造的,只是又思想的灵体(没有肉体),是与上帝平等的,与上帝同样永存的(奥利金)。

正:起初上帝创造的,是灵魂与身体结合的人(创126-2827),绝对不与上帝平等;绝对不与上帝一样永存。人有起源(被创造的时刻)。

3.    误:今天人类堕落的光景,是因有先存的堕落(灵体的堕落)- 奥利金。正:今天人类堕落的光景,是因在历史(时间开始了之后)亚当的犯罪。

4.    误:希腊教父:亚当按照上帝的形象被造,没有道德的完全。

5.    正:亚当被造有圣洁,公义,真理(创128,弗424,西310)。

6.    误:希腊教父:亚当只有道德上完全的可能性。

7.    误:亚当本来就是完全的,若经得起上帝的考验(顺服的考验),就可以永远活在道德的完全(圣洁,公义,知识)中。

8.    误:希腊教父:亚当将肉体的败坏传给后代,但它本身不是最,没有把人类陷在罪孽里。

正:罪(罪孽)因一人进入到世界;因此死也进入到世界,因为世人都犯了(亚当一人的)罪(罗51215-21)。

9.    误:希腊教父:人类与亚当只有肉体上的关系。

正:人类与亚当除了有肉体上的关系,还有「约」中的关系;亚当在约里,是人类的头,人类的代表。

10.误:希腊的教父:人类与亚当的关联,只与肉体与感官的本性有关;在人性比较高尚的方面,和理性方面没有关联。

正:罪、审判、与死,由一人传给人类;堕落是全人的,我们整个人:灵魂,身体,都死在罪恶过犯中(弗21)。

11.误:希腊的教父:人类与亚当的关系,与意志没有关系。

正:人类在亚当里的堕落,牵涉整个人:理性,意志,情感,身体等。

12.误:希腊的教父:罪,总是由于人的自由意志选择而来。

正:罪,固然是人的真正选择,但是罪的根源是罪性:人的心(灵魂)败坏。因此,罪不仅是意志的选择。

13.误:希腊教父:婴孩不能算是有罪的。

正:我们在母腹里就是罪人(诗139篇)。

14.误:奥利金:人领受恩典,起点是人的自由意志,不是上帝的恩典。

正:我们得救乃是本乎恩,借着信(弗28-9);起点是上帝的恩典。

15.误:奥利金:自由意志开始了重生的工作;然后上帝帮助人,上帝的能力与人的意志合作,使着意志转离恶,行上帝眼中看为喜悦的事。

正:上帝的大能改变人的意志(这就是圣灵重生的工作),使人的意志甘心情愿地降服在上帝面前,认罪悔改,信靠基督。

16.误:特土良:上帝创造了普遍的人性。然后上帝藉生殖个别化这普遍的人性 (God individualizes generic human nature by procreation)

正:《圣经》说:上帝创造了人,《圣经》没有提到「普遍的人性」。

17.误:上帝与人在重生合作 (synergism)

正:重生,是唯独上帝的工作 (monergism)

 

 

伯拉纠与奥古斯丁

 

人的被造

 

18.误:伯拉纠:亚当被上帝所造,并未赋予正面的圣洁。他起初的状态是中立的,既非圣善,也非有罪。

正:亚当被上帝所造,有圣洁,公义,知识;是无罪的。

19.误:亚当有行善或作恶的可能性(比较误导的说法)。

正:亚当在约中面对上帝的吩咐;他起初的圣洁,公义,知识是能变的。

20.误:伯拉纠:亚当有一个自由,完全不被决定的意志 (free, un-determined will)

正:人的意志是由上帝的旨意掌管(决定)的;而上帝向人启示了祂的旨意,要人选择遵守祂的话。因此人的意志不是完全不被决定,不是随意的。

21.误:伯拉纠:人有能力按自己的判断,犯罪或不犯罪。

正:人不犯罪的能力是上帝所赐予的。

22.误:伯拉纠:人被造是必死的,他已经被死的律所主宰。

正:人被造,是活在上帝的面光之中,在上帝的约里,充满着生命,福乐。

23.误:伯拉纠:人的本性中没有先存的恶来决定他一生的路程;人犯罪是自己的选择。

正:不错,人犯罪是自己的选择,但是「先存的恶」有或没有,是否由它来决定人一生的路程,是抽象的猜测,容易误导人的思想。

 

 

人的堕落

 

24.误:伯拉纠:人堕落在罪中,损伤的不是他人,仅是自己。人性并没有受到永久性的负面影响。

正:亚当一人犯罪,以致罪、审判、死临到全人类。

25.误:伯拉纠:人类没有罪性或罪孽的遗传性传递。

正:人类在上帝的约(审判)之下,都被定罪。

26.误:伯拉纠:人的本性中没有任何恶的倾向或欲望,使他无可避免犯罪。

正:我们犯罪,是因为罪性导致(或住在我们里面的罪发动)。我们里面有犯罪的欲望(罗7章)。

 

 

人的罪,罪孽,罪性

 

27.误:伯拉纠:人类仍然出生在亚当堕落以前的情况中,不仅没有罪孽,也没有罪的污染。

正:人完全污染了;也承受了亚当的罪孽(罪名)。今天的人类,与亚当堕落前的情况,是完全不同的。

28.误:伯拉纠:罪,不在于错误的情操或欲望,只在于意志的个别行动。

正:人犯罪,是因为「心」(情操,欲望)坏透了。

29.误:伯拉纠:每一次的犯罪都在于人自愿的选择。

正:每一次的犯罪在于人自愿的选择,可是不仅在于自愿的选择。

30.误:伯拉纠:人并不须要犯罪。

正:堕落后,人不可能不犯罪;人受了罪的辖制。

 

 

人的自由,行善的能力

 

31.误:伯拉纠:人与亚当一样,被赋予完全的自由意志,有选择的自由  (liberty of choice),可称为「中性的自由」 (liberty of indifference)。所以在任何情况中,人可以选择善,或选择恶。

正:堕落后的人,还是活在上帝的面光之中;人的自由堕落了,被污染了。人并不能完全按着自己的意愿行事,特别没有行善的自由 / 能力。

32.误:伯拉纠:在上帝吩咐人行善这事实上,足以证明:人有行善的能力。

正:上帝吩咐人行善,只证明上帝的吩咐,并不证明人有行善的能力。堕落之后的人有否能力行善,完全要看《圣经》怎么说。

33.误:伯拉纠:人的责任就是他的道德能力的尺度。

正:人的责任和人的能力的尺度,都在乎上帝在《圣经》怎么说。

34.误:伯拉纠:罪的普遍性,仅仅是由于错误的教育,不良的榜样,不可破的犯罪习惯。

正:罪的普遍性,是因为人的「心」坏了。

 

 

恩典

 

35.误:伯拉纠:人弃恶向善,并非因为恩典。恩典仅是外在的恩赐和自然的赋予,如:人的理性,《圣经》中上帝的启示,耶稣基督的榜样等等。

正:人离弃罪,是因为耶稣基督救赎的大能,和圣灵的呼召,重生。

 

 

奥古斯丁:罪的本质

 

36.误:奥古斯丁:罪不是积极之物,乃是消极的,是一种缺乏(privation) 。罪不是有实质的恶,乃是善之缺乏 (privatio boni, privation of good)

正:罪不是「物」,不过是「真」的。要按《圣经》,按上帝的判断来判断罪;罪的真实/实质来自上帝的判断。罪包括(一)亚当不遵行 / 违反上帝的吩咐;(二)因上帝的审判,而有的罪孽;(三)人性的污染:犯罪的倾向;(四)我们的罪行。把罪说成太「具体」,反而成为更抽象。

37.误:奥古斯丁:罪的根源在于自爱 (self-love) 取代了对上帝的爱。

正:罪当然包含人的心偏离上帝,爱自己,爱世界。可是罪也是干犯上帝的律法。罪是不荣耀上帝,不敬拜上帝。要维持三个角度来看罪:(一)准则:上帝的律法;(二)心态:爱;(三)目标:荣耀上帝,敬拜上帝。

 

 

奥古斯丁:欲念;「能 / 不能」行善或犯罪(这就是「自由意志」问题的症结)

 

38.正:奥古斯丁:人背叛的结果包括灵魂中强烈欲念 (concupiscence):感官欲望不正之辖制;理性之律不再管制灵魂。

修正:不错,人的欲望辖制灵魂,人的灵魂不能正确运作。不过:情感(欲念),理性,意志,都堕落了。每一功能和它们之间的关系都扭曲、败坏。

39.正:奥古斯丁:人被造是不朽的﹔他不是不会受死的影响,乃是他有身体不朽的可能。他若证明自己的顺服,就会在圣洁里得以坚定 (confirmed in holiness) ﹔就会从能不犯罪能不死的境况中,过渡到不可能犯罪不可能死的境况中。但是他犯罪了,结果他进入了不可能不犯罪不可能不死」的境况中。

修正:「能」与「不能」犯罪,都在上帝的面光之中,都须从上帝的「约」的角度来看。

40.正:奥古斯丁:人因为罪完全堕落,不能意旨 / 行出任何善事。不错,意志仍有本性的自由 (natural freedom) ,人仍然能行社会公认的善;不过人与上帝分离,担负罪孽,在恶的权势下,因此不能意旨神眼中正直的事。

 

 

奥古斯丁:亚当与人类的关系

 

41.误:奥古斯丁:亚当与人类有着有机的关联 (organic connection) 。人类的合一性不是盟约性的 (federally),是现实主义的 (realistically)。全人类的种子都在亚当里﹔人类不是个别地组成,乃是有机地组成:亚当里有人类普遍的本性 (generic human nature) ,而每一个个体 (individualizations) 都是在亚当里已有的普遍本性的有机部份 (organic parts)

正:「普遍人性」太抽象;「盟约」 (federal) 关系比较合《圣经》。

42.误:奥古斯丁:全人类都在他里面实际上犯了罪。

正:全人类都因为「约」在亚当里,亚当代表人类犯罪;从这意义上,全人类都犯了亚当的罪。不是「现实主义」,乃是「约」的观念。

 

 

奥古斯丁:恩典

 

43.正:奥古斯丁:人的意志需要被更新:从始至终唯独是上帝恩惠的工作。

44.正:奥古斯丁:人的更新唯独归功于上帝的恩惠;这是上帝不可抗拒的恩惠」。可是神的恩惠并不违背人是自由行动者 (free agent) 的本性。上帝不勉强人的意志。上帝乃改变人的意志,使之甘愿选择善。人的意志被更新了,恢复了他的真自由。上帝的确在人的意志上运行,以致人的意志自由地选择美德,圣洁。

45.正:奥古斯丁:重生是完全靠上帝的恩典的 (monergistic)。在重生上,圣灵的运行是必需的,不仅供应人里之不足,而且完全更新人内心的性情,以致人的灵完全的效法上帝的律法。

46.正:上帝在人身上恩典的工作分三阶段:预先的恩典 (prevenient grace) 圣灵用律法产生罪与罪孽的意识。运行的恩典 (operative grace) :圣灵用福音产生信心,使人相信基督和他赎罪大工,结果人被称义,与上帝和好。合作的恩典  (co-operative grace)   人被更新了的意志与圣灵合作,终生作成成圣的功夫。上帝恩典的工作,使神的形象完全在人里更新,上帝的灵完全改变罪人,成为圣徒。

 

 

奥古斯丁:教会,圣礼

 

47.正:奥古斯丁:教会是支配神恩典的机构 (independent dispenser of grace)

注:「支配恩典」这观念,从宗教改革宗后的角度来理解。

48.误:奥古斯丁:洗礼使人重生 (baptismal regeneration)但是重生之恩会再次丧失。只有那些重生而坚守,或重生后失丧又蒙恢复,才能至终得救。

 

 

奥古斯丁:上帝的预定

 

49.正:上帝在时间里更新罪人的恩典之工,乃是他在永恒计划里所意旨的。

50.误:早期的奥古斯丁:上帝预定是在乎 (contingent upon) 祂的预知。

评:这其实是把上帝对人自由的行动的的预知,当作祂预定的条件。

51.正:后期的奥古斯丁:人选择行善,相信基督,都是上帝恩典的效果。

52.正:奥古斯丁:预定就是从上帝永恒的观点看救恩 (salvation viewed sub specie aeternitatis, from the point of view of eternity)

注:奥古斯丁:至于未被拣选者,他认为神在他的预旨中(decree of God) 忽略了他们 (pertermission)。遗弃与拣选是不同的,神的遗弃没有任何神的直接功效伴随着,来达成预期的效果。(改革宗有两种看法。)

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