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Howard Gardner's Multiple Intelligences (双语转载)

(2010-03-10 08:41:02)


分类: 英语学习

Howard <wbr>Gardner's <wbr>Multiple <wbr>Intelligences <wbr>(双语转载)

Howard Gardner

He has received honorary degrees from 26 colleges and universities, including institutions in Bulgaria, Chile, Greece, Ireland, Israel, Italy, and South Korea. In 2005 and again in 2008, he was selected by Foreign Policy and Prospect magazines as one of the 100 most influential public intellectuals in the world.


The author of 25 books translated into 28 languages, and several hundred articles, Gardner is best known in educational circles for his theory of multiple intelligences, a critique of the notion that there exists but a single human intelligence that can be adequately assessed by standard psychometric instruments.


Multiple Intelligences is Howard Gardner’s psychological theory about people and their different types of intelligences (logical, visual, musical, etc.). There are Eight Intelligences that each people has. A person maybe has two or more dominant intelligences, and maybe there are some person have a balance intelligence for the eight intelligences. We are all different because some of those types are stronger than others in each person.

Gardener developed the "Theory of Multiple Intelligences" which says, in effect, that IQ should not be measured as an absolute figure in the way that height, weight or blood pressure are. It's a crucial blunder, he maintains, to assume that IQ is a single fixed entity which can be measured by a pencil and paper test.

It's not how smart you are but how you are smart, says Gardner. As human beings, we all have a repertoire of skills, he says, for solving different kinds of problems. And he defines intelligence this way: "An intelligence is an ability to solve a problem or fashion a product which is valued in one or more cultural settings."

Gardner revealed his theory in his ground-breaking book "Frames of Mind" in which he outlined seven distinct intelligences. He subsequently added an eighth.

The Accelerated Learning Network has taken Gardner's theory and put it into practice, creating products for students of all ages. These products enable the student to learn according to his own learning preferences no matter how he is being taught. In addition, we run through a cycle of learning activities involving all Intelligences so that everyone has an equal opportunity to learn.

Here are the eight Intelligences:

Linguistic Intelligence

The ability to read , write and communicate with words. Authors, journalists, poets, orators and comedians are obvious examples of people with linguistic intelligence.

  • Famous examples: Charles Dickens, Abraham Lincoln, T.S. Eliot, Sir Winston Churchill.

Logical-Mathematical Intelligence

The ability to reason and calculate, to think things through in a logical, systematic manner. These are the kinds of skills highly developed in engineers, scientists, economists, accountants, detectives and members of the legal profession.

  • Famous examples: Albert Einstein, John Dewey.

Visual-Spatial Intelligence

The ability to think in pictures, visualize a future result. To imagine things in your mind's eye. Architects, sculptors, sailors, photographers and strategic planners. You use it when you have a sense of direction, when you navigate or draw.

  • Famous examples: Picasso, Frank Lloyd Wright.

Musical Intelligence

The ability to make or compose music, to sing well, or understand and appreciate music. To keep rhythm. It's a talent obviously enjoyed by musicians, composers, and recording engineers. But most of us have a musical intelligence which can be developed. Think of how helpful it is to learn with a jingle or rhyme (e.g. "Thirty days has September...").

  • Famous examples: Mozart, Leonard Bernstein, Ray Charles.

Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence

The ability to use your body skillfully to solve problems, create products or present ideas and emotions. An ability obviously displayed for athletic pursuits, dancing, acting, artistically, or in building and construction. You can include surgeons in this category but many people who are physically talented–"good with their hands"–don't recognize that this form of intelligence is of equal value to the other intelligences.

  • Famous examples: Charlie Chaplin, Michael Jordan.

Interpersonal (Social) Intelligence

The ability to work effectively with others, to relate to other people, and display empathy and understanding, to notice their motivations and goals. This is a vital human intelligence displayed by good teachers, facilitators, therapists, politicians, religious leaders and sales people.

  • Famous examples: Gandhi, Ronald Reagan, Mother Teresa, Oprah Winfrey.

Intrapersonal Intelligence

The ability for self-analysis and reflection–to be able to quietly contemplate and assess one's accomplishments, to review one's behavior and innermost feelings, to make plans and set goals, the capacity to know oneself. Philosophers, counselors, and many peak performers in all fields of endeavor have this form of intelligence.

  • Famous examples: Freud, Eleanor Roosevelt, Plato.

In 1996, Gardner decided to add an eighth intelligence (Naturalist) and in spite of much speculation resisted the temptation to add a ninth–Spiritualist Intelligence.

Naturalist Intelligence

The ability to recognize flora and fauna, to make other consequential distinctions in the natural world and to use this ability productively–for example in hunting, farming, or biological science. Farmers, botanists, conservationists, biologists, environmentalists would all display aspects of the intelligence.

  • Famous examples: Charles Darwin, E.O. Wilson.

Traditionally, academic subjects have been taught in ways that largely involve two intelligences–linguistic and logical-mathematical. Now consider what an IQ test basically measures–ability with words and numbers. So students who are naturally strong in linguistic and mathematical intelligences do well on the standard Stanford-Binet IQ test斯坦福-比奈(智力)测验. Therefore, it's a fairly good predictor of success at school because the way we teach (lectures) and the material with which we deal (logically constructed books) depend heavily on these two intelligences. Since teachers are drawn from people who do well at school, it's a self-perpetuating不朽system.

But is an IQ result a good predictor of happiness, of economic success, of success in relationships, of success in life? Not really. In a modern society, of course, linguistic and logical-mathematical ability are very important, but there are six other intelligences. It is when you marshal all of your intelligences that you really begin to use your full brain power.



  在他的理论中,智能被划分为 8种:语言智能,诗人、律师都充分运用了语言智能;数理逻辑智能,科学家主要运用这种智能来处理工作;音乐智能;空间智能;肢体运动智能,运动员就运用此种智能;人际关系智能,主要是对他人情绪、情感方面的理解,政治家、销售员、教师都较多地运用它;自省智能;自然观察智能。每个人都有这8种智能的可能性,这8种智能在每个人身上都会表现出不同的形态。



  1.语文 2.数理逻辑 3.空间 4.音乐 5.肢体动觉 6.人际 7.内省 8.自然观察





  一九八三年首次介绍该理论时,提出有七种智能;后来在一九九五年又提出第八种智能。所以目前研究出来的有八种智能,分别是语文智能, 逻辑数学智能, 空间智能, 肢体运作智能, 音乐智能, 人际智能,内省智能及自然观察者智能。 简介如下:

  语文智能 (linguistic intelligence):是指有效运用口头语言或书写文字表达、沟通的能力。律师、演说家、编辑、作家、记者等是几种特别需要语文智能的职业。对语文智能强的人来说,他们喜欢玩文字游戏;在学校里,他们对语文、历史等类的课程比较感到兴趣;在谈话时常引用他处读来的信息;喜欢阅读、讨论及写作。

  逻辑数学智能 (logical-mathematical intelligence):是指有效的运用数字和推理的能力。数学家、税务人员、会计、统计学家、科学家、计算机软件研发人员等是特别需要逻辑数学智能的几种职业。


  空间智能 (spatial intelligence):是指准确的感觉视觉空间, 并把所知觉到的表现出来的能力;这项智能包括对色彩、线条、形状、形式、空间及它们之间关系的敏感性,也包括将视觉和空间的想法具体的在脑中呈现出来,以及在一个空间的矩阵中很快找出方向的能力。

  向导, 猎人, 室内设计师, 建筑师, 摄影师, 画家等是特别需要空间智能的几种职业。空间智能强的人对色彩的感觉很敏锐,喜欢玩拼图、走迷宫之类的视觉游戏;喜欢想象、设计及随手涂鸦;喜欢看书中的插图;学几何比学代数容易。

  肢体运作智能 (bodily-kinesthetic intelligence):是指善于运用整个身体来表达想法和感觉,以及运用双手灵巧的生产或改造事物;这项智能包括特殊的身体技巧,例如平衡、协调、敏捷、力量、弹性和速度以及由触觉所引起的能力。


  音乐智能 (musical intelligence):是指察觉、辨别、改变和表达音乐的能力;这项智能包括对节奏、音调、旋律或音色的敏感性。

  歌手、指挥、作曲家、乐队成员、音乐评论家、调琴师等是特别需要音乐智能的几种职业。他们通常有很好的歌喉,能轻易辨别出音调准不准,对节奏很敏感, 常常一面工作,一面听 (或哼唱) 音乐,会弹奏乐器,一首新歌只要听过几次,就可以很准确的把它唱出来。

  人际智能 (interpersonal intelligence):是指察觉并区分他人的情绪、意向、动机及感觉的能力;这包括对脸部表情、声音和动作的敏感性,辨别不同人际关系的暗示以及对这些暗示做出适当反应的能力。


  内省智能 (intrapersonal intelligence):是指有自知之明并据此做出适当行为的能力;这项智能包括对自己有相当的了解,意识到自己的内在情绪、意向、动机、脾气和欲求以及自律自知和自尊的能力。


  自然观察者智能 (Naturalist Intelligence):自然观察者智能指的是对自然的景物(例如:植物、动物、矿物、天文等)有诚挚的兴趣、强烈的关怀及敏锐的观察与辨认能力。自然生态保育者、农夫、兽医、宠物店老板、生物学家、地质学家、天文学家等是几种特别适合自然观察者智能强势者从事的生涯。

















































































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