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虚拟语气 subjunctive mood

(2010-04-28 16:16:42)
标签:

虚拟语气

subjuncitve

mood

教育

分类: 语法

虚拟语气

 

一.虚拟语气两种类型

 

1.       假设条件句:是一种假象的情形,表示说话者的一种主观愿望或态度等,实现的可能性不大或极小。例如:

① If I were to have the time tomorrow, I would help him.

如果我明天有时间,我就会帮他的。

(说话人“我”认为自己明天有时间的可能性不大,言外之意是“我”可能帮不了他。)

② If I had the time now, I would help him.

如果我现在有时间,我就会帮他的。

(说话人“我”认为自己现在有时间的可能性不大,言外之意是“我”可能帮不了他。)

 

2.       事实相反句:表示与现在或过去的某个事实相反的情形。例如:

③ If I were you, I would help him.

   如果我是你,我就会帮他的。

(说话人“我”不是你,if条件句所表示的与现在的事实相反。)

④ If my grandfather were alive today, he would experience a very different world.

如果我爷爷还活着,那他就会经历一个完全不同的世界了。

(说话人“我”的爷爷现在已经去世,if条件句所表示的与现在的事实相反)。

⑤ If I had had the time yesterday, I would have helped him.

昨天要是我有时间的话,我就会帮他了。

(说话人“我”昨天没有时间,这是确定的事实,不可更改。if条件句所表示的与过去的事实相反)

 

二.虚拟语气三种时间

现在时间:既可以表示对现在情形的假设(),也可以表示于现在的事实相反()。

过去时间:既然时间已经过去,虚拟语气只能表示与过去的事实相反(

将来时间:将来的事情还没有发生,所以只能表示说话人的设想或愿望,不能表示与将来相反。

 

 

 

假设条件句

事实相反句

现在时间

假设一种可能性不大的情形(但并非完全不可能,只表示主观想法,不是与事实相反)

If I had the time now, …….

表示完全不可能发生的情形(不是可能性不大)

If I were you, …….

过去时间

 

与过去已经发生的事情相反。

If I had had the time yesterday,……

将来时间

假设一种可能性不大的情形,此种用法尤其用于对将来的假设。(但并非完全不可能,只表示主观想法,不是与事实相反)

If I were to have the time tomorrow, …….

 

 

 

 

 

从句

主句

现在

did/ were

would(could, might) + do

过去

had done/ had been

would(could, might) + have done

将来

were to do/ should do

would (could/ might) + do

 

 

 

1.       现在虚拟

(1)      假设条件句:假设一种可能性不大的情形(但并非完全不可能,只表示主观想法,不是与事实相反):

If I could afford that car, I would buy it for you.

如果我能买起那辆车,我就买给你。

What would you do if you had a lot of money?

If you didn’t love him, you wouldn’t be so sad about the news.

(2)      事实相反句:表示完全不可能发生的情形(不是可能性不大):

If I were you, I wouldn’t tell her the news.

如果我是你,我就不会把这个消息告诉她。

 

2.       过去虚拟:表示与过去的事实相反

If you had worked harder, you wouldn’t have lost the job. (事实上,“你”失去了工作。)

If my computer had not broken down, I might have completed my work in time. (事实上,我没有按时完成工作。)

 

3.       将来虚拟:谈论将来“不大可能”的情形、不太可能实现的愿望。

If I were to live my life over again, I would have you as my wife.

如果我有来生,我一定娶你为妻。(良好愿望,将来不会实现。)

If I should win the lottery, I would buy a house.

万一我赢得了彩票大奖,我就会买一栋房子。

(说话人用should,表示他对于自己赢得大奖的信心不大,但还是想碰碰运气。也相当于表达了自己将来的愿望。)

Sometimes I have thought it would be an excellent rule to live each day as if we should die tomorrow.

我时常会想,如果我们能以明天就要告别这个世界的态度来度过每一天的话,那一定是极好的。(本句所说的“假如我们明天就会死掉”,并非绝对不可能发生,只是可能性不大,所以用将来虚拟should die来表达这种将来“小概率”的事件。

 

请注意比较真实条件句和将来虚拟条件句的区别:

If it were to rain tomorrow, I would stay at home. 万一明天下雨了,那我就在家呆着。

(说话人认为明天下雨可能性不大。)

If it rains tomorrow, I will stay at home. 如果明天下雨了,我就呆在家里。

(说话人认为明天下雨可能性比较大。)

再比如:

如果一名美国小学生做演讲,应该说下面的话,表示自己当上总统的可能性较小:

If I became president, I would……

如果美国总统候选人做竞选演讲,则应该说:

If I become president of the United States, I will…….这样才能体现他对自己能成功当选充满信心。

 

两道练习题:

1.       If I _____ my own clothes, I ____ a lot of money.

A.      had made/ would save 

B.      could make/would save

C.      can make/would save

D.      could make/will save

2.       Thank goodness, it’s over. I ____ it if I ____ it was going to take me so long.

A.      would never have done/had known

B.      would never do/knew

C.      would never have done/knew

D.      would never do/had known

1.       2.A

 

三.混合虚拟

 

1. 从句与过去相反+主句与现在相反

If I had studied English at school, I could read English novel now.

如果我上学的时候学过英语(事实上,“我”上学的时候没有学过英语),我现在就可以看懂英文小说了(事实上,“我”现在看不懂英文小说)。

If paper hadn’t been invited, we would have no books.

    如果没有发明纸(事实上,纸在过去已经被发明),我们现在就没有书(事实上,我们现在有书看)。

 

2.       从句与现在相反+主句与过去相反

夫妻两人吵架,劝架人问丈夫:“你爱你的妻子吗?”丈夫回答说:“如果我不爱她,我就不会娶她。”这句话可以翻译为:

If I didn’t love her, I wouldn’t have married her.

这句话的言外之意是:“我”一直深爱着妻子(If I didn’t love her表示与现在的事实相反),否则我就不会(在过去)娶她(I wouldn’t have married her表示与过去的事实——即“我”娶了妻子的事实——相反)。

但如果丈夫说: “If I hadn’t loved her, I wouldn’t have married her.” 从此句的时态分析得知,从句和主句都是表示和过去相反。也就是说:“我”在过去是爱着妻子的,否则“我”当时就不会和她结婚。其言下之意是:“我”现在已经不爱她了。

 

再比如日常对话中,往往会听到在这样的句子:“如果你真的了解我的话,你当时就不可能说出那样的话”。可以翻译为:

If you knew me better, you wouldn’t have said that.

 

注意:以上两种混合虚拟句,第二种情况不如第一种情况更常见。

 

 

 

四.虚拟语气中从句的倒装:

当if 条件句中含有should, had 或were时,可以省去if,将should, had或were置于句首。例1:If I should win the lottery, I would buy a car.

= Should I win the lottery, I would buy a car. 如果我能赢得大奖,我就会买一辆车。

例2:If he were to leave today, he would get there by Monday.

  =Were he to leave today, he would get there by Monday.

  如果他今天出发,他就能在星期一之前到达那里。

例3:If he had not been promoted, he would never have remained with the company.

  =Had he not been promoted, he would never have remained with the company.

  如果他没被提升,他就不会继续留在这家公司了。

两道练习题:

3.       _____ to the doctor right away, he might be alive today.

A.      If he went   B. Had he gone  C. Were he gone   D. Should he have gone

4.       ____ before we depart the day after tomorrow, we should have a wonderful dinner party.

A.      had they arrived  B. Were they arriving  C. Would they arrive  D. Were they to arrive

3.         4. D

 

五.陈述句+or+虚拟主句(除了or之外,还可以用or else 或者otherwise。)

1.       主语+一般现在时的谓语形式,or+主语+would do→表示对现在事实的虚拟

2.       主语+一般过去时的谓语形式,or+主语+would have done→表示对过去事实的虚拟

例1:We didn’t know his telephone number; otherwise we would have telephoned him.

我们不知道他的电话号码,要不然我们当时就会给他打电话了。(95.6 CET4)

      =We would have telephoned his him if we had known his telephone number.

例2:He must have had an accident, or he would have been here then.

      他一定是出事故了,要不然早就到了。(90.1 CET4)

例3:Mary couldn’t have received my letter; otherwise she would have replied before now.

      玛丽不可能收到我的信,要不然她现在已经给我回复了。

      =If Mary had received my letter, she would have replied before now.

 

六.虚拟主句+but+陈述句

1.       主句+would do, but+主语+一般现在时的谓语形式→表示对现在事实的虚拟

2.       主句+would have done, but+主语+一般过去时的谓语形式→表示对过去事实的虚拟。经常和expect, intend, mean, suppose, think, want等动词连用,表示没有实现的计划或打算。

例1:He would put on weight, but he does not eat much.

      =He would put on weight if he ate too much.

      他本来是会发胖的,但是他特别注意节食,从来不会多吃。

例2:He could not have bought that house, but he inherited a big fortune from his father.

      =He could not have bought that house if he had not inherited a big fortune from his father. 他本来是买不起那栋房子的,不过她从他爸爸那里继承了一大笔遗产。

例3:A:I thought you were going to call me last night about the train schedule.

      B: Sorry. I would have (called you). But Harry and Jack stopped by and stayed past midnight.

      A: 我还以为你昨晚要给我打电话说说火车行程的安排呢。

      B: 抱歉,我本来是想打电话来着,但是哈利和杰克昨晚来我这里了,他俩一直待到后满也才走,所以我就没打。

例4:A safety analysis would have indentified the target as a potential danger. Unfortunately, it was never done.

      若是有安全分析,就可以发现这个潜在的隐患。但遗憾的是,并没有这么做。

例5:  I had wanted to call you but mu phone broke down.

例6:  He had expected to win the first place but the judge was just unfair.

例7:I had meant to warn you but you just didn’t give me a chance to talk.

     

七.名词从句中的虚拟语气

包含愿望、建议、命令、请求或意志等语气的名词从句中需要用虚拟语气。

无论主句的谓语动词时何种形式,名词从句虚拟从句的谓语形式均为should+动词原形,其中should可以省略。

 

1.       在含有下列词的宾语从句中

advise、ask(要求,请求)、beg、command、demand、decide、deserve、determine、insist、move(动议、提议)、order、prefer、propose、require、recommend、request、suggest、urge等。

例1:His father urged that he study medicine. 他父亲要求他学医。

例2:The Chinese government and people have demanded that the U.S. Government shoulder all the responsibilities for the incident, apologize to the Chinese side and take effective measures to prevent the recurrence of such incidents.

中国政府和人民要求美国政府对此次事件必须承担全部责任,向中国道歉,并采取有效措施防止类似事件再次发生。

例3:The Instructions ask that we not take more than three tablets once.

说明书要求每次服用的胶囊不超过三粒。

例4:He insisted that he do the job on his own.

例5:I recommend that favorable consideration be given to his application for admission.

例6:My father suggested that I enter Harvard rather than to start a business now.

例7:I propose that a woman member of the committee be appointed for the chair.

 

2 在it is +形容词/过去分词/特定的名词+that 的主语从句中

形容词:alarmed, amazed, amazing, amused, advisable, angry, annoyed, appropriate, astonished, astonishing, crucial, depressed, desirable, disappointed, essential, fitting, frightened, glad, grateful, hopeful, horrified, important, imperative, interesting, irritated,  keen, necessary, natural, normal, odd, pleased, preferable, proper, proud, ridiculous, shocked, strange, sorry, shocked, surprising, thankful, upset, urgent, unusual, vital等。这些形容词表示个人对事件的反应。

例1:It’s strange that she should wear her evening dress for such an informal party.

例2:  I’m astonished that he should be so rude to his wife.

例3:  It’s absolutely ridiculous that they should have won the game.

例4:  If we are ever going to protect the atmosphere, it is crucial that those new plants be environmentally sound. 我们若是想保护大气层,那么就应该要求那些新开工的工厂环保。

例5:It’s strange that he should not come here.

他竟然没有来,这真是太奇怪了。(should表示一种意外的语气,可译为“竟然”)

例6:It’s important that the hotel receptionist make sure that guests are registered correctly. 宾馆的前台接待人员应该确认客人们正确地登记注册,这是十分重要的。

例7:It’s natural that the customs of all national minorities be respected.

各个少数民族的风俗习惯都应该得到尊重,这是非常自然的。

例8:It’s important that she talk to him in person.

例9:  It’s important that the textbooks be available before school starts.

例10:  It’s desirable that everybody mind his or her own business.

 

过去分词:decided, desired, demanded, ordered, requested, required, proposed,recommended, suggested等。

 例1:It’s requested that all members be present at the meeting. 要求所有的成员都出席这个会议。

例2:When Edison died, it was proposed that the American people turn off all power in their homes, streets, and factories for several minutes in honor of this great man.

名词:advice, decision, desire, demand, suggestion, motion, pray, resolution, wish, preference, proposal, recommendation, requirement, idea, order 等。

例2: It’s my proposal that he be sent to study further abroad. 我建议,把他送到国外去学习。

例3: Their advice was that I use a new name, move to a new place and start a new life.  

 

上述名词还可用在表语从句和同位语从句中

例1:  The motion that the meeting be adjourned was adopted.

要求会议暂停的动议被批准了。

例2: The suggestion that the mayor present the prize was accepted by everyone.

由市长颁奖的建议被所有人接受了。

His contribution to the Afro-American poetry is his insistence that it be analyzed in religious, as well as worldly, frame of reference.

他对美国黑人诗歌研究的贡献是,他坚持认为,应把此类诗歌放在宗教与世俗的框架中进行分析。

 

八.含有wish的宾语从句中

用来表示说话者难以实现或与事实违背的愿望,具有强烈的感情色彩

1. 对现在的虚拟:即表示对现状的愿望,从句的谓语动词用过去时。

例1:I wish I were a little younger. 我希望我能够年轻一点。

例2:  I wish I could travel to the moon (but I cannot do that). 我希望我能够登上月球。

例3:Whenever something goes wrong, I just push this little Reset button and restart. I wish my whole life were like that. 每次电脑出故障的时候,我只要按一下Reset键,电脑就可以重启了。我真希望人生也能如此啊!

例4: I wish he were here with us.

例5:I wish I had strength like yours.

 

2. 对过去的虚拟:即对过去发生的事情表示后悔,从句的谓语动词用过去完成时 (had done)或 “would/could have done”

例1:  I wish I had been there. 我真希望我当时在那。(but I was not there)

例2:  I wish I had not attended the party. 我真希望我当时没参加那个聚会。(but I attended the party)

例3: I wish I could have gone with you to the concert last night. 我真希望昨晚能和你一起去听音乐会。

 

3. 对将来的虚拟:指对将来发生的事情表示祝愿,从句的谓语动词用“would/could +do”

例1:I wish they would stop shouting any more.

 

九.在含有if only 的感叹句中

表示“但愿”,“要是……就好了”,用法与wish基本相同,比wish具有更强烈的感情色彩。

例1:If only the rain would stop. (对将来的虚拟)但愿雨能停。

例2:If only I were taller. (对现在的虚拟)我要是能高一点就好了。

例3:If only they stopped this constant complaining.

例3:If only he had followed your advice. (对过去的虚拟) 他要是听从了你的建议就好了!

例4:If only you had lived with us.

注意:可以吧only放到句中的位置。

例:If he had only followed my advice! = If only he had followed your advice.

 

十.在 as if/ as though引导的从句中

1. 表示与现在的事实相反或对现在情况有所怀疑,谓语用过去时。

例1: I really don’t like the way you’re speaking to me. It seems as if you were my father.

我真地很不喜欢你和我说话的方式。你听起来好像是我爸爸。

例2:He behaves as if he owned the company.

2. 表示与过去的事实相反,谓语用过去完成时。

例1:I felt as if I had known her all my life.

例2:He lay on the ground as though he had been shot.

 

十一. 在it’s (high) time (that)从句中

该句型表示“该是做什么事的时候了”,含有“晚了一点”的意思,从句用过去时。

例1:It is high time that we put our argument to an end. 我们该停止争吵了。

例2:It’s time we had a break. 我们该休息一会了。

 

十二. 在would rather,would (just) as soon, would sooner, would prefer等从句中,would rather后面可以接从句和动词原形。

1. would rather do sth. 表示将来或现在的事情,意指“主语宁愿自己做某事”。这是would rather最常见的用法。

例1:I would rather go there tomorrow. 我想(宁愿)明天去那儿。

例2:He would rather stay at home tonight. 他今晚想在家呆着。

 

对此句型的否定,要在动词前面加not,而不是在would后面加not

He would rather not stay at home tonight. 他今晚不想在家呆着。

 

如果要和另外一件事情比较,要用than引出另外的事情。

例2:He would rather stay at home than go to the cinema tonight. 他今晚就想在家里呆着,而不想去看电影。

 

2. would rather have done sth. 此句型表示过去的事件,意指“主语宁愿自己过去做了某事,但实际上没有做”,因此具有虚拟的语气,如同过去虚拟主句的谓语形式。

例1:I took Sally to the cinema last night, but I would rather have been there alone.

我昨晚带萨里看电影去了,可我还不如自己一个人去呢(真不该带她去)。

 

3. would rather sb. did 意指“主语宁愿让另一个人做某事”。从句的谓语用一般过去式,但表示的是现在或将来的事件,如同现在虚拟条件从句的谓语形式。

例1:Don’t come tomorrow. I’d rather you came next weekend.

明天就别来了,我希望你下周末过来。(next weekend显然是将来的时间,句子的谓语动词用的是come这个词的过去式。不用will come, 也不用would come。)

例2:  She says she’d rather he left tomorrow instead of today.

她说她希望他明天走,而不是今天。

 

4.  would rather sb. had done 意指“主语宁愿别人过去做了某事,但实际上没有做”。从句的谓语用过去完成时表示过去的事件,如同过去虚拟条件从句的谓语形式。

例1: For my ninth birthday, my father gave me a set of encyclopedia. But I would rather he had given me a set of transformers.

我九岁生日的时候,爸爸送给我一套百科全书,可我倒希望他能送给我一套变形金刚。

 

5 其他结构如would (just) as soon, would sooner和would prefer在接从句时,和would rather 用法相同。

例1:I’d just as soon you didn’t speak rudely to her. 我希望你不要那么粗鲁地对她说话。

例2:  I’d as soon you hadn’t spoken rudely to her. 我希望你当时没有那么粗鲁地对她说话。

 

6. might just as well接完成时也可以表达虚拟。

例1:Our holidays were ruined by the weather — we might just as well have stayed at home.

因为天气的原因,我们的假期全毁了。我们还不如就呆在家里哪儿也不去呢。

(此句类似于would rather have done的意义和用法,表示对过去的虚拟。意思是“还不如呆在家里”。但实际上没有这么做。实际上出去了,天气不好,玩得也不开心。)

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