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黑洞、蛀洞和第十维

(2010-07-05 14:59:15)
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杂谈

分类: 现代物理学

 

Will these concepts be proven by a theory of everything?将这些概念被证明是对一切理论?

Last June, astronomers were toasting each other with champagne glasses in laboratories around the world, savoring their latest discovery.去年6月,天文学家们敬酒每个实验室在世界各地的香槟杯等,品尝他们的最新发现。 The repaired $2 billion Hubble Space Telescope, once the laughing stock of the scientific community, had snared its most elusive prize: a black hole.修复的20亿美元的哈勃太空望远镜,曾是科学界的笑柄,已经诱捕最难以捉摸的奖品:一个黑洞。 But the discovery of the Holy Grail of astrophysics may also rekindle a long simmering debate within the physics community.但是,天体物理学的圣杯的发现还可能重燃在物理学界长期酝酿的辩论。 What lies on the other side of a black hole?什么是对黑洞的另一边? If someone foolishly fell into a black hole, will they be crushed by its immense gravity, as most physicists believe, or will they be propelled into a parallel universe or emerge in another time era?如果有人愚蠢地掉进一个黑洞,他们会被其巨大的引力粉碎,因为大多数物理学家认为,还是会被推进到一个平行宇宙,或出现在另一次时代? To solve this complex question, physicists are opening up one of the most bizarre and tantalizing chapters in modern physics.为了解决这个复杂的问题,物理学家开放,最离奇,充满挑逗性的现代物理学的一章。 They have to navigate a minefield of potentially explosive theories, such as the possibility of “wormholes,” “white holes,” time machines, and even the 10th dimension!他们要浏览如“虫洞”,“白洞的可能性潜在爆炸性理论,雷区,”时间机器,甚至十维! This controversy may well validate JBS Haldane's wry observation that the universe is “not only queerer than we sup- pose, it is queerer than we can suppose.” This delicious controversy, which delights theoretical physicists but boggles the mind of mere mortals, is the subject of my recent book, Hyperspace.这样的争议很可能验证JBS阿尔达的苦笑观察宇宙是“不仅queerer比我们燮,姿势,它是queerer比我们猜想。”这美味的争论,愉悦的理论物理学家,但博格尔斯的凡人心灵,是题目我最近的书,超空间。

Black Holes: Collapsed Stars黑洞:折叠明星

A black hole, simply put, is a massive, dead star whose gravity is so intense than even light cannot escape, hence its name.一个黑洞,简单地说,是一个巨大的,死星的引力是如此强烈,甚至比光线也无法逃脱,因而得名。 By definition, it can't be seen, so NASA scientists focused instead on the tiny core of the galaxy M87, a super massive “cosmic engine” 50 million light years from earth.根据定义,它不能被看到,因此,美国宇航局的科学家集中在小星系M87的星系的核心,一个超大质量的“宇宙引擎”,距离地球5000万光年,而不是。 Astronomers then showed that the core of M87 consisted of a ferocious, swirling maelstrom of superhot hydrogen gas spinning at l.2 million miles per hour.天文学家则表明,星系M87核心的凶猛,旋转的超热氢气漩涡纺纱包括在L.2的万英里每小时。 To keep this spinning disk of gas from violently flying apart in all directions, there had to be a colossal mass concentrated at its center, weighing as much as 2 to 3 billion suns!为了防止暴力在各个方向飞行除了这种气体旋转盘,必须有一个庞大的群众集中在它的中心,重量多达2至3亿个太阳! An object with that staggering mass would be massive enough to prevent light from escaping.与该惊人的质量将是巨大的,足以防止光线逃逸对象。 Ergo, a black hole.埃尔戈,一个黑洞。

The Einstein-Rosen Bridge爱因斯坦,罗森桥

But this also revives an ongoing controversy surrounding black holes.但是,这也再度引起争议不断的黑洞。 The best description of a spinning black hole was given in 1963 by the New Zealand mathematician Roy Kerr, using Einstein's equations of gravity.一个旋转黑洞的最佳描述是在1963年获得由新西兰数学家罗伊克尔,利用重力爱因斯坦的方程式。 But there is a quirky feature to his solution.但是有一个古怪的功能,他的解决方案。 It predicts that if one fell into a black hole, one might be sucked down a tunnel (called the “Einstein-Rosen bridge”) and shot out a “white hole” in a parallel universe!据预测,如果下跌到一个黑洞,人们可能会被吸入了一个隧道(称为“爱因斯坦,罗森桥”),并拍摄了一个平行宇宙中的“白洞”! Kerr showed that a spinning black hole would collapse not into a point, but to a “ring of fire.” Because the ring was spinning rapidly, centrifugal forces would keep it from collapsing.克尔表明,旋转的黑洞会崩溃没有把一个点,而是一个“火环。由于戒指是纺纱迅速”,离心力将保持免于崩溃。 Remarkably, a space probe fired directly through the ring would not be crushed into oblivion, but might actually emerge unscratched on the other side of the Einstein-Rosen bridge, in a parallel universe.值得注意的是,通过发射一个太空探测器环直接将不会被压到消失,但实际上可能出现对爱因斯坦,罗森桥的另一边刮痕,在一个平行宇宙。 This “wormhole” may connect two parallel universes, or even distant parts of the same universe.这个“虫洞”可能连接两个平行宇宙,或同一宇宙更遥远的地方。

Through the Looking Glass透过玻璃看

The simplest way to visualize a Kerr wormhole is to think of Alice's Looking Glass.最简单的方法来可视化是一个虫洞克尔认为爱丽丝的镜子。 Anyone walking through the Looking Glass would be transported instantly into Wonderland, a world where animals talked in riddles and common sense wasn't so common.任何透过玻璃看将运入仙境,世界上的动物在谈到谜语和常识即刻走不那么普遍。

The rim of the Looking Glass corresponds to the Kerr ring.该镜对应于克尔环边缘。 Anyone walking through the Kerr ring might be transported to the other side of the universe or even the past.任何人通过步行克尔环可能被运送到宇宙,甚至过去的另一边。 Like two Siamese twins joined at the hip, we now have two universes joined via the Looking Glass.像两个连体双胞胎在臀部加入,我们现在有两个宇宙透过玻璃看加入。 Some physicists have wondered whether black holes or worm- holes might someday be used as shortcuts to another sector of our universe, or even as a time machine to the distant past (making possible the swashbuckling exploits in Star Wars).一些物理学家们想知道是否黑洞或虫孔可能有一天会以另一种我们的宇宙,甚至作为一个时间机器到遥远的过去(星球大战成为可能利用部门的虚张声势的捷径使用)。 However, we caution that there are skeptics.不过,我们提醒说,有些持怀疑态度。 The critics concede that hundreds of wormhole solutions have now been found to Einstein's equations, and hence they cannot be lightly dismissed as the ravings of crack pots.批评者承认,数以百计的虫洞解决方案目前已发现爱因斯坦的方程,因此他们不能轻易作为裂纹盆狂言驳回。 But they point out that wormholes might be unstable, or that intense radiation and sub-atomic forces surrounding the entrance to the wormhole would kill anyone who dared to enter.但他们指出,虫洞可能是不稳定的,或者强烈辐射和亚原子力周围的虫洞的入口会杀死任何人谁也不敢进去。 Spirited debates have erupted between physicists concerning these wormholes.之间爆发了热烈的争论,就这些虫洞物理学家。 Unfortunately, this controversy cannot be re- solved, because Einstein's equations break down at the center of black holes or wormholes, where radiation and sub-atomic forces might be ferocious enough to collapse the entrance.遗憾的是,这场争论不能再解决,因为爱因斯坦的方程式打破在黑洞或虫洞,在辐射和亚原子力可能是更剧烈的崩溃足以中心门口了。 The problem is Einstein's theory only works for gravity, not the quantum forces which govern radiation and sub-atomic particles.问题是爱因斯坦的引力理论只适合,而不是量子辐射势力支配和亚原子粒子。 What is needed is a theory which embraces both the quantum theory of radiation and gravity simultaneously.现在需要的是一种理论,包含了辐射和引力的量子理论的同时进行。 In a word, to solve the problem of quantum black holes, we need a “theory of everything!”总之,要解决问题的量子黑洞,我们需要的一切“的理论!”

A Theory of Everything?一切理论的?

One of the crowning achievements of 20th century science is that all the laws of physics, at a fundamental level, can be summarized by just two formalisms: (1) Einstein's theory of gravity, which gives us a cosmic description of the very large, ie galaxies, black holes and the Big Bang, and (2) the quantum theory, which gives us a microscopic description of the very small, ie the microcosm of sub-atomic particles and radiation.对20世纪科学的至高无上的成就之一是,所有的法律对物理学的基本层面上,可以只由两个形式主义:总结(1)爱因斯坦的理论重心,这使我们宇宙的描述非常大,即星系,黑洞和宇宙大爆炸,以及(2)量子理论,它给了我们一个非常小的微观描述,即亚原子粒子和辐射的缩影。 But the supreme irony, and surely one of Nature's cosmic jokes, is that they look bewilderingly different; even the world's greatest physicists, including Einstein and Heisenberg, have failed to unify these into one.但讽刺和肯定是自然的宇宙的笑话之一,是他们期待bewilderingly不同,即使是世界上最伟大的物理学家,包括爱因斯坦,海森堡,没有统一到一个这些。 The two theories use different mathematics and different physical principles to describe the universe in their respective domains, the cosmic and the microscopic.这两种理论的不同使用不同的数学和物理原理来描述在各自领域,宇宙和微观宇宙。 Fortunately, we now have a candidate for this theory.幸运的是,我们现在有一本理论候选人。 (In fact, it is the only candidate. Scores of rival proposals have all been shown to be inconsistent.) It's called “superstring theory,” and almost effortlessly unites gravity with a theory of radiation, which is required to solve the problem of quantum wormholes. (事实上,它是唯一的候选人。竞争对手的建议成绩都被证明是不一致的。)这就是所谓的“超弦论”,几乎毫不费力地团结与辐射理论,这是需要解决的量子问题的严重性虫洞。 The superstring theory can explain the mysterious quantum laws of sub-atomic physics by postulating that sub-atomic particles are really just resonances or vibrations of a tiny string.在超弦理论可以解释通过假定亚原子粒子的共振或其实只是一个微小的弦振动的亚原子物理学的神秘量子法则。 The vibrations of a violin string correspond to musical notes; likewise the vibrations of a superstring correspond to the particles found in nature.一个小提琴弦的振动对应音符,同样的一个超弦振动对应于粒子的性质。 The universe is then a symphony of vibrating strings.宇宙是那么的振弦的交响乐。 An added bonus is that, as a string moves in time, it warps the fabric of space around it, producing black holes, wormholes, and other exotic solutions of Einstein's equations.另外一个好处是,由于时间字符串动作,它弯曲周围的空间结构,产生黑洞,虫洞,和爱因斯坦方程的其他外来的解决方案。 Thus, in one stroke, the superstring theory unites both the theory of Einstein and quantum physics into one coherent, compelling picture.因此,在一招,超弦理论凝聚成一个连贯的,令人信服的图片都爱因斯坦和量子物理学的理论。

A 10 Dimensional Universe一个10维宇宙

The curious feature of superstrings, however, is that they can only vibrate in 10 dimensions.超弦好奇的特点,但是,他们只能在10个方面的震动。 This is, in fact, one of the reasons why it can unify the known forces of the universe: in 10 dimensions there is “more room” to accommodate both Einstein's theory of gravity as well as sub-atomic physics.这实际上是,为何它可以统一的宇宙:已知的力量之一,10尺寸有“更多的空间”,以容纳爱因斯坦的引力理论以及亚原子物理学。 In some sense, previous attempts at unifying the forces of nature failed because a standard four dimensional theory is “too small” to jam all the forces into one mathematical framework.从某种意义上说,在统一以前的自然力量的尝试失败,因为一个标准的四维理论是“太小”干扰到一个数学框架内的一切力量。 To visualize higher dimensions, consider a Japanese tea garden, where carp spend their entire lives swimming on the bottom of a shallow pond.高维可视化,考虑日本茶园,在那里度过他们的整个生活鲤鱼在一浅水池底部游泳。 The carp are only vaguely aware of a world beyond the surface.鲫鱼只隐约知道的世界之外的表面。 To a carp “scientist,” the universe only consists of two dimensions, length and width.对于一个鲤鱼“科学家,”宇宙只包括两个方面,长度和宽度。 There is no such thing as “height.” In fact, they are incapable of imagining a third dimension beyond the pond.有没有“高度这样的东西。”事实上,他们是超乎想象池塘第三维能力。 The word “up” has no meaning for them.单词“上升”他们没有任何意义。 (Imagine their distress if we were to suddenly lift them out of their two dimensional universe into “hyperspace,” ie our world!) However, if it rains, then the surface of their pond becomes rippled. (想象一下他们的痛苦,如果我们突然他们摆脱他们的二维宇宙为“超空间”,即我们的世界!)但是,如果下雨,那么他们的池塘表面变得波及。 Although the third dimension is beyond their comprehension, they can clearly see the waves traveling on the pond's surface.虽然第三个层面是超出他们的理解,他们可以清楚地看到海浪在池塘的水面行驶。 Likewise, although we earthlings cannot “see” these higher dimensions, we can see their ripples when they vibrate.同样,虽然我们地球人不能“看到”这些更高的层面,我们可以看到他们的涟漪时,震动。 According to this theory, “light” is nothing but vibrations rippling along the 5th dimension.根据这一理论,“光”,不过是震动沿第五维度荡漾。 By adding higher dimensions, we can easily accommodate more and more forces, including the nuclear forces.通过增加更高的层面,我们可以很容易地容纳越来越多的部队,包括核力量。 In a nutshell: the more dimensions we have, the more forces we can accommodate.概括地说:我们的更多的维度中,我们可以容纳更多的力量。 One persistent criticism of this theory, however, is that we do not see these higher dimensions in the laboratory.这个理论的一个持续的批评,但是,我们没有看到这些在实验室更高层面。 At present, every event in the universe, from the tiniest sub-atomic decay to exploding galaxies, can be described by 4 numbers (length, width, depth, and time), not 10 numbers.目前,宇宙中的每一个事件从最微小的亚原子衰变,对爆炸星系,可以说是由4个数字(长度,宽度,深度和时间),而不是10个号码。 To answer this criticism, many physicists believe (but cannot yet prove) that the universe at the instant of the Big Bang was in fact fully 10 dimensional.为了回答这些批评,许多物理学家认为(但尚不能证明)表示,在宇宙大爆炸瞬间,其实是完全10维。 Only after the instant of creation did 6 of the 10 dimensions “curled up” into a ball too tiny to observe.只有在创造即时的做了10尺寸6“蜷缩”成一球太小观察。 In a real sense, this theory is really a theory of creation, when the full power of 10 dimensional space-time was manifest.在实际意义上说,这个理论确实是一个创造,在10维时空的全部功能是明显的理论。

21st Century Physics 21世纪的物理学

Not surprisingly, the mathematics of the 10th dimensional superstring is breathtakingly beautiful as well as brutally complex, and has sent shock waves through the mathematics community.毫不奇怪,第十届维超弦理论的数学是惊人美丽以及残酷复杂的,并通过数学界发出冲击波。 Entirely new areas of mathematics have been opened up by this theory.数学的全新领域已经开放,以这个理论。 Unfortunately, at present no one is smart enough to solve the problem of a quantum black hole.不幸的是,目前没有人聪明到解决问题的量子黑洞。 As Edward Witten of the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton has claimed, “String theory is 21st century physics that fell accidentally into the 20th century.” However, 21st century mathematics necessary to solve quantum black holes has not yet been discovered!由于爱德华的高等研究院在普林斯顿威滕声称,“弦理论是21世纪物理学的下跌进入20世纪的意外。”然而,21世纪的数学要解决量子黑洞还没有被发现! However, since the stakes are so high, that hasn't stopped teams of enterprising physicists from trying to solve superstring theory.然而,由于利害关系如此之高,这并没有阻止试图解决超弦理论的物理学家团队进取。 Already, over 5,000 papers have been written on the subject.目前,超过5000文件已经写上主题。 As Nobel laureate Steve Weinberg said, “how can anyone expect that many of the brightest young theorists would not work on it?” Progress has been slow but steady.正如诺贝尔奖获得者史蒂夫温伯格说:“怎么能想到的最聪明的年轻理论家很多人会不工作吗?”进展缓慢但稳定的。 Last year, a significant breakthrough was announced.去年宣布的一个重大突破。 Several groups of physicists independently announced that string theory can completely solve the problem of a quantum black hole.物理学家几个小组独立地宣布,弦理论能彻底解决问题的量子黑洞。 (However, the calculation was so fiendishly difficult it could only be performed in two, not 10, dimensions.) So that's where we stand today. (但是,这样的计算是极其困难的,它只能执行两个,而不是10,尺寸。)所以这是我们今天的立场。 Many physicists now feel that it's only a matter of time before some enterprising physicist completely cracks this ticklish problem.现在,许多物理学家认为,这只是一个时间问题一些有事业心的物理学家这个棘手的问题完全裂缝。 The equations, although difficult, are well-defined.该方程,虽然困难,但却是明确界定。 So until then, it's still a bit premature to buy tickets to the nearest wormhole to visit the next galaxy or hunt dinosaurs!所以,在此之前,它仍然是一个有点过早购买到最近的虫洞门票参观未来星系或狩猎恐龙!

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