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★金字塔里的秘密——追溯最早的轴承

(2009-08-31 15:13:50)
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财经

从重载车轮轴和机床主轴到精密的钟表零件,很多场合都需要轴承。

从字面来解释,可知轴承是用来承轴的,就是支撑的意思。就其在现实生活中的作用来说,就是能够承担各个方向的载荷,而且人们按其所能承受的载荷方向不同将轴承分为:承受径向载荷的径向轴承,承受轴向载荷的止推轴承以及同时承受径向载荷和轴向载荷的径向止推轴承。

而支撑只是轴承作用的一部分,同时它还可以对轴起到固定的作用,即通过它的固定使轴只能实现转动,而防止其他方向如轴向或径向的移动。

电机没有轴承的后果就是根本不能工作。因为没有轴承,轴可能向任何方向运动,而电机工作时要求轴只做定向转动。

轴承虽然能够帮助电机更好地工作,但是它也在一定程度上影响了轴的转动:因为轴承与机电之间的摩擦不仅会增加能耗,更可怕的是很容易损坏轴承,进而影响机电的工作效率。为了降低这个影响,在高速轴的轴承上必须实现良好的润滑,有的轴承本身已经有润滑,比如预润滑轴承,而大多数的轴承必须人工滴加润滑油。

最早的轴承是木制的,陶瓷、蓝宝石或者玻璃也有使用,另外钢、铜或者其他金属甚至塑料(比如尼龙、胶木、特氟隆等)也都曾被普遍使用。至于轴承最早是由谁发明的,一直难下定论,或许可以追溯到修建吉萨大金字塔的时候,虽然还没有明确的证据可以证明这一点,因为当时已经出现了在撬板下放置一排木杆的直线运动轴承形式。

 

ps:

轴承

Bearings

XL Bearings Co., Ltd.

                     The Secret in the Pyramid--the Earlist Bearing

 

From wheel axles for heavy trucks and machine tool spindles to delicate clock and watch parts, bearings are used in various occassions.

Literally, bearing means to bear or to support; in real life its function is to bear the load from various directions. According to the direction of the load they can bear, bearings are divided into transverse bearing that can hold radial load, thrust bearing that can support axial load and radial thrust bearing that can bear both radial load and axial load.

Supporting is only one part of bearing’s function and it also plays the role to fix. Fixed by bearings, the axes can only rotate instead of moving along the axial direction or the radial direction.

If an electric machine has no bearings, it can hardly work. Because if no bearings, the axes can move in all directions but the electric machine only need them to do oriented rotary motion when working.

Although bearings can promote the operation of electric machines, it will also affect the rotation of axes to some certain. Because the friction between bearings and the electric machine will increase energy consumption, what’s worse, that will also damage the bearings and then affect the operating efficiency of the electric machine. In order to reduce the influence, the bearings on the high speed shaft must achieve good lubrication. Some bearings themselves have lubricant such as prelubricated bearing while most bearings need people to drip some lubricant manually.

The earlist bearing was made by wood but ceramics, sapphire and glass were also used at that time. In addtion, steel, copper or other metal even plastic like nylon, bakelite, Teflon etc. were also widely used before. Now it’s hard to identify who invented the bearing first, maybe we can trace back to the time of building Great Pyramid of Giza. Although there is no definitive evidence to prove it, the form of linear motion bearings, arranging a row of wooden pole under the crow plate, has appeared at that time.

 

                                                                  作者:何巧巧

                                                                  2009年8月31日

                                                            如需转载,请注明作者和出处

 

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