加载中…
个人资料
郑超
郑超
  • 博客等级:
  • 博客积分:0
  • 博客访问:26,193
  • 关注人气:18
  • 获赠金笔:0支
  • 赠出金笔:0支
  • 荣誉徽章:
相关博文
推荐博文
谁看过这篇博文
加载中…
正文 字体大小:

[译事春秋] 英译:上海三部曲之一:传承 尔冬强/文

(2009-06-26 09:10:38)
标签:

文庙

城隍庙

潘国光

上海

杂谈

分类: 译事春秋

这是一个海洋一样的城市,这是一个像海洋一样生生不息的城市。

它的一切改变与海洋有关,来自海上的贸易和炮舰,使得这个东海之滨的小县城不再平静,并使其地位发生了重大变化,很快成为中国现代历史上最重要的城市之一,这一变化持续了百余年,未曾停歇,即使在世界范围内,如此深刻的变化也不多见。

       公元1292年(元代至元29年),上海正式设县,至今已经有700多年。700年的历史相对中国的其他地区,十分短暂。但是,建立了城厢镇,上海文化就有了属于自己的根基和发源地。今天的上海,就是从老城厢发展而来,不管城市扩展得多大,老城厢却始终居于城市的中心。老城厢见证了上海的发展,也成了上海飞速发展而遗留下来的印迹。回望如今的老城厢,还依稀可见昔日的生活场景。

尽管老城厢有很多古迹已经被破坏、湮没,但是遗迹依然可辨。在今天的南市老城厢小北门大境路259号,有一座建于明代城墙——大境箭台上的著名的大境关帝殿,也是唯一保存下来的一段明代古城墙。

为了抵御倭寇从海上的入侵,明嘉靖三十二年(1553年),上海建造了一座方圆9里的城墙,又于万历二十六年(1598年)将城墙加高5尺,并在东门和西门之间的城墙上,建造了四座堡垒一样的箭台。由于倭寇分裂势弱,上海防务加强,数十年未发生战事,箭台无用武之地而日渐荒废,官民议决在这荒废的四座箭台上,分别建造四座庙宇,大境台上建造的就是关帝殿。

1913年,城墙开始被拆,因保护大境关帝殿而将其下的古城墙也保留了下来。究其原因主要是此殿是依附大境台而筑的抱雅式三层殿宇,形态宏伟,游人如织,香火鼎盛,闻名于明清时代,此地又被列为沪城八景之一的“江皋霁雪”,是上海人观赏雪景的上佳去处。 
         外地游客到上海,必去的上海经典景点中少不了老城厢中的豫园和城隍庙。豫园始建于1559年,原是一座私人花园,园主潘允端在《豫园记》中注明“豫”包含“安泰”、“平安”之意,“豫园”意味着“豫悦老亲”。豫园体现了明清两代南方园林建筑艺术的风格,被誉为江南第一园林。潘允端死后,园林日益荒芜。1760年,豫园被当地人集资分割购买,西园的楼台作为会馆,其余的园林和邑庙(俗称城隍庙)一样,普通百姓也可以自由出入,豫园从传统的四家园林,一变而为上海最早的“公园”。湖心亭和周围的水池被划在园林之外作为商业用途,卖茶营利,上海从此有了市民公共活动的场所。19世纪的豫园被不同的同业公所分管时,湖心亭成为商业情报的中心,人们边品茗边谈生意。把风景点与谈生意结合在一起,不能不说是上海人的一大发明,雅和俗的结合恰好体现了上海建筑的文化特色。孵茶馆这一上海市民典型的生活方式,在上海今天的大小茶馆依然可以看到。

城隍庙是道教中最具有城市精神和商业意识的神祗,老一代的上海商人都认为,每逢大事,城隍老爷最灵验。商界的盛事都喜欢在城隍庙的殿前广场办,久而久之,城隍庙占有上海城内商业的中心地位,原先是园林的空旷地带开辟成繁华的新市口。香烟缭绕、幡招飘动,店铺摊档横竖排练,邑庙及其周边地区成为商业中心。李默庵在《申江杂咏》中这样描绘老城厢的胜景:“歌楼舞榭足销魂,鸡犬相桑麻莫并论。十六铺前租界止,繁华直到小东门。”

北城的城隍庙代表了上海的市民文化,西城的文庙代表的则是上海的士大夫文化。上海设镇后,始建文庙,后来地址多有迁移。1856年,新建的文庙定址于西城。文庙中轴线上有棂星门、大成门、两庑、大成殿等建筑,这是当年儒士们拜祭孔老夫子的线路,因此又被称为祭孔线。大成殿东西壁上镶嵌16400多字的《论语》全文碑刻,这在全国所有孔庙中是独一无二的。在明伦堂、尊经阁间庑廊刻有上海县元、明、清279位进士名录,其中有3位状元。近代上海兴起后,新学堂建立,旧学堂改良,科举渐废,文庙式微。在戊戌、辛丑、辛亥这些中国变革的重要年头,文庙始终是士绅商人云集、讨论一境平安和民族未来的地方。1931年,民国上海县政府把文庙改建为公园,供奉孔子的大成殿,被开辟为市立民众教育馆,两百多件祭器、祭服、乐器、舞器布置成祀孔祭器陈列所。

老城厢还是上海和中国天主教的发源地。1608年,明代东阁大学士徐光启为父亲的葬礼在家中设立了上海的第一座教堂。崇祯十年(1637年),意大利传教士潘国光来到上海,见小堂已不敷应用,便筹建新堂。徐光启第四孙女早年嫁于豫园潘家,她热心奉教,积极为潘国光寻觅堂址,出资购得潘家旧宅中最宏伟精致的院第世春堂,于1640年改建为天主教堂,以“崇敬一主”之意取名“敬一堂”。敬一堂外观为中国牌楼式样,飞檐翘角。传教士潘国光筑观星台,研究天文。堂前多种梧桐,被称为梧桐街。在耶稣会退出中国的日子里,敬一堂被改为关帝庙。开埠以后,敬一堂恢复旧制,称为老天主堂。敬一堂是江南地区第一座天主教堂,也是上海现存的唯一一座中国风格的教堂建筑。经历三个多世纪的风雨沧桑,房屋主体框架至今犹存。

上海的天主教徒有着独特的生活方式,他们深受西方文化的影响,上董家渡教堂,听拉丁文,诵圣经,学法语,当法商买办,在东方汇理银行贷款,在公董局谋职,子女上震旦大学,留学也到巴黎。

从此,传统文化和西方文化在老城厢里共生共存,不同信仰和生活理念的人们和谐地生活在一起,代表了上海历史与文化多样性的一面,也是上海700年历史中最神奇的一幕。

 

SHANGHAI VERTICAL

Inheritance

In Chinese, Shanghai literally means “on the sea”, and the city is truly as dynamic as the surface of the sea.

All its changes we’re related to the sea. The merchant ships and warships on the sea changed the city’s profile, a process of transformation lasting well over a century and bringing fundamental changes unrivalled by any other city in the world.   

In 1292, Shanghai was established as a county. For many other historic cities, 700 years may be just a fleeting period, but for Shanghai great occurrences were about to take place in the Old City. No matter how Shanghai expanded, the Old City remained at its heart, bearing witness to its evolution and leaving traces of a bygone era.

Although many historical sites in the Old City have disappeared, a few remnants survive. Today, at No. 259 Dajing Road, somewhere near the former Little North Gate, we can still see the Temple of Guanyu (the God of War) atop a stretch of wall dating from the Ming Dynasty.

To fend off the aggressions of Japanese pirates, the city wall was erected in 1553; in 1598 it was made 1.5 meters higher and four fortified arrow-shooting platforms were added to it. As the threat of the pirates waned and the fortification was strengthened, there was no further harassment in the following decade. The arrow platforms then fell into disuse, and a resolution was passed to convert them into temples. The surviving one on Dajing Terrace was made the Temple of Guanyu.    

Demolishing of the old city wall started in 1913. Thanks to the pilgrims, because the magnificent Temple of Guanyu was a favorite site with them, it was preserved together with a stretch of wall. Moreover, the temple was such a lovely sight in the snow that locals could not bear to live without it.

Visitors to Shanghai will invariably go to the Yu Garden and the City God Temple. The construction of Yu Garden started in 1559, originally as a private garden of the magistrate Pan Yunduan. He explained in his essay that “Yu” meant “to please,” hence the garden was meant to provide solace for the elderly in his family. As Yu Garden features the best elements of landscape architecture in south China, it was reputed to be the number-one garden in the Yangtze Delta. However, it declined after the death of its owner. In 1760, the locals pooled funds and took it over. The terrace in the west was made into a guild house while the rest, including the City God Temple, were opened to ordinary people. The garden was no longer a private asset but an entertainment ground for the public, while the mid-lake pavilion appeared in its new guise as a teahouse. In the mid-19th century, when various business associations occupied the houses in the garden, the mid-lake pavilion served as the center for exchanging business information. People talked business at the tea table while enjoying the scenery outside, giving the building both pragmatic and aesthetic functions. Visiting teahouses later became a popular treat for the Shanghainese, as it remains till this day.

According to Taoism, the City God Temple protects the spirit of citizenry and commerce, hence local businessmen believed that the City God was an almighty prophet, and they tended to do business in the forecourt in front of the temple. With time, the temple became such a sought after seat of business that the nearby green areas also evolved into a marketplace. Flags flying, incense burning, vendors and shops jostled with each other and presented a bustling scene. In one of his poems, Li Mo’an provides a vivid portrait of the Old Town in its heyday:

 

  Fascinating are the song chambers and dance pavilions,

  Thriving are the selling of chicken, dogs, silk and linen.

  The foreign concession ends at the Shiliupu wharf,

  The prosperity extends at the Little East Gate.

 

In contrast to the commercial culture centering on the City God Temple in the north, the Confucian Temple in the west of the Old City best represents the scholastic spirit. No sooner had Shanghai acquired its township status than it had its first Confucian Temple. After much relocation, it was finally seated in the west of the city in 1856. Arranged on the central axis of the temple — also the entry route for worshippers — are the Lattice-Star Gate, the Sublime Achievement Gate and the Sublime Achievement Hall. The complete text of the Analects was inscribed on the east and west walls of the hall, making it a unique feature of this Confucian Temple. The corridor between the Ethics-Awareness Hall and the Classics-Respecting Hall features the inscription of the names of 279 successful candidates — including three number-one scholars — in the successive imperial examinations in the Yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasties. When the imperial examination system declined in the late 19th century the Confucian Temple gradually lost its popularity. However, it remained a tribune for state affairs, and in 1931 became a park. The Sublime Achievement Hall was converted into a museum of education, with more than 200 sacrificial objects on display.

The Old City was also the cradle of Catholicism in Shanghai and in China. In 1608 Xu Guangqi the director of the Imperial Library, who was baptized as Paul, established the very first church in his house after the death of his father. When the Italian missionary Frarcuis Brancati (1607-1671) came to Shanghai in 1637, he proposed to build a new church to replace the small older one. In 1640, Paul Xu’s fourth granddaughter, also a devout convert, claimed the grandiose Shichun (Eternal Spring) Hall of the Pan family into which she had been married, and converted it into a Catholic church. Under the name “Jing Yi”, or “to worship the exclusive God”, the church assumed the appearance of a typical Chinese pailou gateway with upturned eaves; the road in front of it was lined with plane trees and was dubbed “Plane-Tree Street”. When Catholicism was later oppressed the church was then changed into a temple of Guanyu, which remained until Shanghai was opened as a treaty port after the Opium War. The Jing Yi Church is the first Catholic establishment in south China and also the only surviving one that features Chinese architecture.

The Catholics in Shanghai observed their unique way of life. Influenced by Western culture, they would attend services in the St. Francisco Xavier Church, listen to psalms in Latin, read the Bible, learn French, work as a comprador for a French firm, receive loans from the Banque de L’Indochine, and send their children to Aurora University, if not to Paris.

From then onwards two different cultures coexisted in the Old City, as did the people of different faiths. Such was the cultural diversity of Shanghai, an amazing feature in its 700-year history.

0

阅读 评论 收藏 转载 喜欢 打印举报/Report
  • 评论加载中,请稍候...
发评论

    发评论

    以上网友发言只代表其个人观点,不代表新浪网的观点或立场。

      

    新浪BLOG意见反馈留言板 电话:4000520066 提示音后按1键(按当地市话标准计费) 欢迎批评指正

    新浪简介 | About Sina | 广告服务 | 联系我们 | 招聘信息 | 网站律师 | SINA English | 会员注册 | 产品答疑

    新浪公司 版权所有