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[译事春秋] 英译:上海三部曲之二:融合 尔冬强/文

(2009-06-26 09:04:17)
标签:

建筑

摩天楼

史迪威

上海

杂谈

分类: 译事春秋

 

    上海,这个像海洋一样的城市进入到了更为多变的20世纪。

第二次世界大战期间,曾任中印缅战区司令兼战区最高司令参谋长的美国陆军上将史迪威,为我们留下了珍贵的史料。1911年1月3日,当时28岁的史迪威来华游历,在上海第一眼见到的是外国战舰——日本两艘、法国两艘、英国一艘、德国一艘、美国一艘,这些战舰不是作为来访者而是作为占领者在港口的咖啡色水域上行驶。

    史迪威来到上海市区,第一个印象是“震惊”,他见到的是西方城市中坚固的旅馆和银行,以及宽阔的街道和公园,他从旅馆的窗口看到的景象很像美国的费城。在公共租界的街道上,使他大吃一惊的是从英属印度来的锡克人头缠头巾作为巡捕在那里值勤。在游览上海旧城时,他看到起义军的招募站,上空飘扬着革命的红旗,红底上有着十二条光芒的黑色太阳,取代了王朝的黄龙旗。

   “上海是一个巨大的怪物。”一个法国记者干脆这样评价这个新兴的城市。在当时的全球范围内,很难再找到另外一座风貌相同的城市,矛盾、对立和不和谐的一切在上海得到了最大限度的融会和平衡。庞杂、多元、综合、含混成为上海的主要基调,这一景象一直持续到1949年。

这种特殊的文化现象与上海是过路的港口城市有关,西方人来到中国,都要从这里登陆上岸。爱因斯坦、卓别林、萧伯纳、泰戈尔、罗素等人都是从上海进入中国内地;中国人前往西方,也要从这里登船启航。上海因此成为世界的十字路口,上海三十年代的一部著名电影就叫《十字街头》。当年的上海是全球除纽约之外,最开放、世界主义色彩最浓郁、移民化程度最高的城市。“小东京”、“小莫斯科”、“小维也纳”随着各国侨民的到来应运而生。1942年,在上海的450万人口,侨民人口达150931人。不管是东方人,还是西方人,一旦他们身处上海,他们就变成了上海人。

许多人就是在这里做出了人生的抉择――或离开,或留下,或去向别的地方,或就此消失。即使是消失和离去,每一个人还是会留下他们的气息和痕迹。最醒目的痕迹莫过于建筑。上海现代的文明蕴藏在上海的各种建筑里,尽管时光荏苒,外表陈旧,城市的历史已经凝固成石头,但是,过去时代的印迹依然隐藏在建筑的砖瓦缝隙、未被破坏的细部和木制窗棂之中。等待有心人去一次次剥离,一层层清洗,它们又会重新回来。

上海人追逐时尚,上海的建筑也是如此。在赛马场、霓虹灯、高楼、爵士乐组成的承受万花筒中,展开的是一场建筑风格和建筑材料的竞赛。罗马、希腊、维多利亚式样和在印度和东南亚风行的“买办风格”(Compradoric style)样式的建筑,从黄浦江边泥泞的沼泽地和荒滩上迅速涌现,外滩成为欧洲之外最欧化的街区,这条中国的华尔街也因 “万国建筑博览会”的驳杂风格而知名。

    开埠以后的上海华洋杂处,注重功利、处处变通的实用主义心态造成了中西结合、不中不西的混血特质。20世纪20年代以后,已经成为远东第一大都市的上海,其城市规模、建筑面貌都远在其他城市之上。1930年前建造的上海公共建筑,绝大部分是西方复古主义和折衷主义建筑的复制品,20世纪30年代以后,更多受到现代建筑的影响,同时,中国元素也逐渐被建筑师和业主采用。四大百货公司中的大新公司在外立面上出现了带有中国民族特点的装饰,外滩的中国银行大楼更是中西合璧的代表,艺术装饰主义的摩天楼造型加上中国传统的蓝色琉璃瓦四角攒尖顶,栏杆、窗格花纹、屋顶下的石头斗拱等局部装饰都具有中国建筑的特质。

    上海的石库门里弄建筑从其诞生的第一天就打上了中西合璧的烙印,它们的外表并未摆脱传统的中国民居,但是它的连排式布局又来源于欧洲。早期里弄最有特色的石库门,其门框、黑门板、铜门环都具有中国传统建筑特征,而门上的三角形或圆弧形的门楣装饰则是典型的西方图案。石库门建筑既不是任何一种中国传统的居住样式,也不是对任何一种西方建筑的模仿,而是中国的居住方式和西方城市房地产经营方式结合上海特有的新建筑。在城市的西南的高级住宅区里,英国式、德国式、法国式、意大利式、哥特式、中国式的花园住宅应有尽有。而更多的是混合型建筑,反映出中西建筑文化的兼容并蓄。

居住在这些新式建筑里的上海人,他们的生活方式和思维形态不可能不受到影响,追求时尚、求新求变,加速了上海经济和文化的发展。鸳鸯蝴蝶派文学、海派京剧、开中国油画之先的土山湾画馆都出现在被称为“海上蓬莱”的上海,原因就在于此。

    1934年12月1日,《申报》上刊登了国际饭店竣工开业的广告:远东最高建筑,国人自办大饭店。国际饭店楼高83.8米,在1952年之前一直是远东第一高楼,并且长期是中国第一高楼纪录保持者。这座由匈牙利建筑师邬达克设计的美国二十年代摩天楼中国版的建筑,采用的是当时美国装饰艺术运动摩天楼风格,外墙使用深褐色面砖,竖线条处理,顶部层层收进,钢框架结构显示出强烈的立体感。

国际饭店开张纪念册的《绪言》有这样的描述:“上海为世界六大埠之一,气象繁荣,不可万物;其于建筑事业,亦争奇炫胜,日新月异;比年来,大厦连云,华屋冲宵,望衡对宇,鳞次栉比,亦可谓盛极一时矣。然视欧西纽约之高出地面数百尺,耸立数十层,望之若天外奇峰,直插云端者;犹有逊色。故四行储蓄会乃有二十二层大厦之建造,以为亚东增光宠。”从以上的引文中不难看出,用中国人的资金和建造技术,建造的摩天楼大长了国人的志气。国际饭店使得生活在上海的少年贝聿铭流连忘返,深深为之陶醉,萌发了学习建筑的念头,后来终于成为世界级的建筑大师。

 

Fusion

Shanghai marched into the 20th century, with the dynamism of a surging sea wave.

Joseph Warren Stilwell, a United States Army four-star General best-known for his service in China and Burma in the Second World War, left a vivid description of Shanghai in his memoir. When he arrived in Shanghai on January 3, 1911, the first sight that greeted the 28-year-old Stilwell was a fleet of warships, two each of Japan and France, one each of Britain, Germany and America. These vessels prowling on the brownish water came to Shanghai not as visitors but as aggressors.

When he got to the downtown area, he was stunned by a Westernized cityscape, massive hotels and banks, wide street and parks. The scene from the window of his hotel was reminiscent of that of Philadelphia. Walking down the street he was amazed by the Sikhs from India, while on a stroll of the Old City he saw enrollment posters for revolutionary troops, their red flags flying high.

Shanghai was a colossal monster, commented a French reporter. Truly, it was difficult at that time to find another city developing on a par with Shanghai, ridden with such contradictions and disharmony. Tableaux of stark differences and mixtures became characteristic of Shanghai, and it remained so until 1949.

 

This cultural phenomenon owed no small debt to the status of Shanghai as a port of entry. Many foreigners coming to China disembarked in Shanghai, Albert Einstein, Charles Chaplin, Bernard Shaw, Rabindranath Tagore and Bertrand Russell, to name a few; many Chinese also departed for the West from Shanghai. The city was the crossroad where East met West, variously called the “little Tokyo”, “little Vienna”, or “little Moscow” by its immigrants. In 1942, Shanghai had 150,931 foreigners within a population of 4.5 million.

It was here that many Shanghailanders made their decisions on the future — to leave, to stay or to disappear. Even if they left or disappeared, their traces were still visible, the tangible ones being what they had built. Yesteryear’s sophistication is still encoded in its diversified architectural styles, in the overlapping roof tiles, in the delicate window treatments, and in other details that beckon exploration.

The Shanghainese were quick to follow the latest trends, and their architecture also reflected this. In the kaleidoscope of a racecourse, neon lights, skyscrapers and Jazz, competing architectural styles and construction materials vied for attention. Romanesque, Greek, Victorian and Compradoric styles all found their worthy representations here and the Bund was notably the most Westernized Boulevard in the East.

The co-existence of the East and the West yielded the hybrid nature of the city. In the 1920s, Shanghai had already secured its position as the largest metropolis in the Far East, far superior to its counterparts in terms of scale and architectural sophistication. The public buildings constructed before the 1930s were mostly replicas of neo-classical or eclectic buildings in the West. After 1930, modern influences and Chinese elements made their way into the cityscape. The Sun Company, one of the Big Four department stores, featured embellishments in the native styles on its exterior walls, while the Bank of China building is an Art Deco edifice topped with a traditional upturned tile roof; its railings and window lattices are also quintessentially Chinese.

Right from their inception the Shikumen (stone-framed gate) houses were notable for their hybrid nature. Although their appearances were no different from traditional quadrangle houses, their layout originated in Europe. In the early version of Shikumen houses, door frames, doors and door pulls all displayed traditional Chinese design, yet the semi-circular or triangle pediments featured Western decorative motifs, making them a product of Chinese architecture and Western urban planning. In the residential complexes in the southwest of the city, you can find villas in various eclectic styles — British, German, French, Italian, Gothic, and Chinese.

Influenced by the new architecture, residents eagerly followed the latest trends and provided the driving force for the economic and cultural development of the city. It was no wonder that the romantic literature school (known as Mandarin Duck and Butterfly School), the Shanghai School of Peking Opera, and the Jesuit-founded Tushanwan Workshops (for stained glass and furniture) all originated in Shanghai.

On December 1, 1934, Shen Pao, a leading local newspaper, carried an advertisement for the newly-opened Park Hotel. Measuring 83.8 meters in height, the hotel remained the tallest building in the Far East until 1952. For this building its Hungarian architect Ladislaus Edward Hudec adopted the Art Deco style, one that was popular in contemporary American skyscrapers. With a fascia of dark bricks, the building is particularly striking with its vertical lines and narrow contour at the top floors. The preface in the hotel’s commemorative book hailed the building as an architectural and engineering showpiece that set the style in East Asia. As it was funded and constructed by the Chinese, the building greatly enhanced the pride of local residents. The renowned architect I.M. Pei claimed that in his childhood the Park Hotel first inspired his passion for architecture.    

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