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新视野第2册unit7

(2009-09-08 18:53:16)
标签:

杂谈

分类: 英语学习

▲overwhelm vt. 1.使不知所措, (感情上) 使(某人)受不了 2.胜过,击败 
 spin v. 1.(使)迅速地旋转 2.纺线,纺纱,纺织
n. 旋转 
 title vt. 给(书、文章等) 取名
n. 1.名称,题目 2.称呼,头衔 
 react vi. 1.作出反应,回应 2.反对,反抗 
 reactor n. [C] 原子反应堆,核反应堆 
 tense a. 1.紧张的 2.拉紧的,绷紧的
v. (使)紧张,(使)绷直 
▲cholesterol n. [U] 胆固醇 
 excess a. 额外的,附加的
n. 无节制,过量 
 fiber (英fibre) n. [C, U] 纤维,纤维物质 
 circuit n. 1.电路 2.环道,环形道 
 worm n. [C]虫,蠕虫 
 pump n. 泵
vt. (用泵)抽吸(或运送) 
 attribute vt. 把……归因于,把……归咎于
n. 特性,属性 
 exterior n. 外部,外面,外表
a. 外部的,外面的,外表的 
 interior n. 内部
a. 内部的 
▲destructive a. 破坏的 
▲perfection n. 完美,十全十美,尽善尽美 
 perfectionist n. 力求完美者,完美主义者,凡事求全者 
 delegate vt. 1.授权,委托权限 2.选派代表
n. 代表 
 cycle n. 1.循环,周期 2.自行车(脚踏车),摩托车
vi. 骑自行车 
 emphasis n. 强调 
 jam n. 1.堵塞 2.[U] 果酱
vt. 把……塞入,挤入
vi. 卡住,轧住 
 argument n. 1.争论,争吵 2. 论据,论点,理由 
 stir v. 1.搅和,搅拌,拌匀 2.使激动,惹起,激起
n. 1.搅和,搅拌 2.激动;骚乱,动乱 
 outlet n. 1.发泄(精力、感情)的方法 2.出口 
▲physiological a. 生理的,生理学的 
 physiologically ad. 生理上,在生理学上 
 recommend vt. 1. 建议,劝告 2.推荐,举荐 
 financial a. 财政的,金融的 
 financially ad. 在金融上,在财政上 
 independent a. 1.独立的,自主的,自立的 2.无偏见的,中立的 
 stimulate vt. 刺激,激励,激发 
 temper n. 1.心情,情绪 2.性情,脾气
vt. 使缓和,软化,调和 
 priority n. 1.优先处理的事 2.居先,优先(权) 
 viewpoint n. 观点,看法 
 troublesome a. 令人烦恼的,麻烦的,使人痛苦的 
 politician n. 1.政客 2.政治家 
 deadline n. 最后期限 
 flee v. 逃跑,逃避,逃逸 

 

Phrases and expression_rs

 be out of control 失去控制,不听约束 
 blood pressure 血压 
 blow one's top 大发雷霆 
 stir in one's own juice 受煎熬 
 blow apart 爆炸 
 on one's trail 在……路上 
 cut down 减少……的数量 
 keep sth. in mind 记住 
◆workaholic n. 闲不下来的人,工作狂 
 dimension n. 1.方面,特点 2.尺度(宽,长,厚,高) 
 dimensional a. (构成复合词的)有……维的,……方面的 
 constant a. 1.经常的,永恒的,不断的 2.不变的,固定的 
 constantly ad. 经常地,不断地 
 drunk a. 1.(酒)醉的 2.陶醉(于) 
 consequence n. 1.结果,结局,影响 2.重要性 
 system n. 1.制度,体制;一套(工作)方法 2.系统,装置 
 sanction vt. 批准,认可
n. 1.批准,认可 2.约束力,约束因素 
 workaholism n. 醉心工作,迷恋工作 
 employee n. 雇员,被雇佣的人 
 employer n. 雇主 
 loyal a. 忠诚的,忠贞的 
 hazard vt. 1.使遭受危险,冒险 2.冒险做出;大胆提出
n. 危险;风险 
 trap vt. 1.使陷于困境,使落入圈套,使受限制 2.设陷阱捕捉
n. 1.陷阱,捕捉机 2.圈套,诡计 
 consumption n. 1. 消耗,消费 2. 消费量,消耗量 
 mode n. 方法,方式 
 merchant n. 商人 
 rack vt. 使(肉体或精神)受痛苦,使受折磨,给……造成麻烦(此词在文中与up连用,意义为"积累"。) 
 necessarily ad. 必然地,必定地 
 evident a. 明显的,显然的,清楚的 
 competition n. 竞争 
 lane n. 1.车道 2.小路,小巷 
 discharge vt. 1.放出,流出 2.放行,让……离去
vi. 排出,流出
n. 排出物,流出物 
 competitive a. 1.(指人)有强烈竞争意识的,好胜心强的 2.竞争的,取决于竞争的 
▲grief  n. 1.悲伤,忧伤,悲恸 2. 伤心的事,令人悲伤的事 
▲trait n. 品质,特点 
 equate vt. 等同,同等对待 
 equation n. 1.方程式,等式 2.等同 
 presumably ad. 推测起来,大概,可能 
▲denial n. 1.否认,否定 2. 拒绝给予,拒绝接受 
 rational a. 1.合理的,明智的 2.理智的,理性的 
 rationalize vt. 阐述理由,说明理由,自圆其说 
 rationalization n. 阐述理由,说明理由 
 deny vt. 1. 否认,不承认 2.拒绝,不给 
 schedule n. 1.进度表,程序表 2.时间表,时刻表
vt. 安排,排定 
 indispensable a. 必不可少的,不可或缺的,绝对必要的 
 ambition n. 1.野心,雄心,抱负 2.(具体的)抱负目标 
 durable a. 耐用的,持久的 
 welfare n. (尤指人的)幸福,福利,安康 
 summarize vt. 概述 
 volleyball n. [U] 排球,排球运动 
 means n. 1.方法,途径 2.钱财,财力,财富 

 

Phrases and expression_rs

 other than 除了 
 on the other hand 另一方面 
 suffer from 患有(疾病等); 为……所苦 
 to the contrary (表示或证明)相反地 
 burn the midnight oil (学习、工作)到深夜,开夜车 
 at risk 处于危险之中 
 tend to do sth. 倾向于,易于,往往会 
 rack up 积累,积聚,逐步增加 
 the Stone Age 石器时代 
 fear for 担心,忧虑 
 tie to 使联系在一起;使依附于 
 escape from 逃脱,逃避 
 at work 在工作的地方,在工作 
 devote to 献身于,致力于,专心于 
 come in 出现,发生 
 put all one's eggs in one basket 孤注一掷 

 


Lighten Your Load and Save Your Life

    If you often feel angry and overwhelmed, like the stress in your life is spinning out of control, then you may be hurting your heart.

    If you don't want to break your own heart, you need to learn to take charge of your life where you can — and recognize there are many things beyond your control.

    So says Dr. Robert S. Eliot, author of a new book titled From Stress to Strength: How to Lighten Your Load and Save Your Life. He's a clinical professor of medicine at the University of Nebraska.

    Eliot says there are people in this world whom he calls "hot reactors";. For these people, being tense may cause tremendous and rapid increases in their blood pressure.

    Eliot says researchers have found that stressed people have higher cholesterol levels, among other things. "We've done years of work in showing that excess alarm or stress chemicals can literally burst heart muscle fibers. When that happens it happens very quickly, within five minutes. It creates many short circuits, and that causes crazy heart rhythms. The heart beats like a bag of worms instead of a pump. And when that happens, we can't live."

    Eliot, 64, suffered a heart attack at age 44. He attributes some of the cause to stress. For years he was a "hot reactor". On the exterior, he was cool, calm and collected but on the interior, stress was killing him. He's now doing very well.

    The main predictors of destructive levels of stress are the FUD factors —  fear, uncertainty and doubt —  together with perceived lack of control, he says.

    For many people, the root of their stress is anger, and the trick is to find out where the anger is coming from. "Does the anger come from a feeling that everything must be perfect?" Eliot asks.

    "That's very common in professional women. They feel they have to be all things to all people and do it all perfectly. They think, 'I should, I must, I have to.' Good enough is never good enough. Perfectionists cannot delegate. They get angry that they have to carry it all, and they blow their tops. Then they feel guilty and they start the whole cycle over again."

    "Others are angry because they have no compass in life. And they give the same emphasis to a traffic jam that they give a family argument," he says. "If you own anger for more than five minutes — if you stir in your own juice with no safety outlet — you have to find out where it's coming from."

    "What happens is that the hotter people get, physiologically, with mental stress, the more likely they are to blow apart with some heart problem."

    One step to calming down is recognizing you have this tendency. Learn to be less hostile by changing some of your attitudes and negative thinking.

    Eliot recommends taking charge of your life. "If there is one word that should be substituted for stress, it's control. Instead of the FUD factors, what you want is the NICE factors — new, interesting, challenging experiences."

    "You have to decide what parts of your life you can control", he says. "Stop where you are on your trail and say, 'I'm going to get my compass out and find out what I need to do.'"

    He suggests that people write down the six things in their lives that they feel are the most important things they'd like to achieve. Ben Franklin did it at age 32. "He wrote down things like being a better father, being a better husband, being financially independent, being stimulated intellectually and remaining even tempered — he wasn't good at that."

    Eliot says you can first make a list of 12 things, then cut it down to 6 and set your priorities. "Don't give yourself impossible things, but things that will affect your identity, control and self-worth."

    "Put them on a note card and take it with you and look at it when you need to. Since we can't create a 26-hour day we have to decide what things we're going to do."

    Keep in mind that over time these priorities are going to change. "The kids grow up, the dog dies and you change your priorities."

    From Eliot's viewpoint, the other key to controlling stress is to "realize that there are other troublesome parts of your life over which you can have little or no control — like the economy and politicians";.

    You have to realize that sometimes with things like traffic jams, deadlines and unpleasant bosses, "You can't fight. You can't flee. You have to learn how to flow."

 
    


Are You a Workaholic?

    There's a big distinction between working hard and being a workaholic.

    Working hard involves being organized, focused, getting a lot of work done, knowing when to stop, and having a life other than work. Workaholics, on the other hand, are often disorganized, always find reasons for working more, feel lost without work to do, hide from problems through work, don't know how or when to relax, bring work home from the office, can't communicate well with fellow workers and family members, and have unbalanced, one-dimensional lives.

    Workaholics, like those who are constantly drunk, suffer from a controlling habit, usually defined as compelling behavior despite negative consequences. They are sometimes pushed into their habit by their work beliefs, by workaholic role models, and by a work system that automatically sanctions workaholism. Despite lip service to the contrary ("a balanced employee is a productive employee"), most employers want loyal employees who work longer hours, rewarding them with higher pay and better benefits. In many companies, workers unwilling to burn the midnight oil are at risk. Certainly, they hazard their jobs by working normal hours. Americans tend to become trapped in a working and spending consumption mode, driven by merchants, that leads them to rack up their expectations.

    According to some psychology counselors, workaholism can be both good and bad for us. It can fuel a sense of self-worth and accomplishment. And we get paid for it and praised for it, which produces good feelings we may not necessarily be able to attain in other parts of our lives.

    Workaholism is a problem that has been evident since the Stone Age whenever people have sought to escape other parts of their lives through work. Our parents and grandparents worked very hard, but theirs was more of a physical work. Ours has more stress in it, especially in these days of rising competition and shrinking companies. The companies are getting smaller and smaller because of bleak economic conditions and employees fear for their jobs — so they work longer hours. We seem to be more in the fast lane than ever before.

    Psychology counselors have noticed three types of workaholics:

    ·People with high energy that needs discharging.

    ·Very competitive people who have a strong need to prove themselves and tie their self-worth to their work.

    ·People who use work to escape from something, such as grief, frustration or guilt. They keep themselves so busy that they have no time or energy to deal with their real problems.

    These three types generally have the same traits. They can't stand not being active. They find it hard to go on vacation. They're more comfortable being with fellow workers than with family and friends. They equate self-worth and success with hard work. They'd rather be at work than elsewhere or doing anything else.

    Workaholics presumably view their work habits through denial and rationalization. They deny the excessive time they're devoting to work, and they rationalize that their schedule is for the family and essential to being promoted. They also tend to view themselves and their work as indispensable and their working long hours as commitment to the company. Of course there is nothing wrong with their commitment, ambition and durable energy. But what is wrong is that these things often come in at a high price to their health and the welfare of their families.

    As workaholics tend to put all their eggs in one basket, their job, they can be helped by spreading these eggs into several baskets. Psychology counselors, for example, often help these people by asking about the hobbies they enjoyed in the past and don't have any more now. That kind of question can often get them started toward regaining more of a balance in their lives.

    To be a healthy person physically and psychologically, one should lead a balanced life, summarize some psychology experts. Those little things — reading mystery novels, playing volleyball, spending time with family and friends, playing with the dog, going fishing — may seem relatively insignificant means to a healthy end. They can be at least as rewarding as work.

 

 

How Well Do You Handle Daily Stress?

   How well do you cope? Choose the answer closest to how you react in the situation described. If the situation is unfamiliar, choose the answer closest to how you might react.

    1.Birthdays, weddings, anniversaries… it seems impossible to avoid spending money.

    a.You have your name taken off gift lists so you don't have to buy gifts.

    b.Despite the expense, you enjoy choosing gifts for any occasion.

    c.You give only to those who are most important to you.

    2.You had an automobile accident; you have to appear in court (法庭).

    a.You lose sleep from the anxiety and bother of appearing in court.

    b.It's an unimportant event, one of those things that happens in life. You will reward  yourself with a little gift after court.

    c.You forget about it. You will cope with it when the day comes.

    3.Some furniture and carpets in your house were damaged by a leak (裂缝) in the water pipes. You discover your insurance doesn't cover the loss.

    a.You become depressed and complain bitterly about the insurance company.

    b.You recover the furniture yourself.

    c.You think about canceling your insurance and writing a letter of complaint to the Better Business Bureau (局).

    4.You've had a fight with your neighbor. Nothing was resolved.

    a.You go home, fix a strong drink, try to relax and forget about it.

    b.You call your lawyer to discuss a possible lawsuit (诉讼案件).

    c.You work off your anger by taking a walk.

    5.The pressures of modern day living have made you and your spouse irritable (易怒).

    a.You decide to take it easy and not be forced into any arguments.

    b.You try to discuss irritating matters with a third person so that you can make your feelings known without an argument.

    c.You insist on discussing the problems with your spouse to see how you can reduce the pressure.

    6.A close friend is about to get married. In your opinion, it will be a disaster.

    a.You convince yourself your early fears are incorrect, and hope for the best.

    b.You decide not to worry because there's still time for a change of plans.

    c.You decide to present your point of view; you explain your reasoning seriously to your friend.

    7.You are worried about rising food prices.

    a.Despite rising prices, you refuse to change your eating habits.

    b.Your anger level rises every time you see an increase in price from the week before, but you buy anyway.

    c.You try to spend less and plan good menus anyway.

    8.Finally your abilities have been recognized; you've been offered an important job.

    a.You think of turning down the chance because the job is too demanding.

    b.You begin to doubt you can handle the added responsibility successfully.

    c.You analyze (分析) what the job requires and prepare yourself to do it.

    9.You suspect your rent (房租) or some other regular expense will increase.

    a.You pick up the mail anxiously each day and breathe with peace when the letter isn't there.

    b.You decide not to be caught by surprise. You plan how to handle the situation.

    c.You feel everyone is in the same situation; somehow you'll cope with the increase.

    10.Someone close to you has been seriously hurt in an accident; you hear the news by phone.

    a.You hold back your feelings for the moment because other friends and relatives have to be told the news.

    b.You hang up and burst into tears.

    c.You call your doctor and ask for pills to keep you calm through the next few hours.

    11.You've won an expensive car in a competition. You could use a car but it seems this is going to change your life considerably (相当程度地).

    a.You worry about the added problems your good luck will bring.

    b.You sell it and buy a smaller car, banking the money left over.

    c.You decide to enjoy the car and to worry about the added expense later.

    12.Every holiday there is a serious argument in the family about whether to visit your parents or those of your spouse.

    a.You make a rigid 5-year plan, requiring you to spend each holiday with different members of the family.

    b.You decide you'll spend important holidays with family members you like best and ask others to join you for lesser holidays.

    c.You decide the fairest thing is not to celebrate with the family at all; it's less trouble.

    13.You're not feeling well.

    a.You diagnose your own illness and then read about it.

    b.You gather up your courage, talk about it at home and go to see your doctor.

    c.You delay going to the doctor thinking that you will eventually feel better.

    14.Your youngest child is leaving home and going into the world.

    a.You discuss this development with friends to see how they're handling it.

    b.You give all the help you can and plan new interests for yourself.

    c.You try to talk the young person into staying home a bit longer.

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