加载中…
个人资料
Tony教授
Tony教授
  • 博客等级:
  • 博客积分:0
  • 博客访问:24,174
  • 关注人气:21
  • 获赠金笔:0支
  • 赠出金笔:0支
  • 荣誉徽章:
相关博文
推荐博文
谁看过这篇博文
加载中…
正文 字体大小:

基本语法

(2009-06-17 11:25:39)
标签:

英文写作

tony教授

教育

分类: 英文写作规则

These are the problems most Chinese students face when writing. If you can learn these rules well, your writing will improve tremendously.

中国学生在写作中经常会碰到一些问题,下面我列出了一些规则,如果能把这些规则学好的话,你的写作就会进步很多

 

1. Identifying Independent and Dependent Clauses  区分单句和从句

   When you want to use commas and semicolons in sentences and when you are concerned about whether a sentence is or is not a fragment, a good way to start is to be able to recognize dependent and independent clauses. The definitions offered here will help you with this.

 

  a. Independent Clause  单句
  An independent clause is a group of words that contains a subject and verb and expresses a complete thought. An independent clause is a sentence.

  单句由主语和谓语构成,并表达一个完整的意思。一个单句即为一个句子。

   Example: Jim studied in the Sweet Shop for his chemistry quiz.

 

   b. Dependent Clause  从句

  A dependent clause is a group of words that contains a subject and verb but does not express a complete thought. A dependent clause cannot be a sentence. Often a dependent clause is marked by a dependent marker word.

  从句有主语和谓语,但是却不能表达一个完整的意思。从句不是一个句子,通常由引导词引导。

 Example: When Jim studied in the Sweet Shop for his chemistry quiz . . . (What happened when he studied? The thought is incomplete.)

 

  c. Dependent Marker Word  从属连词

  A dependent marker word is a word added to the beginning of an independent clause that makes it into a dependent clause.

  从属连词置于从句句首, 引导一个从句。

   Example: When Jim studied in the Sweet Shop for his chemistry quiz, it was very noisy.

    Some common dependent markers are: after, although, as, as if, because, before, even if, even though, if, in order to, since, though, unless, until, whatever, when, whenever, whether, and while.

 

2. Connecting dependent and independent clauses   将从句和单句连接起来
    There are two types of words that can be used as connectors at the beginning of an independent clause: Coordinating conjunctions and Independent marker words.
有两种词可以放在句子的前面作为连词:并列连词和连接副词

 

  a. Coordinating Conjunction 并列连词
  The seven coordinating conjunctions used as connecting words at the beginning of an independent clause are and, but, for, or, nor, so, and yet. When the second independent clause in a sentence begins with a coordinating conjunction, a comma is needed before the coordinating conjunction:

 

  Example: Jim studied in the Sweet Shop for his chemistry quiz, but it was hard to concentrate because of the noise.

 

  b. Independent Marker Word 连接副词
  An independent marker word is a connecting word used at the beginning of an independent clause. These words can always begin a sentence that can stand alone. When the second independent clause in a sentence has an independent marker word, a semicolon is needed before the independent marker word.

  连接副词置于单句句首。这类词引导的句子可以单独存在。当第二个单句出现时,需要有一个连接副词来引导,并在此连接副词前面加上一个分号。

 

Example: Jim studied in the Sweet Shop for his chemistry quiz; however, it was hard to concentrate because of the noise.

Some common independent markers are: also, consequently, furthermore, however, moreover, nevertheless, and therefore.

 

3. Some Common Errors to Avoid   需避免的常见错误

 

  a. Comma Splices  逗号连句

  A comma splice is the use of a comma between two independent clauses. You can usually fix the error by changing the comma to a period and therefore making the two clauses into two separate sentences, by changing the comma to a semicolon, or by making one clause dependent by inserting a dependent marker word in front of it.

  逗号是不可以连接两个独立的单句的。在这样的情况下,可以把逗号换成句号,把整个句子变成两个独立的句子。或者把逗号换成分号。还可以在其中的一个句子前加从属连词。

 

Incorrect: I like this class, it is very interesting.

Correct: I like this class. It is very interesting.

(or) I like this class; it is very interesting.

(or) I like this class, and it is very interesting.

(or) I like this class because it is very interesting.

(or) Because it is very interesting, I like this class.

 

  b. Fused Sentences 溶合句

  Fused sentences happen when there are two independent clauses not separated by any form of punctuation. This error is also known as a run-on sentence. The error can sometimes be corrected by adding a period, semicolon, or colon to separate the two sentences.

  把两个句子简单地放在一起就叫溶合句。这种错误可以通过在两个句子中间添加句号,分号或者冒号来改正。

 

Incorrect: My professor is intelligent I've learned a lot from her.

Correct: My professor is intelligent. I've learned a lot from her.

(or) My professor is intelligent; I've learned a lot from her.

(or) My professor is intelligent, and I've learned a lot from her.

(or) My professor is intelligent; moreover, I've learned a lot from her.

 

  c. Sentence Fragments 句子不完整

  Sentence fragments happen by treating a dependent clause or other incomplete thought as a complete sentence. You can usually fix this error by combining it with another sentence to make a complete thought or by removing the dependent marker.

  这种句子是指将一个从句或者意思不完整的句子看做是一个完整的句子。这个时候可以连接另一个句子使意思完整,也可以将从属连词去掉。

 

Incorrect: Because I forgot the exam was today.

Correct: Because I forgot the exam was today, I didn't study.

                  (or) I forgot the exam was today.

0

阅读 评论 收藏 转载 喜欢 打印举报/Report
  • 评论加载中,请稍候...
发评论

    发评论

    以上网友发言只代表其个人观点,不代表新浪网的观点或立场。

      

    新浪BLOG意见反馈留言板 电话:4000520066 提示音后按1键(按当地市话标准计费) 欢迎批评指正

    新浪简介 | About Sina | 广告服务 | 联系我们 | 招聘信息 | 网站律师 | SINA English | 会员注册 | 产品答疑

    新浪公司 版权所有