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[转载]用更高的步频跑步

(2011-06-25 20:47:22)
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观察优秀长跑运动员人群,你会发现他们都有一个非常相似的步频节奏。他们大都以每分钟约88-94步伐的步频跑步。
原文地址:用更高的步频跑步作者:老忠

http://www.triendurance.com/Related.asp?PageID=14&NavID

 

Running with a Higher Cadence

用更高的步频跑步

Sometimes running just seems too simple. 有时看起来跑步似乎太简单了。 This is probably why we like running so much. 这或许就是为什么我们如此喜欢跑步的原因。 The gear is easy; you put on some shoes, shorts and a shirt and run out the door. 装备起来很容易,穿上鞋、运动短裤和运动衣,出门吧。 Unless of course you just moved to MN like me, and have to deal with mornings near freezing in October. 当然,除非你象我一样刚搬到明尼苏达,不得不面对十月份就接近冰点的清晨。 I am already bundling up in a few extra layers, a hat, and mittens Burr. 我把自己裹在添加的几层衣服里,又加了帽子,手套...象个“毛球”。

 

In the following brief but important writing I am going to make a simple sport, a bit more complex. 在下面一小段简短而重要的文字里我打算使一项简单的运动,变得稍微有一丁点复杂。 Have you ever ran behind someone who looks like they are hardly even moving their feet but are going the same pace as you? 是否有过这种情况,跑在你前面的家伙看上去已经几乎迈不动脚了却仍能和你保持同样的步伐节奏,而你却似乎总也追不上他? This gives the illusion that the runner is barely working. 表面上看前面那人似乎是在勉强坚持。 Chances are this illusion is being created because they have a high running cadence. 但更大的可能性是,造成这种错觉是由于他们在用一种高频率的步伐在跑步。 A higher cadence is a running trait only a trained eye and very observant runner would notice. 以更高的步频跑步是一个只有专业眼光或观察深入的跑步者才会注意到的特性。

 

Cadence represents the amount of full revolutions taken per minute (rpm). 步频代表你每分钟完成的完整循环(revolutions)数。 In running a full revolution includes both a right and left foot strike. 在跑步运动中一个完整的循环周期包括右脚和左脚的迈出。 In order to avoid confusion with cycling we are going to refer to a full revolution as a stride. 为了避免与自行车运动混淆概念,我们将如此一个完整循环称之为一个步伐(stride)。

 

When you look at a broad and general distance running population you will find that running cadence is a highly individualized characteristic. 当我们以较广泛和相对长期的方式观察跑步人群时,你会发现步频具有高度离散的特性。 However, if you look at populations of elite distance runners; you will find that they all have a very similar cadence. 然而,如果观察优秀长跑运动员人群,你会发现他们都有一个非常相似的步频节奏。 They all run with a cadence of around 88-94 strides per minute. 他们大都以每分钟约88-94步伐的步频跑步。 If my writing doesn't convince you, count strides of various elite runners during a 5k, 10k or marathon race the next time you watch a running race on ESPN. 如果我的观点无法使您信服,下次在ESPN上看径赛时数一下各类明星选手们在5千米、10千米或马拉松比赛中的步频吧。 However, you will probably have to wait another month to find a running broadcast on ESPN. 不过,您可能不得不等待一个月的时间才看得到ESPN播出另一次跑步赛事。 So for now, you are going to have to trust me. 所以现在,你将不得不相信我。

 

Why run with a higher running cadence? 为什么要以较高的步频节奏跑步?

 

   1. A faster cadence means less impact and fewer injuries. 更快的步频节奏意味着更小的影响和更少的伤害。 With a lower cadence you spend more time in the air. 以较低的步频节奏跑步时你会有更多的时间处于腾空状态。 A lower cadence causes you to come down harder on the ground with each landing. 较低的步频节奏使你每次落地时脚步更加沉重。With a higher cadence and fewer injuries and running induced pain, we will be able to run more! 而以更高的步频节奏、更少的运动损伤和跑步引起的疼痛来跑,我们将能够跑得更多!

   2. When spending more time in the air, you have greater opportunity for your leg to swing past our center of gravity and strike the ground in front of your body. 当更长时间处于腾空状态时,你有更大的机会使你的腿的摆动过躯干的重心,撞击在你身体前面的地面。 A foot strike in front of your center of gravity actually slows your forward momentum down. 而落地脚处于我们身体重心前面其实会使你前进的势头减缓下来。 When you don't over stride, your foot strike and push-off work together to conserve and generate more momentum. 当你不以过度前迈的方式奔跑时,你的脚在地面的撞击以及向前推动的动作会一起保持并产生更多的前进动能。 So keep your cadence fast and your feet underneath you. 因此,保持一个快的步频节奏并保持你的脚在躯干下方吧。

   3. A higher cadence gives you more potential for speed when you bring the intensity up to a race pace effort. 当你努力把步频强度提高到竞速状态时,更高的步频会给你带来更多潜在的速度可能性。 Research has shown that stride length alone increases when an individuals running speed increases. 研究表明当一个人的奔跑速度提高时,他的步幅也会同时变得更长。 So the cadence you are holding while running hard at a 7min/mile pace is very similar to the cadence you held while running easy at a 10min/mile pace. 因此,当你艰难地用7分钟跑1英里时的步频和你很轻松地按10分钟跑1英里时的步频其实是非常相似的。 It is your stride length that has increased. 这是由于你前进的步幅有所增加的缘故。 The bigger strides you take the further you are jumping from one foot to the other. 迈出的步伐越大,你从一只脚跳到另一只脚的长度就越长。 You can only jump so far, so if your natural cadence is at 80 and you have dreams of running at a 6:00 min/mile pace for a 5K without changing your cadence, you are in facing an impossible jumping task. 但你每一步跳跃的距离是有限的,所以如果你自然的步频是每分钟80步,而你有梦想是按6分钟/1英里的速度连续跑5千米而不改变步频,只有面对一个不可能的跳跃任务了。 If you are not convinced, go try and run lap on the track in 90 seconds only allowing yourself 120 strides. 如果你不相信,去试试在所用的步伐不超过120步的情况下,在跑道上用90秒的时间跑一圈。

 

How do we learn to run with a higher cadence? 我们如何学习以更高的步频节奏来跑呢?

 

I am sure many runners begin races with a higher cadence than they usually run with. 我敢肯定很多人刚开始跑步时会用比平时更高一点的步频奔跑。 That first mile may not even seem too bad. 这在跑第一英里时甚至有可能不会显得太糟糕。 The problem is; we get tired. 问题是,我们会疲劳。 If we have not trained our muscles to fire at a certain rate for an extended period time, they will tire quickly. 如果我们没有训练我们的肌肉在较长的时间段里按一定频率工作,他们将很快疲劳。 Any cadence other than our normal running cadence is extremely hard to maintain for an extended period of time. 在相对较长的时间段里,想要保持任何与平时奔跑步频不同的节奏都是特别艰难的一件事。 For example, what if you bounded along at a cadence of 60 strides per minute? 例如,如果你把奔跑的步频节奏控制在每分钟60步会有什么结果? It would be very tiring. 那将是非常辛苦的一件事。 Same happens to us when we increase our cadence. 而当我们试图提高我们的步频节奏时,同样的事也会发生在我们身上。

 

So in order to learn how to run at a higher cadence, you should practice at lower intensities. 因此,为了学习如何以更高的步频跑步,你应该首先以较低的强度开始训练。 This works because you are not exerting a lot of force with each push-off and fatigue will not be as big of an issue. 这一方式之所以起作用是因为在你每一次蹬踏过程中不会耗费过多的力气,由此疲劳将不会成为太大的问题。

 

The test: First, test your normal cadence at an easy pace. 测试:首先,测试一下你在轻松步伐下的正常步频。Count how many times one foot strikes the ground in 30 seconds. 统计一下30秒内某一只脚触地的次数。Then multiply this number by two. 然后把结果乘以二。 Next, determine how far your number is from a goal of 90 strides per minute. 接下来,确定你的数据与每分钟90步的目标差别有多大。

 

I am convinced the best way to increase your cadence would be to address all form issues related to your running. 我确信最好的改善你步频的方式是关注所有与你的奔跑有关的问题。 I strongly encourage athletes explore Dr. Nicholas Romanov's 'Pose Technique' in order to learn a better form of running that will allow you to take on this high cadence without having to cognitively increase your cadence. www.posetech.com/pose_method . 我强烈建议运动员们了解一下尼古拉斯·罗曼诺夫博士(Dr. Nicholas Romanov)的“姿式的技术”以学习一种更好的跑步方式,该技术可使你达到高步频而无需刻意去提高它。 www.posetech.com / pose_method

 

However, there are some simple tricks that will also help you increase your cadence with a few modifications to your current form. 当然,还是有一些简单的技巧,通过对你目前状态的一些修正来帮助你提高步频。 Follow this 4-drill progression to increase your cadence: 请按照如下这4个训练步骤来提高你的步频:

 

   1. Get forward over your foot strike. 使身体向前越过你着地脚。 Get your hips forward and hold a bend at your ankles. 使您的臀部向前靠并保持您的脚踝弯曲。 You should feel like you are falling to your next step instead of trying to push your legs through. 你将会觉得你是在“倒”向你的下一步,而不是努力拖动你的腿向前。 Practice keeping one foot under or even behind you while letting the other leg just go along for the ride.  练习保持一只脚在你躯干的下方甚至躯干之后,同时让另一条腿只是随着步伐向前。 Then try the other foot and then both feet at same time. 接下来尝试另一只脚的练习,然后是双脚同时。 · Retest yourself. ·重新测一下你的步频。 If you are still under 88-90 rpm than go to step 2 如果你的步频仍低于88-90则转到步骤2

   2. Holding the same comfortable pace you have used during your cadence tests, experiment with putting foot down earlier than normal. 按照你测试时的那种舒适步频跑步,尝试一下提前一点落下你的脚步。 One way to force you to do this is by running right behind your training buddy. 有一个办法可以迫使你这样做:紧跟在你的训练伙伴后面跑。 If you let your foot swing through, you will either get kicked or trip your friend and you would never want to do that. 如果你让你的脚随意前摆,你要么被踢要么会绊着你的朋友,当然你绝不会想这样做。 Soon you will be running with a better-placed foot and a faster cadence. 很快你就会以更好“定位”的脚和更快的步频开跑了。 · Retest yourself. ·重新测一下你的步频。 If you are still a few strides away go to step 3. 如果您仍然有与目标有几步差距,转到步骤3

   3. Decrease the vertical component of strides. 降低步伐在垂直方向的距离。 Run lower. 以低的重心奔跑。 If you are on a treadmill watch your head movement in a mirror. 如果你在跑步机上跑,在镜子里观察一下你的头部的运动。 If you head is bouncing up more then an inch or two you are too vertical. 如果你的头在每一步跳跃中的高度变化达到一英寸或更多则说明你在垂直方向上的运动过度了。 · Retest yourself. ·重新测一下你的步频。 If you are still a couple strides away go to step 4. 如果您仍然有与目标有一两步差距,转到步骤4

   4. Side step: Instead of placing your foot to the front and center of your body; place it to the side. “侧步”:不要把您的脚落在你身体前部和中心,而是落在你的身体两侧。 This drill should really help quicken your cadence and keep you from overstriding check it. 这个练习应该真的能很快帮助你加快步频,并避免过度迈步――试试看。

   5. Run with shorter and faster strides. 以更短而更快的步伐奔跑。 This is a no-brainer. 这个就不用说了吧。

 

Congratulations you are now running with your new cadence between 88 and 90 steps. 恭喜你!现在你以新的88-90的步频开始奔跑了。

 

Continue to test yourself during your runs at all different paces. 继续自我测试在不同的步伐下的步频。

 

So now that you are always running with the same high cadence, you will have a huge potential for speed when you lengthen your stride and take on your race effort. 现在,由于你总是使用相同的高步频进行跑步,你只要把步伐加大并且把提速的努力加强,在速度上你将会有巨大的潜力。 The rest is a result of your training tactics and how well you chose your parents - Hahaha! 剩下的就要看你训练措施的结果以及你选择父母的优劣啦――哈哈哈!

 

Date modified: 7/22/2004修改日期:2004722

        

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