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约翰生300周年(22)漫步者语录之一 蔡田明

(2009-08-04 10:23:40)
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文化

约翰生《漫步者》(RAMBLER)语录(一)   蔡田明  选译

 

     这是一份纪念约翰生诞辰三百周年的特殊礼物。

     不管你喜欢还是讨厌,它们总会让你思考。

     西澳大利亚《亚洲时代》报从2007年12月14日起每周四以“隽语箴言”为栏目连载《漫步者》(Rambler)语录。现略作修订分几部分,按当时分期登载情况公布。

 

 

 

 

《漫步者》(RAMBLER)语录(1)      蔡田明  选译

 

      约翰生(JOHNSON,18/9/1709—13/12/1784)是十八世纪英国著名诗人,散文家,文学批评家和《英文词典》编纂家。他的儁智言谈是继莎士比亚之后最广为人们引用的。《漫步者》是他的散文代表作,收有他为报刊定期写的208篇文章,讨论人生人性人文化等广泛问题,被誉为思想与文采兼具的“道德文章”。值此他逝世纪念日,从他散文集《漫步者》选出精彩文句,供中英双语学习者参考,“奇文共欣赏”,同时,译者也愿和大家“疑义(译文)相与析”。不妥之处,欢迎批评指正,与笔者联系 tcai@jinnan.com

 

每个人在任何新场合下,面对他要打交道的世界,都会感到开场白的困难。

The difficulty of the first address on any new occasion, is felt by every man in his transactions with the world.(No.1,指发表期数)

 

人类的思想是从不满足于眼前的目标的。因此,人们总是要脱离目前的现状,使自己迷失在未来的幻想中。

That the mind of man is never satisfied with the objects immediately before it, but is always breaking away from the present moment, and losing itself in schemes of future felicity.(No.2)

 

人类思想的自然发展过程,不是从一种满足(愉快)到另一种满足(愉快),而是从一个欲望(期望)到另一个欲望(期望)。

The natural flights of the human mind are not from pleasure to pleasure, but from hope to hope.(No.2)

 

世上没有比对一个作家的忽视是最令人可怕的事了。比较忽视,责备,憎恨和批判还是幸福的名声。然而,每个敢于写作的人都有理由害怕这个最糟糕和最可怜的命运。

There is nothing more dreadful to an author than neglect, compared with which reproach, hatred, and opposition, are names of happiness; yet this worst, this meanest fate every man who dares to write has reason to fear. .(No.2)

 

作家的任务是用他喜爱的方式,教人知道不了解的真实,或者推荐已知道的真理。

The task of an author is either to teach what is not known, or to recommend known truths, by his

manner of adorning them. (No.3)

 

人不仅能够被规劝改正他们的错误,而且还能顺从别人的引导。

Man must not only be persuaded of their errors, but reconciled to their guide; (No.3)

 

根据斯威夫特说法,“人的感激和怨恨程度是一样的”。

Thus men are observed by Swift to be “grateful in the same degree as they are resentful.(No.4)

 

法国人说,“知道怎么走路的人不多”。

“Very few man know how to take a walk”(a French author) (No.5)

 

 

 

《漫步者》(RAMBLER)语录(2)      蔡田明  选译

  

既然生活提供并要求多样性的职业,人类就会因多样化的趣味而有差异。

Mankind must necessarily be diversified by various tastes, since life affords and requires such multiplicity of employment.(N0.5)

 

失去比得到容易。

Privation is easier than acquisition.(No.6)

 

希腊谚语,“谁能比房子里的主人更像奴隶呢。”

According to the Greek proverb, no man in the house is more a slave than the master.(No.7)

 

其他事情可以从武力得到,或用金钱购买,惟有知识只能从学习中获得。学习要在安静中进行。

Other things may be seized by might, or purchased with money, but knowledge is to be gained only by study, and study to be prosecuted only in retirement.(No.7)

 

不切实际的欲望会导致放肆的追求。

Irregular desires will produce licentious practices.(No.8)

 

为未来作准备,回忆过去才有意义。

The recollection of the past is only useful by way of provision for the future.(No.8)

 

未来是希望和恐惧的适当宅所,陪伴它们的是从属于理解和期望的后代。

Futurity is the proper abode of hope and fear, with all their train and progeny of subordinate apprehensions and desires.(No.8)

 

我们的渴望至少不应在他人的权力下求得闲适,或在他人的占有下得到清白。

We ought, at least, to let our desires fix upon nothing in another’s power for the sake of our quiet, or in another’s possession for the sake of our innocence.(No.8)

 

每个人应努力使自己优秀杰出,不应打击别人,而应提升自己;欣赏自己优越于人的快乐,不论它是想象或真实,都不应对其他有同样幸运的人进行干扰。

Every man ought to endeavour at eminence, not by pulling others down, but by raising himself, and enjoy the pleasure of his own superiority, whether imaginary or real, without interrupting others in the same felicity.(No.9)    

 

如果不能从女性世界的关注得到特别的愉快,没有人能全身心投入到日常生活中去。

No man is so much abstracted from common life, as not to feel a particular pleasure from the regard of the female world.(No.10)

 

希腊人说,“要控制你的怨恨”。

“Be master of thy anger.”(Greek anthology)(No.11)

(选自约翰生散文集,译文不妥之处,欢迎批评指正,与笔者联系 tcai@jinnan.com)

 

 

 

《漫步者》(RAMBLER)语录(3)      蔡田明  选 译

 

“骄傲”无疑是愤怒的源头。

Pride is undoubtedly the original of anger.(No.11)

 

穷困和好奇同时驱使我来到伦敦。

Distress and curiosity concurred to bring me to London.(No.12)

 

知道自己被人信任去保守秘密的虚荣心,一般说来,它也是传播秘密的主要动机之一。

The vanity of being known to be trusted with a secret is generally one of the chief motives to disclose it.(No.13)  

 

在道德讨论方面,要记住,有许多障碍阻止我们去实践,而这些障碍又很容易使人屈服于理论。

In moral discussions it is to be remembered that many impediments obstruct our practice, which very easily give way to theory.(No.14)

 

年轻,自然就会有雄心;好奇,自然就会去探索。

Ambition is natural to youth, and curiosity to understanding.(No.15)

 

伤害自己的方法总是现成的。

The means of doing hurt to ourselves are always at hand.(No.16)

 

在这个世界上,人生幸福受到干扰是因为人们有欲望,悲哀和恐惧。想到死亡,它是治疗所有这些问题的最有效的药方。

The disturbers of our happiness, in this world, are our desires, our griefs, and our fears, and to all these, the consideration of mortality is a certain and adequate remedy.(No.17)

 

灵魂不能长期地被监禁,它不但会飞走,还把僵尸留给人们去憎恨。

The soul cannot long be held in prison, but will fly away, and leave a lifeless body to human malice.(No.17)

 

婚姻是系住长久友谊最牢不可破的带子。若没有信赖,不会有友谊;若没有真诚,不会有信赖。

Marriage is the strictest tie of perpetual friendship. There can be no friendship without confidence, and no confidence without integrity.(No.18)

 

只有深沉地反思,我们才能注意到错误或失败的原因。

It is never without very melancholy reflexions, that we can observe the misconduct, or miscarriage.(No.19)

 

“轻蔑”对“虚伪”是恰当的处罚,“憎恨”对“伪善”是公正的判决。

Contempt is the proper punishment of affectation, and detestation the just consequence of hypocrisy.(No.20)

 

(选自约翰生散文集《漫步者》。不妥之处,欢迎批评指正。 tcai@jinnan.com))

 

 

 

 

《漫步者》(RAMBLER)语录(3) 应为(4)      蔡田明  选 译

 

勤奋才能取得杰出的学问。

That eminence of learning is not to be gained without labour.(No.21)

 

成功的作者同样面临自己名声扫地的危险。

A successful author is equally in danger of the diminution of his fame.(No.21)

 

“智力”具有大胆和冒险的特征,“学问”具有谨慎和熟思的特点。

Wit was daring and adventurous; Learning cautions and deliberate.(No.22)

 

一本书到了大众手里,这本书就已定型不再改变了;一个读者要是不带个人偏见,读书就只是为了娱乐,接受教诲,不再有别的意图。

When a book is once in the hands of the public, it is considered as permanent and unalterable; and the reader, if he be free from personal prejudices, takes it up with no other intention than of pleasing or instructing himself.(No.23) 

 

“认识自己。”知识分子的最大错误总是反对这个规则。他们宁愿学习任何事物,却明显不愿去认识自己。

“Be acquainted with thyself.” The great fault of men of learning is still, that they offend against this rule, and appear willing to study any thing rather than themselves.(No.24)

 

名声回报你勤奋工作。只要继续努力工作,人们不会得不到它的奖励。

Fame is not conferred but as the recompense of labour, and that labour, vigorously continued, has not often failed of its reward.(No.25)

 

一个为贫穷内疚的人,很容易相信自己受人怀疑。

A man guilty of poverty easily believes himself suspected.(No.26)

 

每个人都想当然地认为自己最重要。

It is natural for every man to think himself of importance.(No.27)

 

一个人要认识自己不容易。

It is not easy for a man to know himself.(No.28)

 

宣传自己名誉的人,会把自欺欺人的错误也一起推销出去。

Those who thus propagate their own reputation, only extend the fraud by which they have been themselves deceived.(No.28)

 

塞内卡说,“死亡沉重地打击他。别人知道他太多,而他了解自己却太少。”

Death, says Seneca, falls heavy upon him who is too much known to others, and too little to himself.(No.28)

 

(选自约翰生散文集《漫步者》。不妥之处,欢迎批评指正。 tcai@jinnan.com))

 

 

 

《漫步者》(RAMBLER)语录(4) 应为(5)      蔡田明  选 译

 

如果一个聪明的人,对眼前突然发生的事不惊奇,不是因为他想得太多,而是因为他想到未来太少。

If a wise man is not amazed at sudden occurrences, it is not that he has thought more, but less upon futurity.(No.29)

 

世界不断地在变化,没有人能知道下一次改变的结果。

The state of the world is continually changing, and none can tell the result of the next vicissitude.(No.29)

 

谨慎者去夸耀自己,没有比这行为更令人扫兴的了。

There are few tasks more ungrateful, than for persons of modesty to speak their own praises.(No.30)

 

一个仅从他的智力中得到名望的作家,对任何暴力破坏他文学声望的做法非常敏感。人类中没有人比作家似乎更容易被虚荣心所感染。

Of all mortals none seem to have been more infected with this species of vanity, than the race of writers, whose reputation arising solely from their understanding, gives them a very delicate sensibility of any violence attempted on their literary honour.(No.31)

 

医治人类绝大部分痛苦不幸的药方是缓和剂而不是急重药。

The cure for the greatest part of human miseries is not radical, but palliative.(No.32)

 

“工作”是必需品的儿子,是希望的护士,是艺术的学生。

Labour was the son of Necessity, the nurseling of Hope, and the pupil of Art. (No.33)

 

爱人不应与他们的情人争吵。

It was not for lovers to argue with their mistresses. (No.34)

 

要告诫人们去反对那些没有尊重基础的婚姻。

To warn others against marrying those whom they have no reason to esteem.(No.35)

 

田园诗最早表现了人类的想象力。一般说来,它是最早让人们心灵舒畅的文学。

Pastoral poetry was the first employment of the human imagination, it is generally the first literary amusement of our minds.(No.36)

 

田园诗,既然是表现农村生活的事件和热情,那么就必须限制在农村形象的范围内,才可能显出特色。不表现农村景色,就不能算是田园诗。

Pastoral, being the representation of an action or passion by its effects upon a country life, has nothing peculiar but its confinement to rural imagery, without which it ceases to be pastoral.(No.37)

 

(选自约翰生散文集《漫步者》。不妥之处,欢迎批评指正。 tcai@jinnan.com))

 

 

 

《漫步者》(RAMBLER)语录5(6)      蔡田明  选 译

 

培根说,美丽的女人很少有伟大的造诣,因为她们大部分人考虑自己的打扮而非德行。

“for beautiful women”, Becon says, “are seldom of any great accomplishments, because they, for the most part, study behaviour rather than virtue.”(No.38)

 

太多的财富通常会在贫穷的场合下流露出来。

To much wealth is very frequently the occasion of poverty.(No.38)

 

在一个谨慎的世界里,常能听到一句简短的格言,规劝父亲“与他女儿结婚,免得女儿嫁错人”

There is an economical oracle received among the prudential part of the world, which advises fathers to marry their daughters lest they should marry themselves.(No.39)

 

因发现错误或愚昧而产生出来的怨恨,必定有其适当比例的傲慢:当傲慢越是直接成为行动的原则,就越经常会变得自大狂妄。

The resentment which the discovery of a fault or folly produces, must bear a certain proportion to our pride, and will regularly be more acrimonious as pride is more immediately the principle of action.(No.40)

 

女人的事总是为人所知,没有比责备她们不美丽不漂亮的话语,更让她们伤害更深,怨恨更久。

Of woman it has been always known, that no censure wounds so deeply, or rankles so long, as that which charges them with want of beauty.(No.40)

 

“记忆力”是理性的承包商。

Memory is the purveyor of reason.(No.41)  pp32

 

我试图在小溪边上休憩,却发现它的孱孱流水什么用处也没有。

I have tried to sleep by a brook, but find its murmurs ineffectual.(No.42)

 

没有伴侣,不能跳舞;没有爱人,不能仁慈或残酷。

I cannot dance without a partner, nor be kind, or cruel, without a lover.(No.42)

 

人们劝他在未来的生活中,要不是得到赞誉,就是遭到责备;要不是获得幸福,就是遇到不幸。“强大的思想偶然决定某些特别的方向。”

As they are well or ill persued, must produce the praise or blame, the happiness or misery, of his future life.(No.43)   Cf: “ a mind of large general powers, accidentally determined to some particular direction”(COWLEY, Lives)   

 

如果固有的教条本身都争论不清,那么建立一种观念的愿望会很渺茫。

If the doctrine of innate ideas be itself disputable, there seems to be little hope of establishing an opinion.(No.43)

(选自约翰生散文集《漫步者》。不妥之处,欢迎批评指正。 tcai@jinnan.com))

 

 

《漫步者》(RAMBLER)语录6(7)      蔡田明  选 译

 

无论我们给予赞扬或惊叹的所有人类艺术成就,都是永恒的不可抗据力量的证明。

All the performances of human art, at which we look with praise or wonder, are instances of resistless force of perseverance.(No. 43)

 

如果事先警惕,真正作好发现困难的准备,我们就能得到意想不到的灵巧,加倍信心的力量。

If we alarm ourselves beforehand with more difficulties than we really find, we shall be animated by unexpected facility with double spirit.(No.43)

 

所有月下的人都会有不幸,而每个快乐又是对神性的冒犯。

Misery is the duty of all sublunary beings, and every enjoyment is an offence to the deity. (No.44)

 

 “宗教” 是我的名字。我是真实和爱情的后代,仁慈,希望和欢乐的父母。

My name is Religion. I am the offspring of Truth and love, and the parent of Benevolence, Hope and Joy. (No. 44)

 

任何感到极大痛苦的人,自然会祈求改变心态来安慰自己。

Whoever feels great pain naturally hopes for ease from change of posture.(No.45)

 

社会有些行为本身是与人类本性十分谐和的,我认为,婚姻带来如此大的愉快,即使选错伴侣也难以去否认它。

Society has something in itself eminently agreeable to human nature, when I find its(marriage) pleasures so great that even the ill choice of a companion can hardly over-balance them.(No.45)

 

我已读过,有判断的能力,正如我受到伤害,有控诉的权利。

As I read, I have a right to judge, as I am injured, I have a right to complain.(No.46)

 

在挑选你亲爱的人时,也许要考虑在男爵们争斗中,你最倾向哪一边。

In selecting your intimates, you are perhaps to consider which party you most favor in the barons wars.(No.46)

 

“恐惧”促使人们逃亡,“欲望”鼓励人们冒险。

Thus fear urges our flight, and desire animates our progress.(No.47)

 

工作是战胜悲伤可靠和有效的方法。

The safe and general antidote against sorrow, is employment.(No.47)

 

当内心欢快地跳动,眼睛闪耀着光亮的神采时,很难劝人相信,带给我们的这些美好时光是荒唐愚昧的。

When heart bounds with vigour, and the eye sparkles with spirit, it is with difficulty, that we are taught to conceive the imbecility that every hour is bringing upon us (No.48)

 

(选自约翰生散文集《漫步者》。不妥之处,欢迎批评指正。 tcai@jinnan.com))

 

 

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